Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

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Kingdom of Italy
Regno d'Italia
Flag of Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
Coat of arms of Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
Coat of arms
Motto: FERT (motto of the House of Savoy)
Marcia reale d'ordinanza (1861-1943)

La leggenda del Piave (1943-1946)

The Kingdom of Italy in 1942
The Kingdom of Italy in 1942
Recognised national languages Italian
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy and Fascist dictatorship
LegislatureItalian Parliament
• Established
• Disestablished
• Total
310,190 km2 (119,770 sq mi)
• Estimate
42,993,602 (1936)
CurrencyItalian lira
Today part of Italian Republic (mainly), Slovenia, Croatia

The Kingdom of Italy was a country that started in 1861 after the Italian unification until the dissolution of the country in 1946. In 1922 it became Fascist Italy. After defeat in World War II the people voted in 1946 to change it into the modern day Italian Republic.

History[change | change source]

Unification[change | change source]

Before 1861, Italy was not one country. Instead, there were many kingdoms and duchies (places ruled by dukes) in the Italian Peninsula. In 1861, the King Victor Emmanuel II, who was the king of the Kingdom of Sardinia wanted to unite Italy, and he invaded the countries. Later, They all became one country and King Victor Emmanuel II became the King of Italy.

Colonies[change | change source]

Italy began their colonial empire in the 1880s, when they conquered Eritrea and Somalia. In 1912, they took Libya from the Ottoman Empire. In 1936, Italy also conquered Ethiopia, creating the colony of Italian East Africa. When they lost WW2, their colonies were lost to the British Empire and the French Empire.

Fascism[change | change source]

Before WW1, Italy was friends with the German Empire and Austria-Hungary. But Italy wanted parts of Austria-Hungary. In 1915, the United Kingdom promised the lands of South Tyrol, Istria and Dalmatia. But after Italy won WW1, they did not get all of the lands. In 1922, Benito Mussolini became Prime Minister. He was the leader of the National Fascist Party and didn't like Italy not getting all their promised land in WW1. He made Italy into a dictatorship without much liberty.

Civil ensign of the Kingdom of Italy, this version does NOT have a crown

When WW2 began, Mussolini's Blackshirts led Italy to be allied with Hitler, and the Axis powers. The Axis powers lost WW2. Mussolini's leadership ended in 1943, and he was killed in 1945. Nazi Germany controlled Italy at the end of WW2 , but they eventually were invaded by the Allies and when Hitler killed himself, The Nazis lost WW2. After Nazi Germany ceased to exist, Italy was independent again.

Aftermath of World War II[change | change source]

After WW, Italy was left in huge debt, causing Italy to be poor. Many people from Italy emigrated to the United States to escape being poor. In 1946, People voted to get rid of the monarchy (kings) and establish the new Italian Republic. Slowly, the new government helped Italy get back up again into its current state. Also, dramatically, people stopped emigrating because life in Italy was becoming better.

List of monarchs[change | change source]

  • Umberto II (1946)
    This is the flag of Italian fascism, a symbol of Benito Mussolini's ideology.