Khowar language

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Khowar (کهووار) is an Dardic language spoken in Chitral and parts of Gilgit such as Ghizer.

History[change | change source]

The history of khowar dates back 23,000 years ago it came into india it is consider a group of proto-baltic language with sanskrit and ancient greek words it came into india morethan 2300 years ago during 15th century many loanwords from other neighbour languages are added.

Loanwords[change | change source]

Khowar has many loanwords borrowing from Persian, Ghalchah and it contain Sanskrit and Ancient Greek words for example in persian the word neŝastan for sit in khowar neiŝe and neŝastan and noŝtan in khowar nevŝik for write.

During, 19 century many hindustani languages words are added to khowar like afas from aas which means hope ruphi from rukna which means to stop usna from uthana which means to lift up choghi from chori which means to theft.

More reading[change | change source]

  • Elena Bashir, (2001) Spatial Representation in Khowar. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
  • Kendall D. Decker, (1992) Languages of Chitral ISBN 969-8023-15-1
  • Erik L’Homme, (1999) Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l’ancien royaume de Chitral au Pakistan. Paris: L’Harmattan
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1936) Iranian Elements in Khowar. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
  • Badshah munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher.Pakistan
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1947) Some Features of Khowar Morphology. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo.
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S.K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84-98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267-72]
  • Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) Khowar-English Dictionary. Peshawar. ISBN 0-923891-15-3.