Stavropol

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Stavropol
Ставрополь
Ставрополь 2020.jpg
Андреевский кафедральный собор. Ставрополь.JPG
Здание администрации и памятник Ленину (Ставрополь).jpg
Stavropol Natural history museum2.JPG
Tiflisskie vorota.jpg
Гостиница Intourist. Ставрополь.JPG
Stavropol Krepostnaya gorka.jpg
Top:View of downtown Kaskad Fantanov area, Stavropol Saint Andrew Cathedral, Second:Vladimir Lenin Statue and Stavropol Duma Building, Third: Stavropol Gosudarstvennyy historical Museum, Tiflis Gate, Bottom:Stavropol Intourist Hotel, Red Guard Soldier monument (all items left to right)
Flag of Stavropol
Coat of arms of Stavropol
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Stavropol
Stavropol is located in Russia
Stavropol
Stavropol
Location of Stavropol
Stavropol is located in Stavropol Krai
Stavropol
Stavropol
Stavropol (Stavropol Krai)
Coordinates: 45°03′N 41°59′E / 45.050°N 41.983°E / 45.050; 41.983Coordinates: 45°03′N 41°59′E / 45.050°N 41.983°E / 45.050; 41.983
CountryRussia
Federal subjectStavropol Krai[3]
FoundedOctober 22, 1777[4]
City status since1785[5]
Government
 • BodyCity Duma[6]
 • Head[6]Ivan Ulyanchenko
Area
 • Total277 km2 (107 sq mi)
Elevation
620 m (2,030 ft)
Population
 • Total398,539
 • Estimate 
(2018)[8]
433,931 (+8.9%)
 • Rank47th in 2010
 • Density1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of krai significance of Stavropol[1]
 • Capital ofStavropol Krai[3], city of krai significance of Stavropol[1]
 • Urban okrugStavropol Urban Okrug[9]
 • Capital ofStavropol Urban Okrug[9]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
Postal code(s)[11]
355000–355013, 355016–355021, 355024–355026, 355028–355032, 355035, 355037, 355038, 355040–355042, 355044, 355045, 355047
Dialing code(s)+7 8652
OKTMO ID07701000001
Twin townsKars, Des Moines, Pazardzhik, Omsk, Astrakhan, Zhenjiang, Yerevan, Vladikavkaz, South-Eastern Administrative Okrug, Makhachkala, Feodosia, Elista, Changzhou, Béziers, TemucoEdit this on Wikidata
Websiteставрополь.рф

Stavropol (/stævˈrpəl/; Russian: Ставрополь, tr. Stavropol', IPA: [ˈstavrəpəlʲ]) is a city and the administrative centre of Stavropol Krai, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 398,539.

It was known as Voroshilovsk until January 12, 1943.[12]

History[change | change source]

Stavropol was founded on October 22, 1777 and given city status in 1785.[4][5] It was a military camp in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774.[13] The city was mostly settled by Don Cossacks with the goal of defending against invaders.

The city changed owners many times in the Russian Civil War. It was finally captured by the Red Army from the Volunteer Army of general Anton Denikin on February 29, 1920. The city was renamed Voroshilovsk on May 5, 1935, after Kliment Voroshilov. The original name was restored in 1943. The city was used as a German airport for its Luftwaffe in World War 2 while they occupied it. Stavropol was liberated by the Soviets in January of 1943.

Natural gas has been extracted near the city since 1946 and piped to Moscow.

Economy[change | change source]

The economy of Stavropol mainly focuses on the making of cars, furniture, and construction equipment. It has a major airport, Shpakovskoye airport, as well as railway and highway connections to other Russian cities.

Demographics[change | change source]

Stavropol population
2010 Census398,539[7]
2002 Census354,867[14]
1989 Census318,298[15]
1979 Census258,233[16]

Stavropol's 2021 population is now estimated at 453,387. In 1950, the population of Stavropol was 108,353. Stavropol has grown by 3,293 since 2015, which is a 0.73% annual change.

Climate[change | change source]

Stavropol has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa). It has short but cold winters and hot summers.

Climate data for Stavropol (1991-2020, extremes 1854-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.8
(62.2)
20.9
(69.6)
30.2
(86.4)
35.0
(95.0)
32.5
(90.5)
36.3
(97.3)
38.6
(101.5)
39.7
(103.5)
37.3
(99.1)
34.2
(93.6)
24.8
(76.6)
21.9
(71.4)
39.7
(103.5)
Average high °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
2.5
(36.5)
8.2
(46.8)
15.5
(59.9)
21.0
(69.8)
25.7
(78.3)
29.0
(84.2)
28.9
(84.0)
23.0
(73.4)
15.7
(60.3)
7.8
(46.0)
3.1
(37.6)
15.1
(59.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.2
(37.8)
9.7
(49.5)
15.4
(59.7)
19.9
(67.8)
22.9
(73.2)
22.6
(72.7)
16.9
(62.4)
10.5
(50.9)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
10.0
(50.0)
Average low °C (°F) −5.0
(23.0)
−4.8
(23.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.0
(41.0)
10.5
(50.9)
15.0
(59.0)
17.4
(63.3)
16.9
(62.4)
12.0
(53.6)
6.6
(43.9)
0.5
(32.9)
−3.3
(26.1)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −27.7
(−17.9)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−10.7
(12.7)
−2.3
(27.9)
3.1
(37.6)
10.0
(50.0)
6.9
(44.4)
−3.5
(25.7)
−12.0
(10.4)
−19.9
(−3.8)
−24.3
(−11.7)
−28.3
(−18.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.1)
28
(1.1)
41
(1.6)
41
(1.6)
71
(2.8)
77
(3.0)
59
(2.3)
37
(1.5)
48
(1.9)
52
(2.0)
38
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
554
(21.8)
Average rainy days 5 5 8 13 13 13 10 8 10 11 10 7 113
Average snowy days 13 13 9 1 0.3 0 0 0 0 1 6 10 53
Average relative humidity (%) 84 82 78 68 68 66 60 60 68 77 84 84 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 85 100 133 183 257 286 313 290 228 164 94 69 2,202
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[17]
Source 2: Climatebase.ru (sun) [18]

Notable people[change | change source]

Well-known Russians who have visited or lived in Stavropol include: Generals Alexander Suvorov (1730–1800), Alexey Yermolov (1777–1861), and Nikolay Raevsky (1771—1829); the poets Alexander Pushkin (1799–1837)[19] and Mikhail Lermontov (1814–1841),[20] who were in political disfavor, the surgeon Nikolay Pirogov (1810—1881), Alexander Griboyedov (1795–1829),[21] Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910),[22] and the national poet of Ossetia, Kosta Khetagurov.[23]

The first and only executive president of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev (1931-2022), was born in Stavropol Krai and spent many years working in the city of Stavropol as the leader of the krai. Gorbachev's chief mentor, long-time friend, and the previous leader of the Soviet Union Yuri Andropov (1914–1984) was also born in Stavropol Krai.

Actor Lev Gorn (born 1971) star of The Americans was born in Stavropol.

Twin towns – sister cities[change | change source]

Stavropol is twinned with:[24]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Resolution #63-p
  2. Article 3 of the Charter of Stavropol states that the city may have an anthem, providing a law is adopted to that effect. As of 2015, no such law is in place. The Symbols section on the Stavropal's official website also does not include an anthem.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Law #9-kz
  4. 4.0 4.1 Charter of Stavropol, Article 2
  5. 5.0 5.1 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 438. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Charter of Stavropol, Article 30
  7. 7.0 7.1 Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  8. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar; archive date: 26 July 2018; retrieved: 25 July 2018; archive URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Law #88-kz
  10. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  11. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  12. Decree of January 12, 1943
  13. "Stavropol". stavmed.com. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  14. Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved 9 Feb 2012.
  15. Demoscope Weekly (1989). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved 9 Feb 2012.
  16. invalid reference parameter
  17. "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Stavropol" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  18. "Climate of Stavropol". Retrieved 2021-08-17.
  19. Morfill, William Richard (1911). "Pushkin, Alexander" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–669.
  20. Shedden-Ralston, William Ralston (1911). "Lermontov, Mikhail Yurevich" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 484–485.
  21. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Griboyedov, Alexander Sergueevich" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 593.
  22. Wright, Charles Theodore Hagberg (1911). "Tolstoy, Leo" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1053–1061.
  23. Stavropol - City
  24. "Intermunicipal cooperation". Official Stavropol website. Stavropol. Retrieved 2020-02-05.

Other websites[change | change source]