Khowar language

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Khowar, Arniya
Native to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Native speakers 290,000 [1]  (2016)
Language family
Language codes
ISO 639-2 ine
ISO 639-3 khw

Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali (چترالي) and Arniya, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic branch.[2][3]

It is also spoken in parts of Gilgit and Hunza. There are believed to be small numbers of Khowar speakers in Turkmenistan and Turkey. Khowar is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic sub-group of languages. It is also one of the oldest languages of the Dardic group.[4]

History[change | change source]

The kho which means mountain and war means language in Khowar is belive spoken from 500 years in Chitral region. Many Indo-European language words are found in Khowar.

Phonology[change | change source]

Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically. The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar.

Tone[change | change source]

Khowar like many Dardic languages has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions.

References[change | change source]

  1. Ethnologue
  3. "Khowar; A Language of Pakistan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  4. Danesh Jain; George Cardona, The Indo-Aryan Languages (London; Routledge, 2003), p. 843

More reading[change | change source]

  • Elena Bashir, (2001) Spatial Representation in Khowar. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
  • Kendall D. Decker, (1992) Languages of Chitral ISBN 969-8023-15-1
  • Erik L’Homme, (1999) Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l’ancien royaume de Chitral au Pakistan. Paris: L’Harmattan
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1936) Iranian Elements in Khowar. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
  • Badshah munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher.Pakistan
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1947) Some Features of Khowar Morphology. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo.
  • Georg Morgenstierne, (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S.K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84-98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267-72]
  • Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) Khowar-English Dictionary. Peshawar. ISBN 0-923891-15-3.