West Nile virus
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus. It causes an infectious disease called "West Nile virus disease" or just "West Nile virus." WNV mainly infects birds, but it can also infect humans, horses, dogs, bats, cats, reptiles, and amphibians.
West Nile virus was first discovered in 1937, in the West Nile area of Uganda, in East Africa. (This is how the virus got its name.) However, before the 1990s, there were very few cases of WNV. Then there was an outbreak in Algeria in 1994 and another in Romania in 1996. By 2004, the virus had spread to North America, the Caribbean islands, and Latin America. It continues to spread through Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, Canada, and the United States. In 2012, one of the worst West Nile virus epidemics yet happened in the United States; 286 people died.
Signs and symptoms[change | change source]
West Nile virus can cause many different types of illness. The rarest, but most serious types affect the neurological system - the brain and the nerves. The most common type of illness caused by WNV is West Nile fever, which does not affect the neurological system.
West Nile fever[change | change source]
West Nile fever happens in about 20% of people with WNV. It causes a high fever and flu-like symptoms. Usually, the symptoms are not too bad, and get better after 3 to 6 days. Symptoms may include:
West Nile neuroinvasive disease[change | change source]
Neuroinvasive disease is when the West Nile virus infects the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). This happens in less than 1% of people who get West Nile virus. However, in those people, it can cause very serious problems. These problems include:
- West Nile encephalitis: Encephalitis is swelling in the brain. This can cause confusion, muscle weakness, paralysis, and loss of reflexes. This is the most common type of West Nile neuroinvasive disease.
- West Nile meningitis: Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the layers that protect the brain and spinal cord. People with meningitis usually have a bad headache, a high fever, and a stiff neck.
- West Nile meningoencephalitis: This is inflammation of both the brain and the meninges (encephalitis and meningitis).
- West Nile poliomyelitis: This causes the arms and legs on one side of the body to suddenly become weak or paralyzed. The person may not have any other symptoms of WNV infection. Sometimes, the breathing muscles can become paralyzed, and the person becomes unable to breathe.
- West Nile reversible paralysis: This also causes weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, but it almost always gets better.
Other complications[change | change source]
WNV can cause some other complications that do not affect the neurological system. These complications are very uncommon. They include:
- Sudden hepatitis and liver damage
- Rhabdomyolysis (muscle death)
- Cardiac arrhythmia (when the heart does not beat normally)
- Hemorrhagic fever with coagulopathy (a high fever with severe bleeding, which the body is unable to stop by clotting the blood). The bleeding can kill a person.
- Inflammation of the:
Diagnosis[change | change source]
At first, a medical professional usually makes a possible diagnosis of West Nile virus based on a person's symptoms, where they live, and when and where they have traveled. The World Health Organization says that doctors should suspect West Nile virus if a patient:
- Has a fever that started suddenly; and
- Has neurological symptoms; and
- Was recently bitten by mosquitoes.
West Nile virus can be diagnosed for certain by:
- Doing blood tests that look for the antibodies that the body makes to fight the West Nile virus (like Immunoglobulin M, or IgM)
- Testing cerebrospinal fluid by doing a lumbar puncture (spinal tap)
Treatment[change | change source]
There is no known treatment or cure for WNV. There are no known anti-viral medications (medicines which kill viruses) which will kill the West Nile virus. Doctors can only provide "supportive care," which means they can only treat the symptoms of WNV. For example, they can give fluids through a needle placed into a vein if a person is very dehydrated; help the person breathe if needed; and give medications to prevent them from getting any other infections.
Transmission[change | change source]
The West Nile virus stays alive in nature by getting spread back and forth between birds and mosquitoes. Birds get WNV more often than any other living things. When a mosquito bites a bird that has WNV, the mosquito gets the virus. Then, if the mosquito bites a bird that does not have WNV, the mosquito can give that bird the virus. In this way, birds and mosquitoes give the virus to each other and keep it alive.
Though this is not common, a person with West Nile virus can give another person the virus. This can happen if:
- Blood infected with WNV gets into a person's body
- A person gets a blood transfusion or an organ transplant from someone with WNV
- A woman with WNV is pregnant (she can give the virus to her fetus)
- A woman with WNV breastfeeds her baby
Prevention[change | change source]
There is no vaccine that will prevent West Nile virus. The best way for people to protect themselves against West Nile virus is to protect themselves against mosquitoes. There are many ways to do this. For example:
- Using bug spray, especially the type that has DEET in it
- Wearing long sleeves, long pants, socks, and hats
- Using a mosquito net over the bed when sleeping
- Putting bug spray on clothes, shoes, mosquito nets, bed sheets, and other things
- Staying in places that are air-conditioned or have good window and door screens
- Emptying out standing water (water that does not move) from things like buckets, gutters, and flowerpots (mosquitoes like to lay eggs in standing water)
- Being extra careful between evening and morning, when the mosquitoes that spread West Nile virus are most active
Scientists can trap mosquitoes and birds, and test them for West Nile virus to see if the virus is spreading in a certain area. If it is, they can do things like spray pesticides to kill mosquitoes.
Related pages[change | change source]
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to West Nile virus.|
About West Nile virus
- West Nile Information for Seniors (Simple English)
- West Nile Virus - U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) page
- Nature news article on West Nile paralysis
- Mosquito Bite Prevention (United States) (Simple English)
- Recommendations for Protecting Outdoor Workers from West Nile Virus Exposure
- Recommendations for Protecting Laboratory, Field, and Clinical Workers from West Nile Virus Exposure
- West Nile Virus Resource Guide—National Pesticide Information Center
- Vaccine Research Center (VRC)—Information about WNV vaccine research studies
For medical professionals
- Petersen LR, Marfin AA (6 August 2002). "West Nile virus: a primer for the clinician". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (3): 173–9. PMID 12160365. http://www.annals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12160365.
- Morse, Dale; International Conference on the West Nile Virus; White, Dennis (2001). West Nile Virus: Detection, Surveillance and Control (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, V. 951). New York, N.Y.: New York Academy of Sciences. ISBN 1-57331-375-0.
- Hubálek Z, Halouzka J (1999). "West Nile fever—a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe". Emerging Infect. Dis. 5 (5): 643–50. PMC 2627720. PMID 10511520. https://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/hubalek.htm.
- Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, et al. (June 2001). "The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (24): 1807–14. doi:10.1056/NEJM200106143442401. PMID 11407341. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/344/24/1807.
- Gene mutation turned West Nile virus into killer disease among crows
- West Nile Virus Genomes database search results from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center
References[change | change source]
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- Davis LE, DeBiasi R, Goade DE, etal (Sep 2006). "West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease". Ann Neurol 60 (3): 286–300. doi:10.1002/ana.20959. PMID 16983682.
- Flores Anticona EM, Zainah H, Ouellette DR, Johnson LE (2012). "Two case reports of neuroinvasive west nile virus infection in the critical care unit". Case Rep Infect Dis 2012: 839458. doi:10.1155/2012/839458. PMC 3433121. PMID 22966470.
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- Mojumder, D. K., Agosto, M., Wilms, H. (March 2014). "Is initial preservation of deep tendon reflexes in West Nile Virus paralysis a good prognostic sign?". Neurology Asia 19 (1): 93–97. PMC 4229851. PMID 25400704.
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- "2012 DOHMH Advisory #8: West Nile Virus" (PDF). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. June 28, 2012.
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- "West Nile Virus: Prevention & Control". CDC.gov. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. November 10, 2015.
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