Punjabi dialects and languages

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Punjabi languages
Ethnicity:Punjabi people[a]
Geographic
distribution:
Punjab, Hazara, Azad Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan
Linguistic classification:Indo-European
Subdivisions:

The Punjabi dialects and varieties refers to the linguistically classified groups of the Punjabi language such as its dialects and varieties, which are spoken around the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.[1] The Punjabi dialects and languages have been made into three groups:

  1. Central: This group is made of only one dialect: Majhi, and is spoken in the central areas of the Punjab region. It is between Western and Eastern Punjabi. The standard variety of Punjabi is based on this variety. It is mostly spoken in Majha region of Punjab, i.e. Amritsar, Lahore, Ferozpur etc.
  2. Eastern: This group consists of three dialects: Doabi, Malwai and Puadhi, and is spoken primarily in Punjab, India, as well as by partition migrants and their descendants in Pakistan.
  3. Western: Also known as Lahnda, this is the largest group of Punjabi dialects and varieties and includes: Saraiki, Hindko, Pahari-Pothwari, Jhangochi, Shahpuri, Dhani, Khetrani, etc. and is spoken primarily in Punjab, Pakistan, Hazara region and Azad Kashmir; as well as by partition migrants and their descendants in India.[2][3]

Related languages[change | change source]

Punjabi is a language derived from Sanskrit and Pali. Many varieties or dialects spoken in northern India and Pakistan, such as Dogri, Bilaspuri, Bhattiyali and Kangri are said to be related to Punjabi and even share mutual intelligibility, to some extent, with proper Punjabi varieties.[4]

Notes[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "The language environment of Hindko-speaking people". SIL International. 2022-09-15. Retrieved 2024-03-15.
  2. "Siraiki: Language or Dialect?". www.researchgate.net.
  3. Shackle, Christopher (2010). "Lahnda". In Brown, Keith; Ogilvie, Sarah (eds.). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. ISBN 9780080877754.
  4. https://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN9780195776928