Hindko

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Hindko
ہندکو پنجابی
ਹਿੰਦਕੋ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
Native toPakistan
RegionPunjab (Attock District), Hazara, Kohat, Peshawar
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5 million (2023)[1]
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Dialects
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Shahmukhi
Language codes
ISO 639-3hnd (Southern Hindko)
Map of the dialects of Punjabi

Hindko (ہندکو, pronounced [Hindkoŭ]; also spelled as Hindku or Hinko) is a Punjabi variety or group of dialects, spoken by about 5 million people in Pakistan.[2][3][4] Most of them live in Hazara (now a region of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), but there are also speakers in other parts of the province (such as Kohat and Peshawar). There are also speakers in Azad Kashmir and in north-western Punjab. Hindko is classified within Lahnda (Western Punjabi). Hazari is the most spoken dialect of the variety.

There is no proper, formal generic name for these people because they belong to diverse ethnicities and tend to identify themselves by the larger families, castes and tribes. However the people of the largest group in the districts of Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra are sometimes recognised collectively as Hazarawal, named after the Hazara Division that comprises these districts. In Peshawar city they are referred to as "Kharay" meaning City-dwellers or Hindkowans.

References[change | change source]

  1. Hindko at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. Shackle, Christopher (2010). "Lahnda". In Brown, Keith; Ogilvie, Sarah (eds.). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. ISBN 9780080877754.
  3. "Lahnda language | Punjabi, Saraiki & Hindko | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  4. Rahman, Tariq (2003). Language and politics in Pakistan (3. impr ed.). Karachi: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-19-577692-8.