|Native to||Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan|
|Native speakers||400,000 (date missing)|
Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali (چترالي) and Qashqari, is a language spoken by 223,000 people in Pakistan. It is also spoken in parts of Gilgit and Hunza. There are believed to be small numbers of Khowar speakers in China, Tajikistan and Istanbul. Khowar is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic sub-group of languages. It is also one of the oldest languages of the Dardic group.
Written Khowar[change | change source]
Khowar has been written in the Arabic Nastaʿlīq script since the early twentieth century. Before that the language was unwritten. Khowar has also been written in a version of Latin. Since 1996, Rahmat Aziz Chitrali working with the Khowar Academy created the Khowar Latin alphabet.
Literary associations of Khowar language[change | change source]
- Khowar Academy
- Arina language
References[change | change source]
- "Khowar; A Language of Pakistan". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/language/khw. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
- Farid Ahmad Raza (25 Janury 2012). "Khowar Language". The News Tribe. http://www.thenewstribe.com/2012/01/25/khowar-language/. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona, The Indo-Aryan Languages (London; Routledge, 2003), p. 843
- "Khowar (کھوار)". Omniglot. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/khowar.htm. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
Further reading[change | change source]
- Elena Bashir, (2001) Spatial Representation in Khowar. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
- Kendall D. Decker, (1992) Languages of Chitral ISBN 969-8023-15-1 http://www.ethnologue.com/show_work.asp?id=32850
- Erik L’Homme, (1999) Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l’ancien royaume de Chitral au Pakistan. Paris: L’Harmattan
- Georg Morgenstierne, (1936) Iranian Elements in Khowar. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
- Badshah munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher.Pakistan
- Georg Morgenstierne, (1947) Some Features of Khowar Morphology. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo.
- Georg Morgenstierne, (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S.K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84-98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267-72]
- Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) Khowar-English Dictionary. Peshawar. ISBN 0-923891-15-3.
- Rahmat Aziz Chitrali (1996), Guldasta-e-Rahmat Khowar (Chitrali) Humorous Poetry, Published by Khowar Academy (A Litrary Association for the promotion of Chitrali languages)