Prophets of Islam

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In Islam, Prophets and Messengers (in Arabic the words Nabi and Rasul are used), are people chosen by Allah (the God) to guide mankind, and their communities especially when they need it most and to bring them back to the path towards Allah.

According to the Quran, Allah has sent over 125,000 prophets to every nation and Muhammad was sent to convey Allah’s message to the idol-worshipping Arab tribes during his time and to convey the Quran for mankind to use and to learn from after his passing, and Muhammad was the last prophet.

Qur'an[change | change source]

There are many prophets in Islam, of them 25 prophets are mentioned by name in the Qur'an. These are:

  1. Adam (آدم)
  2. Idris (إدريس) (Enoch)
  3. Nuh (نوح) (Noah)
  4. Hud (هود) (Eber)
  5. Saleh (صالح) (Shelah)
  6. Ibrahim (إبراهيم)(Abraham)
  7. Lut (لوط) (Lot)
  8. Ismail (إسماعيل) (Ishmael)
  9. Ishaq (إسحاق) (Isaac)
  10. Ya'qub (يعقوب) (Jacob)
  11. Yusuf (يوسف) (Joseph)
  12. Ayub (أيوب) (Job)
  13. Shu'aib (شعيب) (Jethro)
  14. Musa (موسى)(Moses)
  15. Harun (هارون) (Aaron)
  16. Dul-Kifl (ذو الكفل) (Ezekiel)
  17. Dawud (داود) (David)
  18. Suleyman (سليمان)(Solomon)
  19. Ilyas (إلياس) (Elijah)
  20. Al-Yasa (اليسع) (Elisha)
  21. Yunus (يونس)(Jonah)
  22. Zakaria (زكريا)(Zechariah)
  23. Yahya (يحيى) (John the Baptist)
  24. Isa (عيسى) (Jesus)
  25. Muhammad (محمد)

Other prophets and/or chosen figures[change | change source]

Muslims believe in other prophets and/or chosen figures other than those mentioned by name in the Qur'an, such as: Joshua, Samson, Luqman, Caleb, Seth, Daniel, Isaiah, Hosea, Jeremiah, Shem, Benjamin, Khidr, and Dhu al-Qarnayn (traditionally believed to be a reference to Alexander the Great).[1][2][3]

Known prophets[change | change source]

Prophets and messengers named in the Quran[change | change source]

According to tradition, Prophets (Nabi) mentioned in the Quran are sometimes interchanged with the word Messengers (Rasul), but not all Prophets were Messengers.[4]

Prophets and messengers in the Quran
Chronologically Ordered Number Name Arabic


Equivalent Prophet



(rasūl)!! Book

Time when a prophet lived (event or years) Sent to Notes
1 Adam آدَم


Adam [5] [5] Birth of humanity as we know it Earth[6] First Prophet
2 Idris إِدْرِيس


Enoch [7] Babylon Tailor; inventor of the needle
3 Nuh نُوح


Noah [8] [9] Great Flood The people of Noah [10] Survivor of the Great Flood
4 Hud هُود


Eber [11] [11] ʿĀd tribe [12] Merchant
5 Saleh صَالِح


[13] [13] Thamud tribe [14] Camel breeder
6 Ibrahim إِبْرَاهِيم


Abraham [15] [16] Scrolls of Abraham[17] Migration to Iraq and spread of the message of Monotheism The people of Iraq [18] Builder of the Kaaba, Founder of Abrahamic Religions
7 Lut لُوط


Lot [19] [20] The people of Lot [21] Historian and traveler
8 Ismail إِسْمَاعِيل


Ishmael [22] [22] Mecca Founder of the Arabian people
9 Ishaq إِسْحَاق


Isaac [23] Jerusalem/Palestine Founders of the Israelite people; Isra’ill
10 Yaqub يَعْقُوب


Jacob [23]
11 Yusuf يُوسُف


Joseph [24] [25] Egypt Inventor
12 Ayyub أَيُّوب


Job [24] Edom Known for his patience
13 Shuʿayb شُعَيْب


Jethro [26] [26] Midian[27] Shepherd
14 Musa مُوسَىٰ


Moses [28] [28] Tawrah (Torah) Suhoof Musa (Scrolls of Moses)[29] ~1400s BCE-1300s BCE, or ~1300s BCE-1200s BCE Pharaoh and his establishment[30] Challenged the Pharaoh and spread the word of the Torah/Tawrat, Founder of Judaism
15 Harun هَارُون


Aaron [31] Pharaoh and his establishment Vizier
16 Dhul-Kifl ذُو ٱلْكِفْل


Debated, Ezekiel, Buddha,[32][33][34] Joshua, Obadiah[35] Isaiah.[35][36] [37] Iraq
17 Dawud دَاوُۥد \ دَاوُود


David [8] [8] Zabur (Psalms) [38] ~1000s BCE-971 BCE Jerusalem Spread the word of Psalms/Zabur
18 Sulayman سُلَيْمَان


Solomon [8] ~971 BCE-931 BCE Jerusalem Copperworker, third and last king of the United Monarchy; built the First Temple; Son of Dawud
19 Ilyas إِلْيَاس


Elijah [8] [39] The people of Ilyas [40] Silk weaver
20 Alyasa ٱلْيَسَع


Elisha [8] Samaria
21 Yunus يُونُس


Jonah [8] [41] The people of Younis[42] Swallowed by large fish
22 Zakariyya زَكَرِيَّا


Zechariah [8] Jerusalem Father of Yahya
23 Yahya يَحْيَىٰ


John the Baptist [43] Jerusalem
24 Isa عِيسَىٰ


Jesus [44] [45] Injil (Gospel) [46] ~4 BCE-~30 CE, or ~0-~30 CE The Children of Isra’ill[47] The Messiah, spread the word of the Gospel/Injil, Founder of Christianity
25 Muhammad مُحَمَّد


Muhammad [48][49] [50] Quran[51] 571-632 The Arab Tribes and mankind [52] Shepherd, Founder of Islam; Seal of the Prophets, spread the word of the Quran

Figures whose prophethood is debated[change | change source]

Figures whose prophethood is debated
Name Arabic


Equivalent Sent to Note
Daniyal دانيال


Daniel Babylon[53] Usually considered by Muslims to be a prophet, but he is not mentioned in the Qur'an, nor in Sunni Muslim hadith, but he is a prophet according to Shia Muslim hadith.[54][55]
Dhu Al-Qarnayn ذُو ٱلْقَرْنَيْن

(Ḏū al-Qarnayn)

Traditionally identified with Alexander the Great[2][56], while some modernists have identified him with Cyrus the Great[57], and others with Imru'l-Qays,[58] Messiah ben Joseph,[59] Darius the Great,[60] Oghuz Khagan[61]) The people he met on his travels[Quran 18:83-101] He appears in the Quran[Quran 18:83-101] as one who travels to east and west and erects a barrier between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj).[62]
Hizqil حزقيل


Ezekiel Iraq He is often identified as being the same figure as Dhul-Kifl,[63] Although not mentioned in the Qur'an by the name, Muslim scholars, both classical[64] and modernCite error: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content

have included Ezekiel in lists of the prophets of Islam.

Irmiya إرْميا


Jeremiah Palestine[65] He does not appear in the Quran or any canonical hadith, but his narrative is fleshed out in Muslim literature and exegesis, moreover some non-canonical hadith and tafsirs narrate that the Parable of the Hamlet in Ruins is about Irmiya.[66]
Khidr ٱلْخَضِر


Unknown, sometimes identified as Melchizedek, and sometimes equated with Elijah[67] The seas,[68] the oppressed peoples,[68] Isra’ill,[Quran 18:65-82] Mecca,[69] and all lands where a prophet exists[70] The Quran also mentions the mysterious Khidr (but does not name him), identified at times with Melchizedek (who is the figure that Abram accompanies on one journey). Although most Muslims regard him as an enigmatic saint, some see him as a prophet as well.
Maryam مَرْيَم


Mary Israel Some scholars regard Maryam (Mary) as a messenger and a prophetess, since God sent her a message through an angel and because she was a vessel for divine miracles. Islamic belief regards her as one of the holiest of women, but the matter of her prophethood continues to be debated.
Luqman لقمان


- Ethiopia[71][72] The Quran mentions the sage Luqman in the chapter named after him, but does not clearly identify him as a prophet. The most widespread Islamic belief views Luqman as a saint, but not as a messenger, however, other Muslims regard Luqman as a messenger as well. The Arabic term wali is commonly translated into English as "Saint". This should not be confused with the Christian tradition of sainthood.
Samuil صموئيل


Samuel Israel[73][74][74] Not mentioned by name, only referred to as a messenger/prophet sent to the Israelites and who anoints Saul as a king.[73][74]
Shith شيث


Seth Mankind[75] He is not mentioned in the Quran, but he is mentioned in Hadith, and is revered within Islamic tradition.
Talut طالوت


Traditionally identified with Saul,[76] while some have identified him with Gideon Israel[77] Some Muslims refer to Saul as Talut, and believe that he was the commander of Israel. Other scholars, however, have identified Talut as Gideon. According to the Qur'an, Talut was chosen by Samuel to lead them into war. Talut led the Israelites to victory over the army of Goliath, who was killed by Dawud (David).
Uzair عزير


Ezra Israel He is mentioned in the Quran,[78] but he is not specified to have been a prophet, although many Islamic scholars hold Uzair to be one of the prophets.[79][80]
Yusha يُوشَعُ


Joshua Israel[73][74] Yusha (Joshua) is not mentioned by name in the Quran, but his name appears in other Islamic literature and in multiple Hadith. In the Quranic account of the conquest of Canaan, Joshua and Caleb are referenced, but not named, as two men, on whom God "had bestowed His grace". Yusha is regarded by most scholars as the prophetic successor to Musa (Moses).

References[change | change source]

  1. Bietenholz, Peter G. (1994). Historia and fabula: myths and legends in historical thought from antiquity to the modern age. Brill. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-9004100633.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Stoneman 2003, p. 3.
  3. EI2, p. 127.
  4. Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 9780313360251. Retrieved 24 June 2015. all prophet are messengers but not all messengers are prophets.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Quran 2:31
  6. Quran 4:1
  7. Quran 19:56
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Quran 6:89
  9. Quran 26:107
  10. Quran 26:105
  11. 11.0 11.1 Quran 26:125
  12. Quran 7:65
  13. 13.0 13.1 Quran 26:143
  14. Quran 7:73
  15. Quran 19:41
  16. Quran 9:70
  17. Quran 87:19
  18. Quran 22:43
  19. Quran 6:86
  20. Quran 37:133
  21. Quran 7:80
  22. 22.0 22.1 Quran 19:54
  23. 23.0 23.1 Quran 19:49
  24. 24.0 24.1 Quran 4:89
  25. Quran 40:34
  26. 26.0 26.1 Quran 26:178
  27. Quran 7:85
  28. 28.0 28.1 Quran 19:51
  29. Quran 53:36"
  30. Quran 43:46
  31. Quran 19:53
  32. "The Prophets". Islam. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  33. "Buda'nın Peygamber Efendimizi bin yıl önceden müjdelediği doğru mudur?". Sorularla İslamiyet (in Turkish). 2015-01-26. Archived from the original on 2021-03-04. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  34. "Buda Peygamber mi?". Ebubekir Sifil (in Turkish). 2006-01-30. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Quran 38:48 -The Clear Quran Footnote: "Scholars are in disagreement as to whether Ⱬul-Kifl was a prophet or just a righteous man. Those who maintain that he was a prophet identify him with various Biblical prophets such as Ezekiel, Isaiah, and Obadiah."
  36. Yuksel, Edip; al-Shaiban, Layth Saleh; Schulte-Nafeh, Martha (2007). Quran: A Reformist Translation. United States of America: Brainbow Press. ISBN 978-0-9796715-0-0. Recall Ishmael, Elisha, and Isaiah; all are among the best. (38:48)
  37. Quran 21:85
  38. Quran 17:55
  39. Quran 37:123
  40. Quran 37:124
  41. Quran 37:139
  42. Quran 10:98
  43. Quran 3:39
  44. Quran 19:30
  45. Quran 4:171
  46. Quran 57:27
  47. Quran 61:6
  48. Page 50 "As early as Ibn Ishaq (85-151 AH) the biographer of Muhammad, the Muslims identified the Paraclete - referred to in John's ... "to give his followers another Paraclete that may be with them forever" is none other than Muhammad."
  49. Quran 33:40
  50. Quran 33:40
  51. Quran 42:7
  52. Surah Al-Anbiya 21:107
  53. Tabari, i, 665-668, 717
  54. A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B.M. Wheeler, Daniel
  55. "21. The Ethos of Prophet Daniel". 8 June 2015.
  56. Watt 1978, p. 127.
  57. Azad 1990, p. 205.
  58. Ball 2002, p. 97-98.
  59. Wasserstrom 2014, p. 61-62.
  60. Pearls from Surah Al-Kahf: Exploring the Qur'an's Meaning, Yasir Qadhi Kube Publishing Limited, 4 Mar 2020, ISBN 9781847741318
  61. "Oğuz Kağan Aslında Zülkarneyn Peygamber mi?". ON ALTI YILDIZ (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-02-09.
  62. Netton 2006, p. 72.
  63. Reisebeschreibung nach Arabian Copenhagen, 1778, ii. 264–266
  64. Ibn Kutayba, Ukasha, Tabari, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Ishaq, Masudi, Kisa'i, Balami, Thalabi and many more have all recognized Ezekiel as a prophet.
  65. Wensinck, A.J. 1913-1936.
  66. Tafsir al-Qurtubi, vol. 3, p. 188; Tafsir al-Qummi, vol. 1, p. 117.
  67. Al-Tabari (1991). The History of al-Tabari. Albany: State University of New York. p. 3.
  68. 68.0 68.1 M. C. Lyons The Arabian Epic: Volume 1, Introduction: Heroic and Oral Story-telling Cambridge University Press 2005 ISBN 9780521017381 p. 46
  69. Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.
  70. İmam Muhammed bin Muhammed bin Süleyman er-Rudani, Büyük Hadis Külliyatı, Cem'ul-fevaid min Cami'il-usul ve Mecma'iz-zevaid, c.5., s.18
  71. Ibn Kathir, Hafiz, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2000 (original ~1370)
  72. Al-Halawi, Ali Sayed, Stories of the Qurʼan by Ibn Kathir, Dar Al-Manarah
  73. 73.0 73.1 73.2 Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note 278 to verse 246: "This was Samuel. In his time Israel had suffered from much corruption within and many reverses without. The Philistines had made a great attack and defeated Israel with great slaughter. The Israelites, instead of relying on Faith and their own valor and cohesion, brought out their most sacred possession, the Ark of the Covenant, to help them in the fight. But the enemy captured it, carried it away, and retained it for seven months. The Israelites forgot that wickedness cannot screen itself behind a sacred relic. Nor can a sacred relic help the enemies of the faith. The enemy found that the Ark brought nothing but misfortune for themselves, and were glad to abandon it. It apparently remained twenty years in the village (qarya) of Yaarim (Kirjath-jeafim): I. Samuel, 7:2. Meanwhile, the people pressed Samuel to appoint them a king. They thought that a king would cure all their ills, whereas what was wanting was a spirit of union and discipline and a readiness on their part to fight in the cause of Allah."
  74. 74.0 74.1 74.2 74.3 Quran Search Engine, Ayat Search Samuel.Phonetic Search Engine. القرآن الكريم in Arabic, Urdu, English Translation Archived 2012-05-07 at the Wayback Machine Al-Baqara [2:247, 248 & 251]
  75. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidāya wa-n-nihāya
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  77. Quran 2:246
  78. Quran 9:30
  79. Ashraf, Shahid (2005). "Prophets 'Uzair, Zakariya and Yahya (PBUT)". Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions
  80. Ibn Kathir. "'Uzair(Ezra)". Stories Of The Quran.