Android (operating system)

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Android robot.svg
Android logo (2014).svg
The Android logo
Company / developer Google
Open Handset Alliance
Android Open Source Project
Programmed in C (core), C++, Java (UI)[1]
OS family Unix-like, Linux (kernel)
Working state Current
Source model Open source[2]
Initial release 23 September 2008 (2008-09-23)[3]
Latest stable release 7.1"Nougat" / October 5, 2016; 19 months ago (2016-10-05)
Marketing target Smartphones, tablet computers, TVs, cars and wearable devices
Available language(s) Multi-lingual
Package manager Google Play, APK
Supported platforms 32- and 64-bit: ARM architectures, x86,[4] x86-64, MIPS[5] and MIPS64[a]
Kernel type Monolithic (modified Linux kernel)
Default user interface Graphical (Multi-touch)
License Apache License 2.0
Linux kernel patches under GNU GPL v2[6]
Official website

Android is an operating system for mobile devices. It is mostly used for Smartphones, like Google's own Google Nexus, as well as by other phone manufacturers like HTC and Samsung. It has also been used for tablets such as the Motorola Xoom and Amazon Kindle. A modified Linux kernel is used as Android's kernel.[7]

Google says that over 1.3 million Android smartphones are sold every day.[8] Most mobile phones run Android, making it the most popular mobile operating system. It is also the most popular operating system in general.

It supports multitasking and two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphics.

Android programs[change | change source]

Programs for Android, also called "apps", come from the Google Play Store. The Android programs have an extension of .apk. Android programs are built in Python, C, C++, or Java programming languages but the UI is always made using Java and XML. There are over 2.8 million apps available for Android.[9] Some apps are distributed by other than the Google Play Store.

Rooting is obtaining root access. This allows changing Android in ways the device manufacturer did not intend. For example, it may allow more freedom in installing or removing apps. Rooting may break the device and/or remove the warranty.

Android version numbers and names[change | change source]

Smartphones with Android Nougat, Oreo, P

Each version of Android has both a number and a name based on confectioneries. The version numbers and names are:

  • Beta versions: Astro and Bender
  • 1.5: Cupcake
  • 1.6: Donut
  • 2.0 and 2.1: Eclair
  • 2.2: Froyo (FROzen YOgurt)
  • 2.3: Gingerbread
  • 3.x: Honeycomb (a tablet-only version)
  • 4.0: Ice Cream Sandwich
  • 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3: Jelly Bean
  • 4.4: KitKat
  • 5.0 and 5.1: Lollipop
  • 6.0 and 6.0.1: Marshmallow[10]
  • 7.0 and 7.1: Nougat
  • 8.0: Oreo

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Android Code Analysis". Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  2. "Philosophy and Goals". Android Open Source Project. Google. Retrieved 2012-04-21. 
  3. "Announcing the Android 1.0 SDK, release 1". September 9, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2012. 
  4. Shah, Agam (December 1, 2011). "Google's Android 4.0 ported to x86 processors". Computerworld. International Data Group. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  5. "MIPS gets sweet with Honeycomb". Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  6. "Licenses". Android Open Source Project. Open Handset Alliance. Retrieved 2012-09-09. The preferred license for the Android Open Source Project is the Apache Software License, 2.0. ... Why Apache Software License? ... For userspace (that is, non-kernel) software, we do in fact prefer ASL2.0 (and similar licenses like BSD, MIT, etc.) over other licenses such as LGPL. Android is about freedom and choice. The purpose of Android is promote openness in the mobile world, but we don't believe it's possible to predict or dictate all the uses to which people will want to put our software. So, while we encourage everyone to make devices that are open and modifiable, we don't believe it is our place to force them to do so. Using LGPL libraries would often force them to do so. 
  7. Android Project Home
  8. "There Are Now 1.3 Million Android Device Activations Per Day". TechCrunch. 2012-09-05. 
  9. "Number of apps on Android Devices". 
  10. "Introducing new Android OS Marshmallow 6.0". Android Official. Retrieved 1 June 201.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  1. Official 64-bit support for all platforms was introduced in Android 5.0 "Lollipop".

Other websites[change | change source]