Solomonid dynasty

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The Solomonid dynasty was a line of emperors that ruled in Ethiopia from 1270 to 1975. There were some other emperors that ruled who were not from the Solomonid dynasty, but the Solomonids were in control most of the time.

The emperors did not use their real name when they became Emperor of Ethiopia, but they made up a new one for their rule. For example, the first Emperor of the Solomonids was Yekuno Amlak. But he used the name Tasfa Iyassus after he became ruler.

The dynasty began in 1270, when Yekuno Amlak killed the last king of the Zagwe dynasty, which had ruled Ethiopia. Yekuno Amlak was made king, and European historians say was the first ruler of the dynasty. But most Ethiopian books say that Menelik I, the son of King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba, was the first Emperor of this dynasty.

The leaders of Ethiopa from 1270 to 1975 (mostly Solomonids):

Term Birth Name Throne Name Notes
'Solomonid dynasty'
1270 to 1285 Yekuno Amlak Tasfa Iyasus
1285 to 1294 Yagbe'u Seyon Salomon I
1294 to 1295 Senfa Ared IV
1295 to 1296 Hezba Asgad
1296 to 1297 Qedma Asgad
1297 to 1298 Jin Asgad
1298 to 1299 Saba Asgad
1299 to 1314 Wedem Arad
1314 to 1344 Amda Seyon I Gabra Masqal I
1344 to 1372 Newaya Krestos Sayfa Ar`ed
1372 to 1382 Newaya Maryam Wedem Asfare; or
Gemma Asfare
1382 to 1413 Dawit I
1413 to 1414 Tewodros I Walda Ambasa Ruled 9 months
1414 to 1429 Yeshaq I
(Isaac)
Gabra Masqal II
1429 to 1430 Andreyas
(Andrew)
1430 to 1433 Takla Maryam Hezba Nan
1433 Sarwe Iyasus Mehreka Nan
1433 to 1434 Amda Iyasus Badel Nan
1434 to 1468 Zara Yaqob Kuestantinos I
(Constantine I)
Dating becomes certain here
1468 to 1478 Baeda Maryam I
1478 to 1494 Eskander Constantine II
1494 Amda Seyon II
1494 to 1508 Na'od
1508 to 1540 Dawit II
(David II)
Lebna Dengel
1540 to 1559 Gelawdewos
(Claudius)
Asnaf Sagad I
1559 to 1563 Menas Admas Sagad I
1563 to 1597 Sarsa Dengel Malak Sagad I
1597 to 1603 Yaqob
(Jacob)
Malak Sagad II
1603 to 1604 Za Dengel Asnaf Sagad II
1604 to 1607 Yaqob
(Jacob)
Malak Sagad II Restored
1607 to 1632 Sissinios Malak Sagad III Crowned March 18, 1608
1632 to 1667 Fasilidos
(Basilides)
`Alam Sagad
1667 to 1682 Yohannes I
(John I)
19 July 1682 to
13 October 1706
Iyasus I
(Iyasus the Great)
Adyam Sagad II
1685 Yeshaq Iyasu ? In opposition
27 March 1706 to
30 June 1708
Tekle Haymanot I Le`al Sagad
September 1707 Amda Seyon A usurper
1 July 1708 to
14 October 1711
Tewoflos
(Theophilus)
Walda Ambasa
1709 to July 1710 Nebahne Yohannes In opposition
14 October 1711 to 19 February 1716 Yostos
(Justus)
Sahay Sagad A usurper
8 February 1716 to 18 May 1721 Dawit III Adabar Sagad
18 May 1721 to 1730 Bakaffa Asma Sagad or
Masih Sagad
19 September 1730 to 26 June 1755 Iyasus II
(Jesus II)
Adyam Sagad
1736 to 1737 Hezqeyas In opposition
Era of the Princes
26 June 1755 to
7 May 1769
Iyoas
(Joas)
7 May to
18 October 1769
Yohannes II
(John II)
18 October 1769 to June 1770 Tekle Haymanot II
June to December 1770 Sissinios II
18 October 1769 to 13 April 1777 Tekle Haymanot II Restored
13 April 1777 to 20 July 1779 Salomon II
(Solomon II)
20 July 1779 to 8 February 1784 Tekle Giyorgis
16 February 1784 to 24 April 1788 Iyasus III
(Jesus III)
1787 to 1788 Iyasus In opposition
1787 to 1788 Baeda Maryam In opposition
February 1788 to 1789 Tekle Haymanot In opposition
24 April 1788 to 26 July 1789 Tekle Giyorgis Restored
26 July 1789 to January 1794 Hezqeyas
(Hezekiah)
January 1794 to 15 April 1795 Tekle Giyorgis Restored
15 April to December 1795 Baeda Maryam II
December 1795 to 20 May 1796 Tekle Giyorgis Restored
20 May 1796 to 15 July 1797 Salomon III
(Solomon III)
18 August 1797 to 4 January 1798 Yonas
(Jonah)
4 January 1798 to 20 May 1799 Tekle Giyorgis Restored
20 May 1799 to 1799 Salomon III
(Solomon III)
Restored
1799 to 24 March 1800 Demetros
(Demetrius)
24 March to June 1800 Tekle Giyorgis Restored
June 1800 to June 1801 Demetros
June 1801 to June 3, 1818 Egwale Seyon
June 19, 1818 to June 3, 1821 Iyoas II
(Joas II)
June 3, 1821 to April 1826 Gigar
April 1826 Baeda Maryam III
April 1826 to June 18, 1830 Gigar Restored
18 June 1830 to 18 March 1832 Iyasus IV
(Jesus IV)
18 March 1832 to 1832 Gebre Krestos
1832 Sahla Dengel
1832 to 8 June 1832 Gebre Krestos Restored
October 1832 to 29 August 1840 Sahla Dengel Restored
1832 Egwale Anbesa In rebellion
30 August 1840 to October 1841 Yohannes III
(John III)
October 1841 to 1845 Sahle Dengel Restored
1845 Yohannes III
(John III)
Restored
1845 to 1850 Sahle Dengel Restored
1850 to 1851 Yohannes III
(John III)
Restored
1851 to 11 February 1855 Sahle Dengel Restored
Tewodros Dynasty
9 February 1855 to 13 April 1868 Kasse Hailu Tewodros II
(Theodore II)
Zagwe Dynasty
11 June 1868 to 11 July 1871 Wagshum Gobeze Tekle Giyorgis II
Tigray Dynasty
11 July 1871 to 9 March 1889 Kassa Mercha Yohannes IV
(John IV)
Solomonid Dynasty
9 March 1889 to 12 December 1913 Sahle Maryam (dejazmach) Menelik II
12 December 1913 to 27 September 1916 Lij Kifle Yaqub Iyasu V Deposed by nobles with the sanction of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church
27 September 1916 to 2 April 1930 Askala Maryam Zauditu, Empress
2 April 1930 to 2 May 1936 Tafari Makonnen His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Elect of God, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah Crowned 2 November 1930
Italian occupation
May 9, 1936 to May 5, 1941 Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Claimed title "Emperor of Ethiopia" Not recognised everywhere. Gave up the name in 1943.
Solomonid Dynasty
May 5, 1941 to 12 September 1974 Tafari Mekonnen His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Elect of God, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah Restored; deposed
12 September 1974 to 12 September 1974 Asfa Wossen Amha Selassie Emperor-designate, did not take office