Starved peasants on a street in Kharkiv, 1933
|Location||Central and eastern Ukraine|
|Total deaths||Vary from 3.3 to 7.5 million, see death toll|
|Relief||Foreign relief rejected by the State. Respectively 176,200 and 325,000 tons of grains provided by the State as food and seed aids between February and July 1933.|
Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор, which means "murder by hunger" or "artificial hunger") was a man-made famine and one of the worst genocides in history. It happened in Ukraine in 1933, at that time Ukraine was a part of the Soviet Union. About 4.5 million people or more starved to death in Holodomor.
Joseph Stalin was the leader and dictator of the Soviet Union, which was a communist country. He made farmers in the Soviet Union change to collectivized farming, then made farmers work harder for government run collective farms. Many people in the Ukraine did not want to go along with this. When Ukraine needed more food since the harvest from the previous year had been collectivized, Stalin refused to help the people in the Ukraine. Instead, the government took food away from people. It became illegal (against the law) to pick up food from the ground of fields. The government also tried to stop people from moving around the country to look for food.
Scholars and politicians nowadays consider Holodomor a genocide with some considering the huge loss of life comparable to the Holocaust. They argue that the Soviet policies were an attack on the rise of Ukrainian nationalism and that Holodmor was an attempt to silence nationalism
However, some scholars say that Holodomor was an unexpected consequence of the rapid and massive industrialization started by Stalin, that brought radical economic changes to the farmers and the country, and which was not done on purpose.
Images of Holodomor victims[change | change source]
Children are digging up frozen potatoes in the field of a collective farm in Udachne village, Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine, 1933
Images of Holodomor memorials[change | change source]
|List of countries which officially recognize the Holodomor as genocide|
Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, Ecuador,
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Holodomor.|
- Ukrainian Genocide Famine Foundation USA
- Famine Genocide Commemorative Committee Ukrainian Canadian Congress
- Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine, U.S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine, Report to Congress. Adopted by the Commission, 19 April 1988
- Joint declaration at the United Nations in connection with 70th anniversary of the Great Famine in Ukraine 1932–1933
- Address of the Verkhovna Rada to the Ukrainian nation on commemorating the victims of Holodomor 1932–1933
References[change | change source]
- Davies & Wheatcroft 2010, pp. 479–484.
- "Famine - Genocide in Ukraine 1932 - 1933". faminegenocide.com. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Young, Cathy (December 8, 2008). "Remember the Holodomor". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Thanks to US for Holdomor Memorial". Cyber Cossack. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Zisels, Josef; Kharaz, Halyna (11 November 2007). "Will Holodomor receive the same status as the Holocaust?". "Maidan" Alliance. Retrieved 21 July 2012. External link in
- Finn, Peter (27 April 2008). "Aftermath of a Soviet Famine". WashingtonPost.com. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
There are no exact figures on how many died. Modern historians place the number between 2.5 million and 3.5 million. Yushchenko and others have said at least 10 million were killed.
- Marples, David (30 November 2005). "The Great Famine Debate Goes On..." Edmonton Journal. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- Kulchytsky, Stanislav (6 March 2007). "Holodomor of 1932-33 as genocide: gaps in the evidential basis". Den. Retrieved 22 July 2012. Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4
- Bilinsky 1999.
- Kulchytsky, Stanislav. "Holodomor-33: Why and how?". Zerkalo Nedeli (25 November – 1 December 2006). Retrieved 21 July 2012. Russian version; Ukrainian version.
- Wheatcroft 2001b, p. 885.
- 'Stalinism' was a collective responsibility. Kremlin papers, The News in Brief, University of Melbourne, 19 June 1998, Vol 7 No 22