|Native to||Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan|
|Native speakers||290,000  (2016)|
It is also spoken in parts of Gilgit and Hunza. There are believed to be small numbers of Khowar speakers in Turkmenistan and Turkey. Khowar is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic sub-group of languages. It is also one of the oldest languages of the Dardic group.
History[change | change source]
The kho which means mountain and war means language in Khowar is belive spoken from 500 years in Chitral region. Many Indo-European language words are found in Khowar.
Phonology[change | change source]
Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically. The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar.
Tone[change | change source]
Khowar like many Dardic languages has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions.
References[change | change source]
More reading[change | change source]
- Elena Bashir, (2001) Spatial Representation in Khowar. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
- Kendall D. Decker, (1992) Languages of Chitral ISBN 969-8023-15-1 http://www.ethnologue.com/show_work.asp?id=32850
- Erik L’Homme, (1999) Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l’ancien royaume de Chitral au Pakistan. Paris: L’Harmattan
- Georg Morgenstierne, (1936) Iranian Elements in Khowar. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
- Badshah munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher.Pakistan
- Georg Morgenstierne, (1947) Some Features of Khowar Morphology. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo.
- Georg Morgenstierne, (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S.K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84-98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267-72]
- Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) Khowar-English Dictionary. Peshawar. ISBN 0-923891-15-3.