Prophets of Islam
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Prophets in Islam (Arabic: الأنبياء في الإسلام, romanized: al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are those personalities whom Muslims consider to be chosen by Allah (God in Islam) to guide people. In Islamic terminology, they are called Nabi and Rasul or Mursal.
According to Islamic tradition, Allah has sent prophets to every nation. According to Islam , Muhammad was the only messenger sent to convey God's message to all mankind, and all other prophets were sent to one or more specific tribes or nations.
Judaism and Christianity , in contrast to Islam, the Prophet and Messenger of this is that, to obtain both divine revelation and the Holy Prophet (messengers) in the form of a book for a community of divine message was given, but not the Prophet who does not carry a book of Prophets. According to Islamic belief, the Prophets are the ones who are guaranteed by Allah to attain Paradise in the Hereafter.
Qur'an[change | change source]
There are 25 prophets mentioned in the Qur'an. These are:
- Adam (آدم)
- Idris (إدريس) (Enoch)
- Nuh (نوح) (Noah)
- Saleh (صالح) (Methuselah)
- Hud (هود) (Eber)
- Ibrahim (إبراهيم)(Abraham)
- Lut (لوط) (Lot)
- Ismail (إسماعيل) (Ishmael)
- Ishaq (إسحاق) (Isaac)
- Ya'qub (يعقوب) (Jacob)
- Yusuf (يوسف) (Joseph)
- Ayub (أيوب) (Job)
- Shu'aib (شعيب) (Jethro)
- Musa (موسى)(Moses)
- Harun (هارون) (Aaron)
- Dul-Kifl (ذو الكفل) (Ezekiel)
- Dawud (داود) (David)
- Suleyman (سليمان)(Solomon)
- Ilyas (إلياس) (Elijah)
- Al-Yasa (اليسع) (Elisha)
- Yunus (يونس)(Jonah)
- Zakaria (زكريا)(Zechariah)
- Yahya (يحيى) (John the Baptist)
- Isa (عيسى) (Jesus)
- Muhammad (محمد)
Other prophets[change | change source]
Muslims believe in other prophets other than those mentioned by name in the Qur'an as there are many verses in the Qur'an which speak about it. These other prophets include: Joshua, Luqman, Caleb, Seth, Daniel, Isaiah, Hosea, Jeremiah, Shem, Benjamin, Khidr, Dhul Qurnayn.
Known prophets[change | change source]
Prophets and messengers named in the Quran[change | change source]
|Chronologically Ordered Number||Name||Arabic
|Archprophet||Book||Time when a prophet lived (event or years)||Sent to||Law (Sharia)||Notes|
|Adam||✓ ||✓ ||Birth of humanity as we know it||Earth||First Prophet|
|Enoch||✓ ||Babylon||Tailor; inventor of the needle|
|Noah||✓ ||✓ ||✓ ||Great Flood||The people of Noah ||✓ ||Survivor of the Great Flood|
|Eber||✓ ||✓ ||ʿĀd tribe ||Merchant|
|✓ ||✓ ||Thamud tribe ||Camel breeder|
|Abraham||✓ ||✓ ||✓ ||Scrolls of Abraham||Migration of the Jews to Iraq||The people of Iraq ||✓ ||Builder of the Kaaba|
|Lot||✓ ||✓ ||The people of Lot ||Historian and traveler|
|Ishmael||✓ ||✓ ||Mecca||Founder of the Arabian people|
|Isaac||✓ ||Palestine||Founders of the Israelite people|
|Jacob||✓ ||Twelve Tribes of Israel|
|Joseph||✓ ||✓ ||Egypt||Inventor|
|Job||✓ ||Edom||Known for his patience|
|Jethro||✓ ||✓ ||Midian||Shepherd|
|Moses||✓ ||✓ ||✓ ||Tawrah (Torah) Suhoof Musa (Scrolls of Moses)||~1400s BCE-1300s BCE, or ~1300s BCE-1200s BCE||Pharaoh and his establishment||✓ ||Challenged the Pharaoh and lead the migration back to Israel|
|Aaron||✓ ||Pharaoh and his establishment||Vizier|
|Debated, Ezekiel, Buddha, Joshua, Obadiah Isaiah.||✓ ||Iraq||Identity still unknown|
|17||Dawud||دَاوُۥد \ دَاوُود
|David||✓ ||✓||Zabur (Psalms) ||~1000s BCE-971 BCE||Jerusalem||Military commander, second king of Israel|
|Solomon||✓ ||~971 BCE-931 BCE||Jerusalem||Copperworker, third and last king of the United Monarchy; built the First Temple; Son of Dawud|
|Elijah||✓ ||✓ ||The people of Ilyas ||Silk weaver|
|Jonah||✓ ||✓ ||The people of Younis||Swallowed by fish|
|Zechariah||✓ ||Jerusalem||Father of Yahya|
|John the Baptist||✓ ||Jerusalem||Was assassinated|
|Jesus||✓ ||✓ ||✓ ||Injil (Gospel) ||~4 BCE-~30 CE, or ~0-~30 CE||The Children of Israel||✓ ||The Messiah|
|Muhammad||✓ ||✓ ||✓ ||Quran||571-632||World||✓ ||Shepherd, merchant, founder of Islam; Seal of the Prophets|
Figures whose prophethood is debated[change | change source]
|Daniel||Babylon||Usually considered by Muslims to be a prophet, but he is not mentioned in the Qur'an, nor in Sunni Muslim hadith, but he is a prophet according to Shia Muslim hadith.|
|Dhu al-Qarnayn||ذُو ٱلْقَرْنَيْن
|Traditionally identified with Alexander the Great, while some modernists have identified him with Cyrus the Great, and others with Imru'l-Qays, Messiah ben Joseph, Darius the Great, Oghuz Khagan)||The people he met on his travels [Quran 18:83-101]||He appears in the Quran [Quran 18:83-101] as one who travels to east and west and erects a barrier between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj).|
|Ezekiel||Iraq||He is often identified as being the same figure as Dhul-Kifl, Although not mentioned in the Qur'an by the name, Muslim scholars, both classical and modern have included Ezekiel in lists of the prophets of Islam.|
|Jeremiah||Israel||He does not appear in the Quran or any canonical hadith, but his narrative is fleshed out in Muslim literature and exegesis, moreover some non-canonical hadith and tafsirs narrate that the Parable of the Hamlet in Ruins is about Irmiya.|
|Unknown, sometimes identified as Melchizedek, and sometimes equated with Elijah||The seas, the oppressed peoples, Israel, [Quran 18:65-82] Mecca, and all lands where a prophet exists||The Quran also mentions the mysterious Khidr (but does not name him), identified at times with Melchizedek, who is the figure that Abram accompanies on one journey. Although most Muslims regard him as an enigmatic saint, some see him as a prophet as well.|
|Mary||Israel||Some scholars regard Maryam (Mary) as a messenger and a prophetess, since God sent her a message through an angel and because she was a vessel for divine miracles. Islamic belief regards her as one of the holiest of women, but the matter of her prophethood continues to be debated.|
|-||Ethiopia||The Quran mentions the sage Luqman in the chapter named after him, but does not clearly identify him as a prophet. The most widespread Islamic belief views Luqman as a saint, but not as a messenger, however, other Muslims regard Luqman as a messenger as well. The Arabic term wali is commonly translated into English as "Saint". This should not be confused with the Christian tradition of sainthood.|
|Samuel||Israel||Not mentioned by name, only referred to as a messenger/prophet sent to the Israelites and who anoints Saul as a king.|
|Seth||Mankind||He is not mentioned in the Quran, but he is mentioned in Hadith, and is revered within Islamic tradition.|
|Traditionally identified with Saul, while some have identified him with Gideon||Israel||Some Muslims refer to Saul as Talut, and believe that he was the commander of Israel. Other scholars, however, have identified Talut as Gideon. According to the Qur'an, Talut was chosen by Samuel to lead them into war. Talut led the Israelites to victory over the army of Goliath, who was killed by Dawud (David).|
|Ezra||Israel||He is mentioned in the Quran, but he is not specified to have been a prophet, although many Islamic scholars hold Uzair to be one of the prophets.|
|Joshua||Israel||Yusha (Joshua) is not mentioned by name in the Quran, but his name appears in other Islamic literature and in multiple Hadith. In the Quranic account of the conquest of Canaan, Joshua and Caleb are referenced, but not named, as two men, on whom God "had bestowed His grace". Yusha is regarded by most scholars as the prophetic successor to Musa (Moses).|
To believe in God's messengers (Rusul) means to be convinced that God sent men as guides to fellow human beings and jinn (khalq) to guide them to the truth.
Purpose of the Prophet's coming on this Earth[change | change source]
The prophets were sent on this Earth for a purpose. That was to call every one towards the one who created the entire creation. To call everyone towards the one who hears all. The one who sees all. The one who forgives. The most important message was to worship Allah alone and to follow his teachings. All of them, Adam, Nuh, Ibrahim, Ishaaq, Ismail, Musa, Haarun, Dawood, Sulaymaan, Isa, Muhammad, and others invited people to worship Allah alone and not to pray to idols and other false gods. All of the prophets were an example to lead moral, righteous, purpose-driven lives free of doubts and confusions.
References[change | change source]
- Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 9780313360251. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
all prophet are messengers but not all messengers are prophets.
- Quran 2:31
- Quran 4:1
- Quran 19:56
- Quran 6:89
- Quran 26:107
- Quran 46:35
- Quran 33:7
- Quran 26:105
- Quran 42:13
- Quran 26:125
- Quran 7:65
- Quran 26:143
- Quran 7:73
- Quran 19:41
- Quran 9:70
- Quran 2:124
- Quran 87:19
- Quran 22:43
- Quran 6:86
- Quran 37:133
- Quran 7:80
- Quran 19:54
- Quran 19:49
- Quran 4:89
- Quran 40:34
- Quran 26:178
- Quran 7:85
- Quran 19:51
- Quran 53:36"
- Quran 43:46
- Quran 19:53
- "The Prophets". Islam. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
- "Buda'nın Peygamber Efendimizi bin yıl önceden müjdelediği doğru mudur?". Sorularla İslamiyet (in Turkish). 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
- "Buda Peygamber mi?". Ebubekir Sifil (in Turkish). 2006-01-30. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
- Quran 38:48 -The Clear Quran Footnote: "Scholars are in disagreement as to whether Ⱬul-Kifl was a prophet or just a righteous man. Those who maintain that he was a prophet identify him with various Biblical prophets such as Ezekiel, Isaiah, and Obadiah."
- Yuksel, Edip; al-Shaiban, Layth Saleh; Schulte-Nafeh, Martha (2007). Quran: A Reformist Translation. United States of America: Brainbow Press. ISBN 978-0-9796715-0-0.
Recall Ishmael, Elisha, and Isaiah; all are among the best. (38:48)
- Quran 21:85
- Quran 17:55
- Quran 37:123
- Quran 37:124
- Quran 37:139
- Quran 10:98
- Quran 3:39
- Quran 19:30
- Quran 4:171
- Quran 57:27
- Quran 61:6
- Page 50 "As early as Ibn Ishaq (85-151 AH) the biographer of Muhammad, the Muslims identified the Paraclete - referred to in John's ... "to give his followers another Paraclete that may be with them forever" is none other than Muhammad."
- Quran 33:40
- Quran 33:40
- Quran 42:7
- Surah Al-Anbiya 21:107
- Tabari, i, 665-668, 717
- A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B.M. Wheeler, Daniel
- "21. The Ethos of Prophet Daniel". 8 June 2015.
- Stoneman 2003, p. 3. sfn error: no target: CITEREFStoneman2003 (help)
- Watt 1978, p. 127. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWatt1978 (help)
- Azad 1990, p. 205. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAzad1990 (help)
- Ball 2002, p. 97-98. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBall2002 (help)
- Wasserstrom 2014, p. 61-62. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWasserstrom2014 (help)
- Pearls from Surah Al-Kahf: Exploring the Qur'an's Meaning, Yasir Qadhi Kube Publishing Limited, 4 Mar 2020, ISBN 9781847741318
- "Oğuz Kağan Aslında Zülkarneyn Peygamber mi?". ON ALTI YILDIZ (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-02-09.
- Netton 2006, p. 72. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNetton2006 (help)
- Reisebeschreibung nach Arabian Copenhagen, 1778, ii. 264–266
- Ibn Kutayba, Ukasha, Tabari, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Ishaq, Masudi, Kisa'i, Balami, Thalabi and many more have all recognized Ezekiel as a prophet.
- The greatest depth to the figure is given by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, in his commentary; his commentary's note 2743: "If we accept "Dhul al Kifl" to be not an epithet, but an Arabicised form of "Ezekiel", it fits the context, Ezekiel was a prophet in Israel who was carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar after his second attack on Jerusalem (about BCE 599). His Book is included in the English Bible (Old Testament). He was chained and bound, and put into prison, and for a time he was dumb. He bore all with patience and constancy, and continued to reprove boldly the evils in Israel. In a burning passage he denounces false leaders in words which are eternally true: "Woe be to the shepherds of Israel that do feed themselves! Should not the shepherds feed the flocks? Ye eat the fat, and ye clothe you with the wool, ye kill them that are fed: but ye feed not the flock. The diseased have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken ...... etc. (Ezekiel, 34:2–4)."
- Wensinck, A.J. 1913-1936.
- Tafsir al-Qurtubi, vol. 3, p. 188; Tafsir al-Qummi, vol. 1, p. 117.
- Al-Tabari (1991). The History of al-Tabari. Albany: State University of New York. p. 3.
- M. C. Lyons The Arabian Epic: Volume 1, Introduction: Heroic and Oral Story-telling Cambridge University Press 2005 ISBN 9780521017381 p. 46
- Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.
- İmam Muhammed bin Muhammed bin Süleyman er-Rudani, Büyük Hadis Külliyatı, Cem'ul-fevaid min Cami'il-usul ve Mecma'iz-zevaid, c.5., s.18
- Ibn Kathir, Hafiz, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2000 (original ~1370)
- Al-Halawi, Ali Sayed, Stories of the Qurʼan by Ibn Kathir, Dar Al-Manarah
- Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note 278 to verse 246: "This was Samuel. In his time Israel had suffered from much corruption within and many reverses without. The Philistines had made a great attack and defeated Israel with great slaughter. The Israelites, instead of relying on Faith and their own valor and cohesion, brought out their most sacred possession, the Ark of the Covenant, to help them in the fight. But the enemy captured it, carried it away, and retained it for seven months. The Israelites forgot that wickedness cannot screen itself behind a sacred relic. Nor can a sacred relic help the enemies of faith. The enemy found that the Ark brought nothing but misfortune for themselves, and were glad to abandon it. It apparently remained twenty years in the village (qarya) of Yaarim (Kirjath-jeafim): I. Samuel, 7:2. Meanwhile, the people pressed Samuel to appoint them a king. They thought that a king would cure all their ills, whereas what was wanting was a spirit of union and discipline and a readiness on their part to fight in the cause of Allah."
- Quran Search Engine, Ayat Search Samuel.Phonetic Search Engine. القرآن الكريم in Arabic, Urdu, English Translation Archived 2012-05-07 at the Wayback Machine Al-Baqara [2:247, 248 & 251]
- Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidāya wa-n-nihāya
- M. A. S. Abdel Haleem: The Qur'an, a new translation, note to 2:247.
- Quran 2:246
- Quran 9:30
- Ashraf, Shahid (2005). "Prophets 'Uzair, Zakariya and Yahya (PBUT)". Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions
- Ibn Kathir. "'Uzair(Ezra)". Stories Of The Quran.