Mount Everest (Tibetian: Chomolungma; Nepali: Sagarmāthā) is the largest and highest mountain on Earth. Mount Everest is in the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the World. It is about 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) high.
Its peak is on the border of Nepal and China. It is above the Death Zone where the air is too thin for a human being to live, so usually extra oxygen is used when climbing. The Death Zone refers to the parts of Mount Everest that are above 7,600 metres (24,900 ft) above sea level.
Two other mountains also can be named as the "highest" mountains - the Hawaiian volcano Mauna Kea on Hawaii island is the highest mountain measured from the base underwater to the summit (more than 11 kilometres), and the summit of Mount Chimborazo is the fixed point on Earth which is the greatest distance from the center. This is because of the shape of the Earth: the circumference around the Equator is greater than around the poles.
Everest Base Camp[change | change source]
"Everest Base Camp" is used to mean the two base camps on opposite sides of Mount Everest. South Base Camp is in Nepal at an altitude of 5,364 metres (17,598 ft) ( ). North Base Camp is in Tibet at 5,150 metres (16,900 ft) ( ). These camps are simple campsite shelters at the bottom (or base) of the mountain. They are used by mountain climbers during their journey up or down the mountain. Supplies are provided there and climbers rest, heal and make trip preparations.
Supplies are shipped to the South Base Camp by sherpas or porters, and with the help of animals, usually yaks. The North Base Camp has vehicle access (at least in the summer months). Climbers usually rest at base camp for several days for their bodies to get used to the thin air of high altitudes.
This reduces the risks and severity of altitude sickness.
Climate[change | change source]
Mount Everest has a "snowy and frigid" climate. Winds can speed up to 177 mph (285 km/h). The coldest month is January with a high of −74 °F (−59 °C) and the warmest month in mount everest is July with a high of −10 °F (−23 °C). Because of climate change, the glaciers around Mount Everest may disappear over the next few decades.
|Climate data for Mount Everest|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-36
History[change | change source]
A survey of India in 1856 recorded Everest. It was called Peak XV. This first published height was 8,840 m (29,000 ft). Everest was given its official English name in 1865 by the Royal Geographical Society.
British people began exploring the area around Mount Everest in 1921. The first expedition to try to climb to the top of Everest was in 1922. On June 8th, 1924, George Leigh Mallory and climbing partner Andrew Irvine tried to climb to the summit of Mount Everest. They disappeared into the fog and were not seen again until Mallory's dead body was found by Conrad Anker in 1999. To this day, no one is sure whether or not Mallory and Irvine made it to the summit before dying, 29 years before the next climbers would reach the summit.
Sherpas[change | change source]
Sherpas are the local people who live at the foot of Mount Everest and not the porters who carry the climbers' luggage. For the Sherpas, Mount Everest is a sacred mountain and before they climb Mount Everest they always do a sacrificial offering.
References[change | change source]
- Brooks, David (2008-01-11). "Edmund Hillary, first atop Everest, dead at 88". Sydney Morning Herald. http://news.smh.com.au/world/edmund-hillary-first-atop-everest-dead-at-88-20080111-1le3.html. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- Foster, Simon; Jen Lin-Liu; Sherisse Pham; Sharon Owyang; Beth Reiber; Lee Wing-Sze; Christoper D. Winnan (2010). Frommer's China. John Wiley & Sons, 2010. p. 5. ISBN 9780470526583. http://books.google.com/books?id=1DqjMGlyY5QC&pg=PA5&dq=Everest+base+camp+5150+m&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Cbp6T-4lrfnhBI2JuIcE&ved=0CEQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Everest%20base%20camp%205150%20m&f=false. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- Reynolds, Kev (2006). Everest - A trekker's guide. Cicerone Press Limited. p. 231. ISBN 978-1-84965-076-2. http://books.google.com/books?ei=q6Z6T5yQOeeG4gSphqSIBA&id=CKhgE0qgSHIC&dq=everest+base+camp+in+tibet+has+an+altitude+of&q=%22Base+Camp+%285150m%22#v=snippet&q=%22Base%20Camp%20(5150m%22&f=false. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- Buckley, Michael (2008). Shangri-La: A Travel Guide to the Himalayan Dream. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 165. ISBN 9781841622040. http://books.google.com/books?id=pwfpdmnfw7IC&pg=PA165&dq=Everest+base+camp+5150+m&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Cbp6T-4lrfnhBI2JuIcE&ved=0CEwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Everest%20base%20camp%205150%20m&f=false. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- Mayhew, Bradley; Bindloss, Joe (2009). Trekking in the Nepal Himalaya. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1741041880.
- "Most glaciers in Mount Everest area will disappear with climate change – study". The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/may/27/most-glaciers-in-mount-everest-area-will-disappear-with-climate-change-study. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "Monthly Average Coldest temperature on Everest Summit". topchinatravel.com/. http://www.topchinatravel.com/mount-everest/the-climate-of-mount-everest.htm. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "Geology: legends of fairies and dragons (Mountain goddess of Mount Everest)" (in German). Online Focus. http://www.focus.de/wissen/natur/geowissenschaft/tid-23256/geologie-legenden-von-feen-und-drachen_aid_653961.html. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
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