Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

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Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

Lula da Silva in 2023
Lula in January 2023
President of Brazil
Assumed office
1 January 2023
Vice PresidentGeraldo Alckmin
Preceded byJair Bolsonaro
In office
1 January 2003 – 31 December 2010
Vice PresidentJosé Alencar
Preceded byFernando Henrique Cardoso
Succeeded byDilma Rousseff
National President of the Workers' Party
In office
15 July 1990 – 24 January 1994
Preceded byLuiz Gushiken
Succeeded byRui Falcão
In office
9 August 1980 – 17 January 1988
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byOlívio Dutra
Federal Deputy for São Paulo
In office
1 February 1987 – 1 February 1991
Personal details
Born
Luiz Inácio da Silva, vulgo Luladrão

(1945-10-27) 27 October 1945 (age 77)
Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil
Political partyPT (1980–present)
Spouse(s)
Children5
ResidenceSão Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil
EducationNational Service for Industrial Training
OccupationMetalworker, trade unionist
SignatureLula (Signature of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva)
WebsiteLula Institute

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born October 27, 1945) is a Brazilian politician and former trade union leader who is the current President of Brazil since January 1, 2023. He previously was president from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2010. He is a co-founder and member of the Workers' Party. He was a Federal Deputy for São Paulo from 1987 to 1991. He had run three times for president, until winning the presidency during his fourth campaign in 2002, when he was elected to replace Fernando Henrique Cardoso. He was re-elected in 2006 in a landslide victory.

In his first tenure as president, Lula created social programs including Bolsa Família and Fome Zero, which helped fight against poverty and the lower class citizens of Brazil. He also had an important role in international politics such as the nuclear program of Iran and climate change.[1] He helped lower deforestation in the Amazons. His second term became controversial because of many scandals, such as the Mensalão scandal. However, after leaving office, he was seen as one of the most popular presidents in Brazil's history and most popular leader of the world.[2][3] Lula is a popular figure in Brazilian politics and his ideas have been called Lulism.[4][5][6]

In early 2016, Lula was appointed Chief of Staff under his successor Dilma Rousseff, but his appointment was blocked because of federal investigations against him at the time.[7][8] In July 2017, Lula was convicted on charges of money laundering and corruption in a controversial trial, and sentenced to nine and a half years in prison.[9] After an unsuccessful appeal, Lula was arrested in April 2018 and spent 580 days in jail.[10][11][12] In 2021, his sentence was overturned by the Supreme Court of Brazil because his jail sentence was seen as politically motivated.[13]

Lula ran for president again in 2018, however dropped out after being charged for bribery. In May 2021, Lula said he would run for a third term in the 2022 general election, against the incumbent President Jair Bolsonaro. In October 2022 in the run-off election, Lula would beat Bolsonaro, winning 50.9% of the vote.

Early life[change | change source]

Lula was born in Caetés, Pernambuco to Aristides Inácio da Silva and Eurídice Ferreira de Melo. He was raised Roman Catholic.[14] Lula was raised in São Paulo. His family lived in poverty and his father died of alcoholism.[15]

He did not learn to read until he was ten years old[16] and quit school after the second grade to work and help his family.

He studied at National Service for Industrial Training to become a metalworker. He lost the little finger on his left hand at 19 in an accident, while working as a press operator.[17] It was because of this injury, he became more active in the labor unions and labour rights movement.[17][18]

Union career[change | change source]

Lula joined the labour movement when he worked at Villares Metals S.A.. He was elected in 1975, and reelected in 1978, as president of the Steel Workers' Union of São Bernardo do Campo and Diadema.

In the late 1970s, when Brazil was under military rule, Lula helped organize union activities, including major strikes. He was in jail for a month because under the military rule, his strikes were seen as illegal. Lula was awarded a lifetime pension after the fall of the military regime.[19]

Legislative career[change | change source]

On 10 February 1980, Lula co-founded the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) or Workers' Party. That same year, he became National President of the Workers' Party and was in this role until 1988. In 1982, he added the nickname Lula to his legal name.[20] In 1983, he helped found the Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT) union association.

In 1987, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies. During his time as a deputy, he helped write the country's post-military rule constitution. He also focused on agricultural land reform and for fixing the country's debt. He decided not to run for re-election in 1990. He became Workers' Party President again in 1990 and he left the role in 1994.

Early presidential campaigns[change | change source]

Lula first ran for President of Brazil in 1989 and lost the election to Fernando Collor de Mello. He ran for president again in 1994 and came in second place again, losing to Fernando Henrique Cardoso. He would lose to Henrique Cardoso again in 1998.

First presidency[change | change source]

In 2002, Lula was elected President of Brazil, beating José Serra in a landslide victory. In 2006, he was re-elected in another landslide victory, beating Geraldo Alckmin.

Lula created a housing aid program to fix housing problems and help people in poverty have homes.[21]

During Lula's first term, child hunger decreased by 46%. In May 2010, the UN World Food Programme (WFP) awarded Lula da Silva the title of "World Champion in the Fight against Hunger".[22] Lula also fixed the country's economy by fixing its debt,[23] and help make the economy strong enough for foreign banks to make investments and profits in Brazil again.[24]

His second term as president, focused on environmental issues and created protection programs on indigenous lands and stopped deforestation in the Amazons.[25] However, his second term was also controversial because of the Mensalão scandal, which said that Lula da Silva's party, the Workers' Party, had bribed Deputies to support and pass pro-Lula legislation.

When he left office, Lula da Silva was extremely popular, with many calling him Brazil's most popular president and the most popular politician in the world.[26]

2018 presidential campaign[change | change source]

Lula in 2015

In 2017, Lula announced he would run as the Workers' Party candidate for president again in the 2018 election.[27] His campaign was controversial and a target of attacks. In Paraná, a campaign bus was shot, and in Rio Grande do Sul, rocks were thrown at a Lula campaign bus.[28] Despite this, he was seen as the front-runner to win the election.[29]

While bribe charges against Lula were being held, the UN Human Rights Committee ruled on 17 August 2018 that it had requested the Brazilian government to allow Lula to be political and run for office.[30] Despite this, Lula was charged and was forced to withdraw his campaign.[31][32]

Bribe charges and release[change | change source]

On July 12, 2017, the former president was convicted at first instance of corruption (more specifically, the crime of passive corruption which in Brazilian criminal law is defined by the receipt of a bribe by a civil servant or government official) and money laundering and sentenced to nine years and six months in prison by judge Sérgio Moro.[33][34] This made him ineligible to run for president in the 2018 election, and he dropped out of the election.

In 2021, his sentence was overturned by the Supreme Court of Brazil and all charges were cleared and seen as politically motivated.[13]

Second presidency[change | change source]

2022 presidential campaign[change | change source]

In May 2021, Lula said he would run for a third term in the October 2022 general election, against the incumbent President Jair Bolsonaro.[35] He is seen as the front-runner to win the election and beat Bolsonaro. He was 17% ahead of Bolsonaro in a poll in January 2022.[36] In April 2022, Lula announced former São Paulo governor Geraldo Alckmin, who ran against him in the 2006 election, as his running mate.[37]

On 2 October 2022, Lula advanced to the run-off election on 30 October against President Bolsonaro.[38] Lula won 48.43% of the vote against Bolsonaro's 43.20%.[39]

Lula after being sworn-in on 1 January 2023

Lula was elected in the second round on 30 October, three days after his seventy-seventh birthday. He became the first president of Brazil elected to three terms and the first since Getúlio Vargas to serve in non-consecutive terms. He is also the first candidate to unseat an incumbent president.

Tenure[change | change source]

Lula was sworn in on 1 January 2023.[40][41] Lula said that his main goals were to fix the country's economy, democracy and education systems; fight against poverty; and push for more environmental policies.[42]

On 8 January 2023, supporters of Bolsonaro stormed and invaded the Praça dos Três Poderes in Brasília, taking over the offices of the Supreme Federal Court, National Congress of Brazil and the Palácio do Planalto.[43]

Personal life[change | change source]

Lula was married to Maria de Lurdes Ribeiro from 1969 until her death in 1971. He was later married to Marisa Letícia Lula da Silva from 1974 until her death in 2017. In 2022, he married Rosângela da Silva. Lula has five children.[44]

Health[change | change source]

In 2011, Lula, who was a smoker for 40 years,[45] was diagnosed with throat cancer. He underwent chemotherapy, leading to a successful recovery.[46]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Hemispheres" (PDF). Tufts. 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  2. "Lula leaves office as Brazil's 'most popular' president". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  3. "The Most Popular Politician on Earth". Newsweek. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  4. "Lula leaves office as Brazil's 'most popular' president". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  5. "The Most Popular Politician on Earth". Newsweek. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  6. "Lula's last lap". The Economist. 8 January 2009. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  7. "Brazil judge blocks Lula appointment to government". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 17 March 2016. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  8. "Justice Gilmar Mendes suspends Lula's nomination as Chief of Staff". Correio Braziliense (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  9. "Bolsonaro appoints judge who helped jail Lula to lead justice ministry". the Guardian. 2018-11-01. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 2021-01-22.
  10. Sergio Lima, Mario; Adghirni, Samy (5 April 2018). "Brazilian Judge Orders Arrest of Former President Lula". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  11. Lopes, Marina (5 April 2018). "Lula verdict plunges Brazil into political chaos ahead of presidential election". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 5 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  12. "Brazil's former president Lula walks free from prison after supreme court ruling". the Guardian. 2019-11-08. Archived from the original on 15 March 2021. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Lula: Brazil's ex-president cleared by Supreme Court". Reuters. 2021-03-08. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 2021-04-16.
  14. Feltrin, Ricardo (6 April 2005). ""Lula é um católico a seu modo", diz d. Cláudio Hummes". Folha de S.Paulo. Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
  15. Bourne, Lula of Brazil Archived 5 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  16. "Lula: Fourth time lucky?". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 28 October 2002. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". Encyclopdia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  18. "The long, strange political career of Brazil's Lula". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  19. Richard Bourne (19 October 2009). Lula of Brazil: The Story So Far. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520261556.
  20. Barrionuevo, Alexei (26 August 2012). "Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  21. Et Lula apporta l'eau et la lumière aux favelas, Chantal Rayes, 11 août 2007
  22. ¿Cuál es el balance social de Lula?, Geisa Maria Rocha, septiembre de 2010
  23. Parra-Bernal, Guillermo; Pimentel, Lester. "Brazil Became Net Creditor for First Time in January". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
  24. "Lula e o lucro recorde dos bancos" (in Portuguese). La Agencia Latinoamericana de Información – ALAI. 16 August 2007. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
  25. Reducing Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, 2003–2012, Princeton University, 2015
  26. "Lula's last lap". The Economist. 8 January 2009. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  27. "Após depoimento, Lula retoma caravana por Minas Gerais". Gazeta do Povo. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  28. "Ônibus da caravana de Lula no Paraná são atingidos por tiros". G1. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  29. "Lula tem 33%, Bolsonaro, 15%, Marina, 7%, e Ciro, 4%, aponta pesquisa Ibope". G1. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  30. France-Presse, Agence (2018-08-17). "UN: Brazil's jailed ex-president Lula can't be disqualified from election". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 2021-04-16.
  31. "Brazil electoral court bars Lula from presidential race". yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 1 September 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  32. correspondent, Tom Phillips Latin America; Phillips, Dom (11 September 2018). "Jailed leftwing leader Lula drops out of Brazil presidential race". Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018 – via theguardian.com.
  33. "Lula é condenado a nove anos de prisão". Veja (in Brazilian Portuguese). July 12, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  34. Brooks, Brad (July 12, 2017). "Brazil's Former President Found Guilty Of Corruption". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
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  36. Anthony Boadle (18 January 2022). "Brazil poll shows Lula gaining over Bolsonaro, third candidate 'embryonic'". Nasdaq. Reuters. Retrieved 19 January 2022. Brazil's former leftist President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva increased his lead to 17 percentage points over far-right President Jair Bolsonaro in a new survey of voter preferences ahead of an October election.
  37. "Brazil's Lula taps former rival as his pick for running mate". ABC News. Retrieved 2022-04-22.
  38. "Brazil's Lula and Bolsonaro face run-off after surprisingly tight result". Yahoo. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  39. "Resultados" (in Portuguese). TSE. Archived from the original on 2 November 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  40. "Análise das Eleições 2022: Veja Detalhes dos Resultados da Votação". noticias.uol.com.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  41. "Resultados – TSE". resultados.tse.jus.br. Archived from the original on 2 November 2022. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  42. "Conheça o programa de governo dos 12 candidatos à Presidência". R7.com (in Brazilian Portuguese). 15 August 2022. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  43. Nicas, Jack; Spigariol, André (8 January 2023). "Bolsonaro Supporters Lay Siege to Brazil's Capital". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  44. "Lula se casa com Janja em cerimônia em São Paulo". CNN Brasil. 18 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  45. Carroll, Rory (10 March 2010). "Lula stubs out smoking habit". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  46. "Brazil ex-President Lula diagnosed with throat cancer". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 29 October 2011. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2018.

Other websites[change | change source]