SpaceX

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Space Exploration Technologies Corp.
SpaceX
Private
IndustryAerospace
Founded6 May 2002; 17 years ago (2002-05-06)[1]
Headquarters
Key people
Products
ServicesOrbital rocket launch
OwnerElon Musk Trust
(54% equity; 78% voting control)[2]
Number of employees
Est. 7,000[3]
(November 2017)
SubsidiariesThe Boring Company
(2017–2018)[4]
Websitewww.spacex.com
Footnotes / references
[5][6][7][8]

Space Exploration Technologies Corporation, mostly known as SpaceX is a space transportation company based in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk, who also founded PayPal and Tesla. The company develops rockets that can lift cargo into space, fly it to the International Space Station (ISS), and safely return cargo back to Earth. In December 2010, it became the first private corporation to successfully launch, orbit and recover a spacecraft. In May 2012 it was the first private company to send a cargo to the ISS, and it returned.[9]

Besides working for NASA, SpaceX will launch satellites for the military, private companies, and other countries. In 2009 it already launched a low earth orbiting satellite.[10]

History[change | change source]

In 2001, Elon Musk proposed a project to land a small greenhouse to grow plants on Mars. "This would be the furthest that life’s ever traveled"[11] in an attempt to regain public interest in space exploration and increase the budget of NASA.[12][13][14] Musk tried to buy cheap rockets from Russia but returned empty-handed after failing to find rockets for an affordable price.[15][16] Later, Musk realized that he could start a company that could build the rockets he needed.[16] According to early Tesla and SpaceX investor Steve Jurvetson,[17] Musk calculated that the raw materials for building a rocket were actually 3% of the price of a rocket at the time. By applying vertical integration,[15] producing around 85% of launch hardware in-house,[18][19] and the modular approach from software engineering, SpaceX could cut launch price by a factor of ten and still enjoy a 70% gross margin.[20]

In early 2002, Musk was seeking workers for his new space company, soon to be named SpaceX. Musk found a rocket engineer Tom Mueller (later SpaceX's CTO of Propulsion). He agreed to work for Musk. That was how SpaceX was born.[21] The first headquarters of SpaceX was in a warehouse in El Segundo, California. The company has grown rapidly since it was founded in 2002, growing from 160 workers in November 2005 to 1,100 in 2010,[22][23] 3,800 workers and contractors by October 2013,[24] nearly 5,000 by late 2015,[25][26] and about 6,000 in April 2017.[27] As of November 2017, the company had grown to nearly 7,000.[3] In 2016, Musk gave a speech at the International Astronautical Congress, where he explained that the US government uses rocket technology as an "advanced weapon technology", making it difficult to hire non-Americans.[28]

Launch vehicles and spacecraft[change | change source]

One of SpaceX's recent inventions are the Falcon rockets, which are built to be reusable. The standard in the rocket industry is to either leave these rockets in space or destroy them on their return to Earth, because sufficient technology wasn't available. SpaceX is recognized in the industry for creating that technology. This allows manufacturers to spend less money and materials creating materials, so the cost of space flight becomes significantly cheaper. SpaceX's current version of the rockets are the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy. These rockets can be used by themselves, or they can be used as boosters, which are rockets that are attached to a larger one. An example of this is the [[[Falcon Heavy]], which is a rocket that uses two Falcon 9 boosters that are placed on either side. Its first flight was on 6 February, 2018, when it used two Falcon 9 boosters that had previously flown.

SpaceX also built the Dragon spacecraft, which is filled with equipment and supplies for the astronauts on the ISS. The capsule is put on the Falcon 9 rocket (because the Dragon does not have big enough rockets to fly to space on its own) and flown into orbit. From orbit it separates from the boosters, then the capsule uses its own smaller rockets to get to the ISS. Then the capsule is filled up with old equipment, the results of science experiments, and garbage. It then reenters the Earth's atmosphere and parachutes into the ocean.

SpaceX designs, builds, and tests its components inside SpaceX itself, not other companies. Because they don't need to pay other companies, SpaceX spends less money when they create their rockets. Some things SpaceX has made by itself, for example the Merlin, Kestrel and Draco rocket engines used on the Falcon launch vehicles and the Dragon spacecraft.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "California Business Search (C2414622 - Space Exploration Technologies Corp)". California Secretary of State. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  2. Fred Lambert (17 November 2016). "Elon Musk's stake in SpaceX is actually worth more than his Tesla shares". Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Foust, Jeff (16 November 2017). "Shotwell: I was the 7th employee at SpaceX. We're up to about 7,000 now. #NewSpaceEurope". Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  4. AGENDA ITEM NO. 9, CITY OF HAWTHORNE CITY COUNCIL, AGENDA BILL, 11 September 2018, Planning & Community Development Department, City of Hawthorne, accessed 13 September 2018.
  5. "Gwynne Shotwell: Executive Profile & Biography". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  6. W.J. Hennigan (7 June 2013). "How I Made It: SpaceX exec Gwynne Shotwell". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  7. SpaceX Tour – Texas Test Site. spacexchannel. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  8. "SpaceX NASA CRS-6 PressKit Site" (PDF). 12 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  9. Chang, Kenneth (25 May 2012). "Space X Capsule Docks at Space Station". New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  10. Rowe, Aaron (14 July 2009). "SpaceX Launch Successfully Delivers Satellite Into Orbit". Wired Science. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  11. Miles O'Brien (June 1, 2012). "Elon Musk Unedited". Archived from the original on March 23, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  12. John Carter McKnight (25 September 2001). "Elon Musk, Life to Mars Foundation". Space Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  13. Elon Musk (30 May 2009). "Risky Business". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  14. Elon Musk on dodging a nervous breakdown. YouTube. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Andrew Chaikin (January 2012). "Is SpaceX Changing the Rocket Equation?". Air & Space Smithsonian. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Ashlee Vance (14 May 2015). "Elon Musk's space dream almost killed Tesla". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  17. "How Steve Jurvetson Saved Elon Musk". Business Insider. 14 September 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  18. "SpaceX". NASA Space Academy at Glenn. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  19. Elon's SpaceX Tour – Engines. YouTube. 11 December 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  20. SpaceX and Daring to Think Big – Steve Jurvetson. YouTube. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  21. Michael Belfiore (1 September 2009). "Behind the Scenes With the World's Most Ambitious Rocket Makers". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  22. Foust, Jeff (14 November 2005). "Big plans for SpaceX". The Space Review.
  23. SpaceX (2008-07-10). "Diane Murphy joins SpaceX as Vice President of Marketing and Communications". Press release. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100713163321/http://www.californiaspaceauthority.org/html/government_pages/pr080714-1.html. 
  24. Messier, Doug (16 October 2013). "ISPCS Morning Session: Gwynne Shotwell of SpaceX". Retrieved 7 December 2015. Gwynne Shotwell says that SpaceX is now up to about 3,800 employees, counting contractors working for the company. ... 600 more people to hire in next couple months. Finding good software people the hardest skills to fill.
  25. "SpaceX's Redmond effort 'very speculative'". Seattle Times. 7 November 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  26. Gwynne Shotwell (3 February 2016). Gwynne Shotwell comments at Commercial Space Transportation Conference. Commercial Spaceflight. Event occurs at 2:43:15–3:10:05. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  27. de Selding, Peter B. (14 April 2017). "Blue Origin's older than SpaceX in more ways than one". Space Intel Report. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  28. Crosbie, Jackie (28 September 2016). "Elon Musk Explains Why SpaceX Only Hires Americans".

Other websites[change | change source]