|Anthem: Inno e Marcia Pontificale|
|Largest city||Vatican City|
Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone
11 February 1929
• Water (%)
0.44 km² (194th)
• 2005 est.
• Summer (DST)
Vatican City is an enclave of Italy surrounded by the city of Rome and is the smallest country in the world at 0.44 km². It was created as country on 11 February 1929, with the "Patti Lateranensi" (Lateran Agreement or Treaty), was signed by Benito Mussolini and Pope Pius XI and is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Head of State is the Pope, now Pope Francis, former cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, elected on 13 March 2013, after Pope Benedict XVI withdrew after 8 years of Papacy. It is also important for its culture and art. The Vatican's masterpieces are very well known in the world: St. Peter's Square, St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, the Vatican Museums and the Apostolic Palace, where the Pope lives. There are also hundreds of other sculptures and pictures.
The Pope used to rule the Papal States. This used to cover all of Central Italy. Popes had always tried to stop Italy becoming one country because they might lose their control of the Papal States. In 1861 Italy was unified under the King of Savoy, but Rome and Latium remained unconquered. Only on 20 September 1870 the Italian troops invaded and beat the Papal troops. Rome became capital of the new kingdom.
In 1929 Benito Mussolini decided to sign an agreement with the Holy See, called the Lateran Treaty, which created the Vatican State. Another treaty gave the Vatican money each year to compensate for the lost territories.
Politics and Government[change]
Society and Culture[change]
The state religion of the city is the Christian branch with largest membership, Roman Catholic Church.
Sciences and Technologies[change]
- Vatican City is a city-state
- Italian is commonly used.
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