Khowar language

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Khowar
Native to

Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan,

Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Native speakers 400,000  (date missing)
Language family
Language codes
ISO 639-2 ine
ISO 639-3 khw

Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali (چترالي) and Qashqari, is a language spoken by 223,000 people in Pakistan.[1] It is also spoken in parts of Gilgit and Hunza. There are believed to be small numbers of Khowar speakers in China, Tajikistan and Istanbul. Khowar is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic sub-group of languages.[2] It is also one of the oldest languages of the Dardic group.[3]

Written Khowar[change | change source]

Khowar has been written in the Arabic Nastaʿlīq script since the early twentieth century.[4] Before that the language was unwritten.[4] Khowar has also been written in a version of Latin.[4] Since 1996, Rahmat Aziz Chitrali working with the Khowar Academy created the Khowar Latin alphabet.[4]

Literary associations of Khowar language[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Khowar; A Language of Pakistan". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/language/khw. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  2. Farid Ahmad Raza (25 Janury 2012). "Khowar Language". The News Tribe. http://www.thenewstribe.com/2012/01/25/khowar-language/. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  3. Danesh Jain; George Cardona, The Indo-Aryan Languages (London; Routledge, 2003), p. 843
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Khowar (کھوار)". Omniglot. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/khowar.htm. Retrieved 25 December 2015.

Further reading[change | change source]

  • Elena Bashir, (2001) Spatial Representation in Khowar. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
  • Erik L’Homme, (1999) Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l’ancien royaume de Chitral au Pakistan. Paris: L’Harmattan
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1936) Iranian Elements in Khowar. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
  • Badshah munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher.Pakistan
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1947) Some Features of Khowar Morphology. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo.
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S.K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84-98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267-72]
  • Rahmat Aziz Chitrali (1996), Guldasta-e-Rahmat Khowar (Chitrali) Humorous Poetry, Published by Khowar Academy (A Litrary Association for the promotion of Chitrali languages)