From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Mac OS X)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
MacOS wordmark (2017).svg
DeveloperApple Inc.
Written in
OS familyMacintosh, Unix
Working stateCurrent
Source modelClosed source (with open source components)
Initial releaseMarch 24, 2001; 18 years ago (2001-03-24)
Latest release10.14.5[3] (18F132)[4] (May 13, 2019; 5 months ago (2019-05-13)) [±]
Latest preview10.15 beta 1[5] (19A471t)[6] (June 3, 2019; 4 months ago (2019-06-03)) [±]
10.14.6 beta 1[7] (18G29g)[8] (May 15, 2019; 4 months ago (2019-05-15)) [±]
Marketing targetPersonal computing
Available in38 languages[9]
Template:Hidden top[as of macOS Mojave]: Arabic, Catalan, Croatian, Chinese (Hong Kong), Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (Australia), English (United Kingdom), English (United States), Finnish, French (Canada), French (Europe), German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish (Latin America), Spanish (Spain), Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, VietnameseTemplate:Hidden bottom
Update method
Kernel typeHybrid (XNU)
Default user interfaceAqua (Graphical)
LicenseCommercial software, proprietary software
Preceded byClassic Mac OS
Support status

macOS, formerly Mac OS X from 2001 to 2012 and OS X until 2016,[10] is the name of an operating system for computers made by Apple Inc. These are called Macintosh computers, or Macs. It differs from other computers, as macOS is supposed to run only on Macs and not on other computers. However, people have made the OS run on computers that are not Macs. This is called Hackintosh and violates macOS’ license agreement.

macOS first came out in 2001, and is completely different than the Classic Mac OS that it replaced. macOS is a UNIX OS that is based on NEXTSTEP, an older OS that Apple bought and turned into macOS. macOS and NEXTSTEP have a background in a kind of UNIX called BSD (more specifically FreeBSD and NetBSD). The core of macOS is an open source OS called Darwin, but Darwin itself cannot run macOS software.

macOS releases are named after kinds of big cats, or California landmarks, and have a version number that starts with 10. The latest versions of macOS code name is macOS Mojave (10.14.x.) and macOS Catalina (10.15 beta 1).

Versions[change | change source]

OS X Version Information
Version Codename Date Announced Release Date Most Recent Version
Rhapsody Developer Release Grail1Z4 / Titan1U Unknown August 31, 1997 DR2 (May 14, 1998)
Mac OS X Server 1.0 Hera March 16, 1999 1.2v3 (October 27, 2000)
Mac OS X Developer Preview Kodiak March 16, 1999 DP4 (April 5, 2000)
Public Beta Kodiak/Cheetah September 13, 2000
Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah January 5, 2000[11] March 24, 2001 10.0.4 (June 22, 2001)
Mac OS X 10.1 Puma July 18, 2001[12] September 25, 2001 10.1.5 (June 6, 2002)
Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar May 6, 2002[13] August 24, 2002 10.2.8 (October 3, 2003)
Mac OS X 10.3 Panther June 23, 2003[14] October 24, 2003 10.3.9 (April 15, 2005)
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger May 4, 2004[15] April 29, 2005 10.4.11 (November 14, 2007)
Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard June 26, 2006[16] October 26, 2007 10.5.8 (August 5, 2009)
Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard June 9, 2008[17] August 28, 2009 10.6.8 v1.1 (July 25, 2011)
Mac OS X 10.7 Lion October 20, 2010[18] July 20, 2011 10.7.5 (September 19, 2012)
OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion February 16, 2012[19] July 25, 2012[20] 10.8.5 (12F45) (October 3, 2013)
OS X 10.9 Mavericks June 10, 2013[21] October 22, 2013 10.9.5 (13F1112) (September 18, 2014)
OS X 10.10 Yosemite June 2, 2014 October 16, 2014 10.10.5 (14F27) (August 13, 2015)
OS X 10.11 El Capitan June 8, 2015 September 30, 2015 10.11.6 (15G1510) (May 15, 2017)
macOS 10.12 Sierra June 13, 2016 September 20, 2016 10.12.6 (16G1212) (July 19, 2017)
macOS 10.13 High Sierra June 5, 2017 September 25, 2017 10.13.6 (17G65) (July 9, 2018)
macOS 10.14 Mojave September 24, 2018 10.14.6 (18G87) (August 1, 2019)
macOS 10.15 Catalina June 3, 2019 October 7, 2019 10.15 (19A583) (October 7, 2019)
Operating System market share
as of November, 2012[22]
Microsoft Windows - 82%
Mac OS X and Mac OS - 6%
iOS - 82%
Android - 3%
Java ME - 1%
Linux - 1%
Other - 0%

Public Beta: "Kodiak"[change | change source]

On September 13, 2000, Apple released a $29.95 preview of Mac OS X to ask users what they think of the new operating system so far. Apple stopped the Public Beta in March 2001 because of the recent release of OS X 10.0.

Version 10.0: "Cheetah"[change | change source]

On March 24, 2001 Apple released Mac OS X for the first time aka OS X v10.0 (codename Cheetah), but rather than being an excellent and successful operating system version, it was a failure due to its many computer bugs and glitches and its slow performance. Luckily this operating system version only stayed on the market up until September when it was moved up to a "higher level".

Version 10.1: "Puma"[change | change source]

Due to many problems and complaints about Cheetah, Apple directly got to work on releasing Puma, the next big cat in Mac OS X. It was released on September 24, 2001. Apple gave 10.0 users a free Mac OS X v10.1 install CD to make up for the flawed operating system before. As of January 7, 2002, Apple said Mac OS 9 and other previous operating systems from Apple were "going in the computer scrapyard" by the end of the month (January 31, 2002) and OS X would be the default and only operating system available on all Macs.

Version 10.2: "Jaguar"[change | change source]

Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar was released on August 24, 2002 and was the first to have its codename in the version branding. The Happy Mac (which formerly appeared when a Mac was starting up) was replaced with a large gray apple logo with the startup sequence of OS X 10.2 Jaguar.

Version 10.3: "Panther"[change | change source]

Mac OS X 10.3 Panther was released on October 24, 2003 and was one of the biggest updates to OS X yet. It featured a new brushed metal interface, an updated Finder, and many more features from Jaguar the year before.

Version 10.4: "Tiger"[change | change source]

Tiger was released on April 29, 2005 and as stated by Apple, featured more than 200 new features. Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. Apple released the first Power Intel Macs for Tiger on January 10, 2006. Tiger ran swell on these computers. It was also the last operating system to support the Aqua color scheme.

Version 10.5: "Leopard"[change | change source]

Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard was released on October 26, 2007. It was completely redesigned featuring a 3D Dock, a new purple color scheme, and over 200 new features. It had both support for PowerPC and Intel Macs too. Leopard was the last release to have support for PowerPC.

Version 10.6: "Snow Leopard"[change | change source]

Mac OS X Snow Leopard was released on August 28, 2009, and rather than featuring changes to the appearance, it featured "Under the hood" changes. Snow Leopard dropped support for PowerPC Macs too.

Version 10.7: "Lion"[change | change source]

OS X Lion was first shown to the public at the "Back to The Mac" event in 2010, announced more at WWDC 2011, and released on July 20, 2011. It featured iOS like features such as a launchpad, the magic trackpad coming to MacBooks, and a new solar system color scheme. Apple also removed Rosetta making it impossible to use PowerPC.

Version 10.8: "Mountain Lion"[change | change source]

OS X Mountain Lion was announced on February 18, 2012, and released on July 25, 2012. It adds more features from iOS 5 and 6 to the Mac such as notifications, messaging, game center, and gaming with people on iPhones, iPods, and iPads.

Version 10.9: "Mavericks"[change | change source]

OS X Mavericks was announced on June 10, 2013 at the 2013 Worldwide Developers Conference.[21] It adds the Maps and iBooks applications, as well as new Finder features, better multi-display support, power improvements, and a new version of Safari. It was released on October 22, 2013.

Version 10.10: "Yosemite"[change | change source]

OS X Yosemite was announced in June 2014 at the 2014 Worldwide Developers Conference. It was in beta form for developers and those enrolled in the public beta programme to test till October 16 2014 when it was released.

Version 10.11: "El Capitan"[change | change source]

OS X 10.11 El Capitan was released on September 30, 2015 after being announced on June 8, 2015.[23] Similar to Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as containing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance" rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection. The Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also included in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012".

Version 10.12: "Sierra"[change | change source]

macOS 10.12 Sierra was announced on June 12, 2016[24] and released to the public on September 20, 2016. New features include the addition of Siri, Optimized Storage, and updates to Photos, Messages, and iTunes

Version 10.13: "High Sierra"[change | change source]

The fall release of macOS 10.13 High Sierra was announced on June 5, 2017 at Apple's WWDC event. On September 12, 2017 at Apple's iPhone event, they announced its release to be September 25, 2017. Like OS X El Capitan and OS X Mountain Lion, High Sierra is a refinement-based update having very few new features. High Sierra uses the new Apple File System and includes enhancements to Safari, Photos, and Mail, among other changes.

Version 10.14: "Mojave"[change | change source]

Released on September 24th, 2018. There are many additional features to the existing mac-OS apps. Some highlights are Dark Mode (UI theme & appearance), time shifts reflecting the hour of the day (desktop background), file stacks, edit features in quick look, continuity camera and Group FaceTime features also adds the screenshot app.

Version 10.15: "Catalina"[change | change source]

Released on October 7th, 2019. This OS is included with lots of additional new features like sharing your screen to iPad (Sidecar) and is capable of running iPad apps. Catalina is the first version of macOS to exclusively support 64-bit applications. MacOS Catalina will also be splitting up iTunes into 3 apps: Music, Podcasts and Movies. Because of the removal of iTunes, syncing your devices will be done in finder.

References[change | change source]

  1. "What Is the I/O Kit?". IOKit Fundamentals. Apple considered several programming languages for the I/O Kit and chose a restricted subset of C++.
  2. "What's New in Swift". Apple Developer (Video). June 14, 2016. At 2:40. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. Juli Clover (May 13, 2019). "Apple Releases macOS Mojave 10.14.5 With AirPlay 2 Support". MacRumors. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  4. "macOS Mojave 10.14.5 (18F132) - Releases - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Apple Inc. May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  5. Juli Clover (June 3, 2019). "Apple Seeds First Beta of macOS 10.15 Catalina to Developers". MacRumors. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  6. "macOS Catalina 10.15 beta (19A471t) - Releases - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Apple Inc. June 3, 2019. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  7. Juli Clover (May 15, 2019). "Apple Seeds First Beta of macOS Mojave 10.14.6 to Developers". MacRumors. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  8. "macOS Mojave 10.14.6 beta (18G29g) - Releases - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Apple Inc. May 15, 2019. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  9. "macOS – How to Upgrade – Apple". Apple. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. Patel, Nilay (February 16, 2012). "Apple officially renames Mac OS X to OS X, drops the 'Mac'". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
  11. "Apple Unveils Mac OS X". Apple Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-03-12.
  12. Apple (July 18, 2001). "Apple Previews Next Version of Mac OS X". Press release. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  13. Apple (May 6, 2002). "Apple Previews "Jaguar", the Next Major Release of Mac OS X". Press release. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  14. Apple (June 23, 2003). "Apple Preiews Mac OS X "Panther"". Press release. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  15. Apple. "Steve Jobs to Kick Off Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference 2004 with Preview of Mac OS X "Tiger"". Press release. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  16. Apple. "Apple Executives to Preview Mac OS X "Leopard" at WWDC 2006 Keynote". Press release. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  17. Apple (June 9, 2008). "Apple Previews Mac OS X Snow Leopard to Developers". Press release. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  18. Apple (October 20, 2010). "Apple Gives Sneak Peek of Mac OS X Lion". Press release. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  19. Apple (February 16, 2012). "Apple Releases OS X Mountain Lion Developer Preview with Over 100 New Features". Press release. Retrieved February 16, 2012. 
  20. Apple (July 25, 2012). "Mountain Lion Available Today From Mac App Store". Press release. Retrieved July 25, 2012. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Apple (June 10, 2013). "Apple Releases Developer Preview of OS X Mavericks With More Than 200 New Features". Press release. Retrieved June 11, 2013. 
  22. Operating System Market Share, November 2012, courtesy of Net Applications, a marketing company which obtains its data from the Alexa Toolbar or related products. Because people who install these products on their computers are not always aware that the product reports web browsing habits back to the marketers at Alexa some security software considers the Alexa Toolbar spyware and removes it. Both the automated removal-as-spyware and the self-selecting nature of those who install software that reports on personal web browsing habits raises questions as to whether the resulting data represents a unbiased statistical sample of Internet users.
  23. "Apple Announces OS X El Capitan with Refined Experience & Improved Performance". Apple Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  24. "Apple previews major update with macOS Sierra". Apple Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-03-13.

Related pages[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]