Mount Everest

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Mount Everest
Everest kalapatthar.jpg
Mount Everest as viewed from Kalapatthar
Highest point
Elevation8,848.86 m (29,031.7 ft) Edit this on Wikidata[1]
Ranked 1st
Prominence8,848.86 m (29,031.7 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Ranked 1st
(Notice special definition for Everest)
Isolation40,008 km (24,860 mi) Edit this on Wikidata
ListingSeven Summits
Country high point
Coordinates27°59′17″N 86°55′31″E / 27.98806°N 86.92528°E / 27.98806; 86.92528Coordinates: 27°59′17″N 86°55′31″E / 27.98806°N 86.92528°E / 27.98806; 86.92528[2]
Native name[
  • सगरमाथा (Sagarmāthā)
  • ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ (Chomolungma)
  • 珠穆朗玛峰 (Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng)
] Error: {{Native name}}: text has italic markup (help)  (language?)
Mount Everest is located in Province No. 1
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Location on the Province No. 1, Nepal – Tibet Autonomous Region, China border
Mount Everest is located in Nepal
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest (Nepal)
Mount Everest is located in Tibet
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest (Tibet)
Mount Everest is located in China
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest (China)
Mount Everest is located in Asia
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest (Asia)
LocationSolukhumbu District, Province No. 1, Nepal;[3]
Tingri County, Xigazê, Tibet Autonomous Region, China[4]
CountriesNepal and China
Parent rangeMahalangur Himal, Himalayas
First ascent29 May 1953
Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay
(First winter ascent 17 February 1980 Krzysztof Wielicki, Leszek Cichy)
Normal routesoutheast ridge (Nepal)

[5]Mount Everest [a] is the highest mountain on Earth. Mount Everest is in the Himalayas, a mountain range. It is about 8,848.00 metres (29,028.87 ft) high.[6]

Its peak is on the border of Nepal and China, and lies in the Death zone where the air is too thin for a human being to live, so usually compressed gas tanks with different gas mixes for different altitudes are used when climbing. The Death Zone refers to the parts of Mount Everest that are above 7,600 metres (24,900 ft) above sea level.

There are 18 climbing routes to the (top or) summit,[7] but most expeditions will only take one of two routes.

Other categories of highest mountain[change | change source]

Two other mountains also can be named as the "highest" mountains - the Hawaiian volcano Mauna Loa on Hawaii island is the highest mountain measured from the base underwater to the summit (more than 11 kilometres), and the summit of Mount Chimborazo is the fixed point on Earth which is the greatest distance from the center. This is because of the shape of the Earth: the circumference around the Equator is greater than around the poles.

Everest Base Camp[change | change source]

"Everest Base Camp" is used to mean the two base camps on opposite sides of Mount Everest. South Base Camp is in Nepal at an altitude of 5,364 metres (17,598 ft) (28°0′26″N 86°51′34″E / 28.00722°N 86.85944°E / 28.00722; 86.85944). North Base Camp is in Tibet at 5,150.00 meters (16,896.33 ft)[8][9][10] (28°8′29″N 86°51′5″E / 28.14139°N 86.85139°E / 28.14139; 86.85139 (North Base Camp)). These camps are simple campsite shelters at the bottom (or base) of the mountain. They are used by mountain climbers during their journey up or down the mountain. Supplies are provided there and climbers rest, heal and make trip preparations.

Short Rest on Everest Base Trail

South Base Camp is used when climbing up the southeast ridge. North Base Camp is used when climbing up the northeast ridge.[11]

Supplies are shipped to the South Base Camp by Sherpas or porters, and with the help of animals, usually yaks. The North Base Camp has vehicle access (at least in the summer months). Climbers usually rest at base camp for several days for their bodies to get used to the thin air of high altitudes.

This reduces the risks and severity of altitude sickness.

Climate[change | change source]

Mount Everest has a very cold and snowy climate. Winds can speed up to 177 mph (285 km/h). The coldest month is January with a high of −74 °F (−59 °C) and the warmest month in Mount Everest is July with a high of −10 °F (−23 °C). Because of climate change, the glaciers around Mount Everest may disappear over the next few decades.[12]

Climate data for Mount Everest
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) −36
Source: [13]

History[change | change source]


A survey of India in 1856 recorded Everest. It was called Peak XV. This first published height was 8,840 m (29,000 ft). Everest was given its official English name in 1865 by the Royal Geographical Society.

British people began exploring the area around Mount Everest in 1921. The first expedition to try to climb to the top of Everest was in 1922. On June 8th, 1924, George Leigh Mallory and climbing partner Andrew Irvine tried to climb to the summit of Mount Everest. They disappeared into the fog and were not seen again until Mallory's dead body was found by Conrad Anker in 1999.

The top of Mount Everest was first reached in May 1953 by the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary.

In March 2020, Nepal closed the mountain to climbing. This was part of the effort to stop the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[14][15]

Sherpas[change | change source]

Sherpas are the local people who live near the foot of Mount Everest. For the Sherpas, Mount Everest is a sacred mountain and before they climb Mount Everest they always do a sacrificial offering.[5]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Standard Tibetan: Chomolungma; Nepali: Sagarmāthā

References[change | change source]

  1. Based on the 1999 and 2005 surveys of elevation of snow cap, not rock head. For more details, see Surveys.
  2. The WGS84 coordinates given here were calculated using detailed topographic mapping and are in agreement with adventurestats Archived 2014-01-08 at the Wayback Machine. They are unlikely to be in error by more than 2". Coordinates showing Everest to be more than a minute further east that appeared on this page until recently, and still appear in Wikipedia in several other languages, are incorrect.
  3. Geography of Nepal: Physical, Economic, Cultural & Regional By Netra Bahadur Thapa, D.P. Thapa Orient Longmans, 1969
  4. The position of the summit of Everest on the international border is clearly shown on detailed topographic mapping, including official Nepalese mapping.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Geology: legends of fairies and dragons (Mountain goddess of Mount Everest)" (in German). Online Focus. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  6. Brooks, David (2008-01-11). "Edmund Hillary, first atop Everest, dead at 88". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  7. National Geographic (2015)
  8. Foster, Simon; Jen Lin-Liu; Sherisse Pham; Sharon Owyang; Beth Reiber; Lee Wing-Sze; Christoper D. Winnan (2010). Frommer's China. John Wiley & Sons, 2010. p. 5. ISBN 9780470526583. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  9. Reynolds, Kev (2006). Everest - A trekker's guide. Cicerone Press Limited. p. 231. ISBN 978-1-84965-076-2. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  10. Buckley, Michael (2008). Shangri-La: A Travel Guide to the Himalayan Dream. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 165. ISBN 9781841622040. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  11. Mayhew, Bradley; Bindloss, Joe (2009). Trekking in the Nepal Himalaya. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1741041880. Retrieved 2012-03-10.
  12. "Most glaciers in Mount Everest area will disappear with climate change – study". The Guardian. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  13. "Monthly Average Coldest temperature on Everest Summit". Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  14. "Mount Everest closes because of virus outbreak". BBC News. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  15. Young, Emile (16 March 2020). "The Everest Closure in Numbers: How the Sherpa Are Affected". Rock and Ice. Retrieved 20 March 2020.