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Events of 1378 [change]
- Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV meets with his nephew Charles V of France to publicly celebrate the friendship between their two nations.
- Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV dies and is succeeded by his son, Wenceslaus.
- The Papacy makes a permanent move back from Avignon to Rome, ending the Avignon Papacy.
- Pope Gregory XI dies. Due to riots in Rome calling for a Roman pope, the cardinals, who were mostly French, elect Pope Urban VI (Bartolomeo Prignano, Archbishop of Bari) as the 202nd Pope.
- France, Aragon, Castile and León, Cyprus, Burgundy, Savoy, Naples and Scotland choose to recognise Antipope Clement VII. Denmark, England, Flanders, the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, northern Italy, Ireland, Norway, Poland and Sweden continue to recognise Pope Urban VI.
- Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow & Vladimir resists a small invasion by the Mongol Blue Horde.
- Revolt of the Ciompi – discontent wool carders briefly take over the government of Florence. For the first time, a European government represents all social classes.
- Tokhtamysh dethrones Timur Malik as Khan of the White Horde.
- Kara Osman establishes the Turkomans of the White Sheep dynasty at Diyarbakır in present-day southeast Turkey.
- The Turks capture the town of Ihtiman in west Bulgaria.
- An English spy assassinates Owain Lawgoch, claimant to the throne of Wales and ally of France.
- Gian Galeazzo Visconti succeeds his father, Galeazzo II Visconti, as ruler of Milan.
- Uskhal Khan succeeds his father, Biligtü Khan, as ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia.
- Balša II succeeds his father, Durađ I, as ruler of Zeta (now Montenegro).
- Tai Bian succeeds Zhao Bing Fa as King of Mong Mao (now northern Myanmar).
- Appearance of Halley's Comet.
- Da'ud Shah succeeds his assassinated nephew, Aladdin Mujahid Shah, as Bahmani Sultan in present-day southern India. Da'ud Shah is assassinated in the same year and is succeeded by Mohammed Shah II.