|Company / developer||Community|
|Programmed in||Primarily C and assembly|
|Source model||Mainly open source, proprietary software also available|
|Marketing target||Personal computers, mobile devices, embedded devices, servers, mainframes, supercomputers|
|Available programming languages(s)||Many|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux kernel)|
|Default user interface||Many|
|License||GPLv2 and other free and open-source licenses, except for the "Linux" trademark[a]|
Linux or GNU/Linux is a free and open source software Unix-like operating system for computers. An operating system is a collection of the basic instructions that manage the electronic parts of the computer allowing running application programs. Linux is Free and open source software (FOSS). Free and open source software (FOSS) means that everyone has the freedom to use it, see how it works, change it or share it.
There is a lot of software for Linux and—like Linux itself—a lot of the software for Linux is free software. This means that it doesn't put any license restrictions on users. This is one reason why many people like to use Linux.
Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for personal computers. Thanks to its dominance on smartphones, Android, which is built on top of the Linux kernel, has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux, in its original form, is also the leading operating system on servers such as mainframe computers and supercomputers, but is used on only around 1.5% of desktop computers. Linux also runs on embedded systems, which are devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system; this includes mobile phones, tablet computers, network routers, facility automation controls, televisions, video game consoles and smartwatches.
The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The underlying source code may be used, modified, and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the GNU General Public License version 2 (and some software components under other licenes). Typically, Linux is packaged in a form known as a Linux distribution, for both desktop and server use. Some of the popular mainstream Linux distributions are Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Fedora, openSUSE, Arch Linux and Gentoo, together with commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server distributions. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel, supporting utilities and libraries, and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use.
Distributions oriented toward desktop use typically include X11, a Wayland implementation or Mir as the windowing system, and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or the KDE Software Compilation; some distributions may also include a less resource-intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce. Distributions intended to run on servers may omit all graphical environments from the standard install, and instead include other software to set up and operate a solution stack such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use.
How Linux was made[change | change source]
In the 1980s, many people liked to use an operating system called Unix. But because it restricted the user from sharing and improving the system, some people made a new operating system that would work like Unix but which anybody could share or improve. MINIX, similar to Unix, was used as a teaching tool for university students to learn how operating systems worked. MINIX also restricted its sharing and improvement by its users.
A group of people called the GNU project wrote different parts of a new operating system called GNU, but it did not have all the parts an operating system needs to work. In 1991 Linus Torvalds began to work on a replacement for MINIX that would be free to use, and which would not cost anything. Linus started the project when he was attending the University of Helsinki. This eventually became the Linux kernel.
Linus Torvalds shared the Linux kernel on some internet groups for MINIX users. Linus first called the operating system "Freax". The name Freax came from joining up the English words "free" and "freak", and adding an X to the name because Unix has an X in its name. Ari Lemmke, who worked with Linus at the University, was responsible for the servers that Freax was stored on. Ari did not think Freax was a good name, so he called the project "Linux" without asking Linus. Later, Linus agreed that Linux was a better name for his project.
Linux relied on software code from MINIX at first. But, with code from the GNU system available for free, he decided it would be good for Linux if it could use that code, instead of code from MINIX. The GNU General Public License is a software license that lets people change any part of the code they want to, as long as they share any changes they make with the people they give their software to and allow them to redistribute it for free or for a price . The software from GNU was all licensed under the GNU General Public License, so Linus and the other people who worked on Linux could use it too.
To make the Linux kernel suitable for use with the code from the GNU Project, Linus Torvalds started a switch from his original license (which did not allow people to sell it) to the GNU GPL. Linux and GNU developers worked together to integrate GNU code with Linux to make a free operating system.
Tux the penguin[change | change source]
The idea of the penguin came from the creator of Linux, Linus Torvalds. The image was made by a man named Larry Ewing in a competition to create a logo. The image, Tux, did not win, but it was picked as a mascot later.
Tux has now become a symbol for Linux, and sometimes even for open source. He can be seen in many different places and often, when people refer to Linux, they think about Tux. Tux has even been included in many video games, such as Super Tux (like Super Mario Bros.), Tux Racer (where players race Tux down an icy hill) and Pingus (like Lemmings).
Uses[change | change source]
Desktop[change | change source]
Although there are only a few Linux versions for some Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows programs in areas like desktop publishing and professional audio and video there are programs that are comparatively similar in quality compared to those available for Mac and Windows.
Many free software titles that are popular on Windows, such as Pidgin, Mozilla Firefox, Openoffice.org, and GIMP, are available for Linux. A growing amount of proprietary desktop software can also be used under Linux, such as Adobe Flash Player, Opera, Google Picasa, RealPlayer, and Skype. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running older Windows versions of Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop versions until CS2. Microsoft Office 2007 and Adobe Photoshop CS3 are known not to work.
Servers and supercomputers[change | change source]
Linux has mainly been used as a server operating system, and has risen to be known by a lot of people in that area; Netcraft reported in February 2008 that five of the ten best internet hosting companies run Linux on their web servers. This is because of its stability and uptime, and the fact that desktop software with a graphical user interface for servers is often unneeded.
Pronunciation[change | change source]
In 1992, Torvalds explained how he pronounces the word Linux:
|“||'li' is pronounced with a short [ee] sound: compare prInt, mInImal etc. 'nux' is also short, non-diphthong, like in pUt. It's partly due to minix: linux was just my working name for the thing, and as I wrote it to replace minix on my system, the result is what it is... linus' minix became linux.||”|
Some English speakers pronounce the name as lee-narks or lee-nix or lie-nix. According to Torvalds, that is incorrect pronunciation.[source?]
Code size[change | change source]
A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found this distribution had 30 million lines of code. The study showed that Red Hat 7.1 required about 8,000 years of time to develop. The study also said that if all this software had been made by proprietary means, it would have cost about $1.08 billion to make in the United States.
Most of the code (around 71%) was written in the C programming language, and many other languages were used, including C++, assembly language, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various shell scripting languages. A little more than half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL. The Linux kernel was made up of 2.4 million lines of code, or 8% of all the code.
Different Linux versions[change | change source]
People who want to get Linux can download it from the Internet or buy it from a store or a website. Sometimes books and magazines about Linux have a CD or DVD with Linux on it. Any certain version of Linux is called a "distribution", or "distro". A Linux version has the Linux kernel and the GNU operating system, and some extra programs that might not be part of GNU. Different versions include different extra programs. The versions used by the most people include:
People might pay some money for a version, so they can have a CD-ROM or DVD and to help the company to make their versions better. Usually when someone pays, it is so the company will help the user after they install it, which is called "support".
Software for Linux includes:
- The Kernel and the Shell.
- Apache allows users to run their own website.
- KDE and GNOME are desktop environments.
- OpenOffice is for office work.
- Mozilla Firefox is an Internet (Web) browser.
- GIMP, Inkscape and Blender help people work with pictures.
- Games such as Tux Racer.
- The GNU compiler
Licensing, trademark, and naming[change | change source]
The Linux kernel and most GNU software are licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL requires that anyone who distributes the Linux kernel must make the source code (and any modifications) available to the recipient under the same terms. In 1997, Linus Torvalds said, “Making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best thing I ever did.” Other key components of a Linux system may use other licenses; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a type of the GPL that is less restricted, and the X Window System uses the MIT License.
Related pages[change | change source]
Notes[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Linux Online (2008). "Linux Logos and Mascots". Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. http://wayback.archive.org/web/20100815085106/http://www.linux.org/info/logos.html. Retrieved August 11, 2009.
- "The Linux Kernel Archives: Frequently asked questions". September 2, 2014. https://www.kernel.org/category/faq.html. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- "U.S. Reg No: 1916230". United States Patent and Trademark Office. http://assignments.uspto.gov/assignments/q?db=tm&rno=1916230. Retrieved April 1, 2006.
- Eckert, Jason W. (2012). Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification (Third ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning. p. 33. ISBN 978-1111541538. http://books.google.com/books?id=EHLH4S78LmsC&pg=PA33. Retrieved April 14, 2013. "The shared commonality of the kernel is what defines Linux; the differing OSS applications that can interact with the common kernel are what differentiate Linux distributions."
- Linus Benedict Torvalds (5 October 1991). "Free minix-like kernel sources for 386-AT". comp.os.minix. (Web link). Retrieved on September 30, 2011.
- "What Is Linux: An Overview of the Linux Operating System". Linux Foundation. April 3, 2009. https://www.linux.com/learn/resource-center/376-linux-is-everywhere-an-overview-of-the-linux-operating-system. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
- Computerworld, Patrick Thibodeau. "IBM's newest mainframe is all Linux". http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9142007/IBM_s_newest_mainframe_is_all_Linux_. Retrieved February 22, 2009.
- Lyons, Daniel (March 15, 2005). "Linux rules supercomputers". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/home/enterprisetech/2005/03/15/cz_dl_0315linux.html. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
- Linux Devices (January 2010). "Trolltech rolls "complete" Linux smartphone stack". Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. http://archive.is/9aNu. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- "Sony Open Source Code Distribution Service". Sony Electronics. http://products.sel.sony.com/opensource/. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- "Sharp Liquid Crystal Television Instruction Manual". Sharp Electronics. p. 24. http://files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/ForHome/HomeEntertainment/LCDTVs/Manuals/Archive/tel_man_LC32_37_42HT3U.pdf. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- IBM (October 2001). "Linux Watch (WatchPad)". http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=6101. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "What would you like to see most in minix?". comp.os.minix. (Web link). Retrieved on 2008-08-18.
- Torvalds, Linus (1992-01-05). "RELEASE NOTES FOR LINUX v0.12". Linux Kernel Archives. http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/Historic/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.12. Retrieved 2007-07-23. "The Linux copyright will change: I've had a couple of requests to make it compatible with the GNU copyleft, removing the “you may not distribute it for money” condition. I agree. I propose that the copyright be changed so that it confirms to GNU ─ pending approval of the persons who have helped write code. I assume this is going to be no problem for anybody: If you have grievances (“I wrote that code assuming the copyright would stay the same”) mail me. Otherwise The GNU copyleft takes effect as of the first of February. If you do not know the gist of the GNU copyright ─ read it."
- Advani, Prakash (2000-10-27). "Microsoft Office for Linux?". FreeOS. FreeOS Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd.. http://www.freeos.com/articles/2540/. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- Smith-Heisters, Ian (2005-10-11). "Editing audio in Linux". Ars Technica. Ars Technica, LLC. http://arstechnica.com/guides/tweaks/linux-audio.ars. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- Lumma, Carl (April 2007). "Linux: It's Not Just For Computer Geeks Anymore". Keyboard Magazine. New Bay Media, LLC.. http://www.keyboardmag.com/article/linux-its-not/apr-07/27458. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- James, Daniel (February 2004). "Using Linux For Recording & Mastering". Sound On Sound. SOS Publications Group. http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/feb04/articles/mirrorimage.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- "The table of equivalents/replacements/analogs of Windows software in Linux". http://www.linuxrsp.ru/win-lin-soft/table-eng.html.
- "The Global Desktop Project, Building Technology and Communities". http://www.iist.unu.edu/globaldesktop/. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Microsoft Office 2007". CodeWeavers. CodeWeavers Inc.. 2007-11-25. http://www.codeweavers.com/compatibility/browse/group/?app_parent=1911. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Photoshop CS 3". CodeWeavers. CodeWeavers Inc.. 2007-07-11. http://www.codeweavers.com/compatibility/browse/name/?app_id=3175. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Tiscali Italia is the Most Reliable Hosting Company in February 2008". Netcraft. March 4 2008. http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2008/03/04/tiscali_italia_is_the_most_reliable_hosting_company_in_february_2008.html. Retrieved 2008-04-03.
- "Howto pronounce Linux?". http://www.paul.sladen.org/pronunciation/. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Linus pronouncing Linux in English and Swedish". http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/SillySounds/. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- Wheeler, David A (2002-07-29). "More Than a Gigabuck: Estimating GNU/Linux's Size". http://www.dwheeler.com/sloc/redhat71-v1/redhat71sloc.html. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Linus Torvalds interview". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20070311190841/http://kde.sw.com.sg/food/linus.html. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
|Common Operating systems|
|Linux • Mac OS • Microsoft Windows • Solaris • UNIX • BSD|