Apple Inc.

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Apple Inc.
Type Public
Industry Computer hardware, - software, - electronics and digital distribution (iTunes Store, App Store etc.)
When it was created 1 April 1976
People who started it Steve Jobs
Steve Wozniak
Ronald Wayne[1]
Headquarters Apple Campus, 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, CA  United States (headquarters)
Number of locations 361 Apple Retail Stores (since January 2012)
Area served Worldwide
Key people Tim Cook (CEO)
Arthur Levinson (Chairman)
Sir Jonathan Ive (SVP, Design)
Steve Jobs
Things made See under
Money earned Increase US$ 108.249 billion (FY 2011)[2]
Operating income Increase US$ 33.790 billion (FY 2011)
Net income Increase US$ 25.922 billion (FY 2011
Total assets Increase US$ 116.371 billion (FY 2011)
Total equity Increase US$ 76.615 billion (FY 2011)
Apple Store on Michigan Avenue in Chicago.

Apple is a multinational company that makes computer hardware, computer software, and mobile devices like mobile phones and music players. Apple calls its computers Macintoshes or Macs, and it calls its laptops MacBooks. Their popular line of mobile music players is called iPod, their smartphone line is called iPhone and their Tablet line is called iPad. Apple sells their products all around the world.[3] Apple Inc. used to be called Apple Computer, Inc., but Apple changed their name after introducing the original iPhone. [4]

Apple Inc. is a public company and trades on the NASDAQ under the stock ticker AAPL. On 19 March 2015, it became one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

History[change | change source]

Apple I (1976-1977) Logo

Apple was started in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.[5] Before they made the company, they sold "blue boxes", which had telephone buttons on them. People could use them to make telephone calls from pay phones without paying any money. It did this by pretending to be a telephone operator. The company's first product is now called the Apple I computer. They were almost ready to sell it, but a problem happened. Steve Wozniak was working for the computer company Hewlett-Packard, and the papers that said he could work there said he had to give everything he invented to the company before he could do what he wanted to do with it. He showed the first Apple I to the boss at Hewlett-Packard, but they did not want his computer. Wozniak was then free to do what he wanted to do with the Apple I. It began selling in 1976. In 1977, they made their second computer, called the Apple ID, which later became very successful compared to Apple I.

The Apple logo used from May 17, 1976 to August 26, 1999.

iPod[change | change source]

The fourth iPod Nano.

One of the most popular products made by Apple is the iPod. It was first sold in 2001, and Apple sold over 100 million in six years.[6] All iPods can play music with good quality. Recent iPod Touches have a high quality LED screens, can take and show good pictures, record, view and edit high definition videos, use the Internet for features such as e-mail, gaming, and blogging, record word and voice memos, and even get office work done. The latest iPod Touch is even made with a 64-bit architecture.

There are several different types of iPods:

iPod shuffle (4th generation)[change | change source]

  • iPod shuffle 2 GB - This model has no screen. Instead, it has a click wheel to control the music, and is very small. It is the cheapest iPod available. Playlists and Genius Mixes can now be synced to the iPod shuffle, but apart from that, it has only basic music playback functions, and also comes with the years old feature called VoiceOver. It comes in five different colors: silver, orange, pink, green, and blue. A polished stainless steel version is available, but only online. It can hold about 1,000 songs.[7]

iPod nano[change | change source]

  • iPod nano 8 GB - The 8GB could hold about 2,000 songs.[8] It was discontinued.
  • iPod nano 16 GB - Comes in space gray, purple, blue, silver, green, yellow, and pink. It can hold about 4,000 songs.[8]

iPod classic[change | change source]

  • iPod classic 160 GB - comes in black or silver. This is the chunkiest and most original looking iPod, but the best music holder. It can hold about 40,000 songs.[9]

iPod touch[change | change source]

  • iPod touch 8 GB - Apple announced the fifth generation iPod Touch in 2012, equipping it with a front and rear facing camera, a better display, a better processor for faster performance, and it has a thin new design. It can also run the latest operating system, iOS 9. This makes it a lot closer to the iPhone 5. The 8GB model is discontinued.
  • iPod touch 16 GB - has a multi-touch screen and looks much like the iPhone. It can be used to view high quality media and to use the Internet, using built-in Wi-fi. Some say it is like an iPhone without the phone. This model can hold about 4,000 songs, but was discontinued in September 2009, and was now put up again to replace the 8 GB in June 2013.
  • iPod touch 32 GB - This model can hold about 7,000 songs. It first went on sale in February 2008.[10]
  • iPod touch 64 GB - This model can hold about 14,000 songs.[10] It first went on sale in September 2009.

(PRODUCT) RED[change | change source]

The red iPod shuffle, iPod nano, and iPod touch models, and a few more products, are part of the "(PRODUCT) RED" program. This means that some of the profits from these iPods goes to the Global Fund to fight AIDS in Africa.[11]

Computers[change | change source]

Apple is most well known for computers. Computers by Apple run the OS X operating system, which is included with every new Mac.

Laptops[change | change source]

Desktops[change | change source]

  • Mac Mini (a very tiny, but fully functional computer that does not come with its own monitor, keyboard, or mouse. Used mainly for home and school)[15]
  • iMac (a computer where everything is built in behind the screen, designed for many uses, such as home, school, and professional (i.e.: Photoshop) use)[16]
  • Mac Pro (a very powerful, fast computer that does not come with its own monitor, for professional people who need fast computers, i.e.: movie editing)[17]

Software[change | change source]

Apple also makes software for their computers. Some of the software that Apple makes is:

  • iLife (a set of programs designed for everyday use) contains iMovie, a program for making movies, GarageBand, a program for making music, iPhoto, a program for organizing photos, iTunes, a program for organizing (and buying) music, iWeb (not sold or updated any more), a program for making web pages, and iDVD (also no longer sold or updated), a program to make DVDs. These programs are considered very simple to use.[18]
  • iWork (a set of programs for office work) contains Pages, a program for making documents and Keynote, a program for making slideshows, and "Numbers" for making spreadsheets.[19] These apps are available on Apple Mac computers, iPhones, iPads and iPod Touchs.
  • Professional program to make movies called Final Cut Pro, a program for music making called Soundtrack Pro, Motion, a program for high-quality moving graphics authorship, and DVD Studio Pro, a program used to make professional DVDs.[20]
  • Final Cut Express (a set of programs similar to Final Cut Pro, but simplified and cheaper)[21]
  • Aperture (for professional photographers to edit their photos, no longer supported or updated)[22]
  • Logic Studio (A set of programs where professionals can edit and produce audio)[23]
  • Logic Express (a set of programs similar to Logic Studio, but simplified and cheaper)[24]

Most computer users in the world use Microsoft Windows, the rival to Mac OS X. About 10% of computer users use Apple's Macintosh computers. It is not legal to run Apple's Mac OS X on a Windows computer. However, it is allowed to run Windows on modern Macintosh computers. Even though Apple makes their computers to run Mac OS X, they also make software that allows you to install Windows. This software is called Boot Camp.

Other Apple products[change | change source]

Apple TV[change | change source]

The Apple TV is a box that plugs into a TV. It can connect wirelessly to any computer that has the Apple program iTunes on it. The Apple TV can play music, and show photos or videos from iTunes on your TV. Apple recently released a newer version of the Apple TV. It is a heavily upgraded Apple TV and has an A8X CPU in it, has a new remote which has a multitouch touchpad, and includes Siri. It uses tvOS, a TV version of iOS.

iPhone[change | change source]

The iPhone is a phone, iPod, and more with a multitouch touch screen.[25] The newest iPhones released are the iPhone 6s and the iPhone 6s Plus The iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus,iPhone 6s and 6s Plus comes in 16GB, 64GB, and 128GB types, while previous ones had 16GB, 32GB, and 64GB. iPhone 5s is today only available in 16GB and 32GB models. The iPhone 6s and 6s Plus come in 4 colours, Space Grey, Silver, Gold, and Rose Gold. The iPhone 5S and iPhone 6/6 Plus comes in slate, silver, and gold colours. The iPhone 5c had the most colours, coming in five different colours: white, pink, blue, green, and yellow. The iPhone 5s is still available in an 16GB and 32GB version.[26] The iPhone is available on many cellular carriers around the world, including many American carriers such as Sprint, Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile.

iPad[change | change source]

The iPad is the first tablet computer by Apple Inc. It was introduced on 27 January 2010 and is similar to an iPod touch with a larger display. The newest iPad, the iPad Air, was released on 1 November 2013. It has a new design, a front and back camera, and a new Apple A7 processor with 64-bit architecture. It supports the latest operating system, iOS 9, on old models such as iPad 2.

Environment[change | change source]

Following several campaigns (for example, Green my Apple[27]), Apple has made their products greener. Recently, the new notebook line removed many toxins and improved the products battery life and recharge cycles.

Recent improvements[change | change source]

  • The new MacBook uses a very power efficient CPU, Intel Core M, and has a power efficient Retina display, and is slimmer than previous models, even the MacBook Air
  • The MacBook, MacBook Pro, and MacBook Air have highly recyclable aluminum and glass enclosures, mercury-free displays and arsenic-free display glass. The printed circuit boards, electrical components, mechanical parts, and internal cables are BFR-free and PVC-free.[28]
  • The MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, and the LED Cinema Display boast energy-efficient LED display technology. The MacBook LED backlit display uses 30% less power compared to conventional CCFL-backlit displays.[28]
  • Sleep-mode energy usage has decreased 93% between the first-generation and current-generation iMac. This is due to improvements in CPU power management and increased hardware efficiency.[29]
  • Between the fourth-generation iPod nano and the first-generation iPod nano, the packaging is 32% lighter and uses 54% less volume.[30]
  • Apple products are compliant with the European Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment, also known as the RoHS directive. Examples of materials restricted by RoHS include lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and PBB and PBDE flame retardants. Apple met many of the RoHS requirements long before the July 2006 deadline.[31] z

People[change | change source]

CEOs[change | change source]

  • 1977–1981: Michael Scott
  • 1981–1983: Mike Markkula
  • 1983–1993: John Sculley
  • 1993–1996: Michael Spindler
  • 1996–1997: Gil Amelio
  • 1997-2011: Steve Jobs (Interim CEO 1997–2000)
  • 2004, 2009, 2011-present: Tim Cook (Acting CEO during Steve Jobs' health issues; replaced Steve Jobs after he resigned)

Directors[change | change source]

  • Bill Campbell (CEO)|Bill Campbell, Chairman of Intuit Inc.
  • Millard Drexler, Chairman and CEO of J.Crew
  • Al Gore, Former Vice President of the United States
  • Steve Jobs, CEO and Co-founder of Apple; also a director of The Walt Disney Company
  • Andrea Jung, Chairman and CEO of Avon Products
  • Arthur D. Levinson, Chairman and CEO of Genentech
  • Jerry York, Chairman, President, and CEO of Harwinton Capital

Executives[change | change source]

  • Steve Jobs, Chairman of the Board
  • Tim Cook, Chief Executive Officer
  • Peter Oppenheimer, Chief Financial Officer
  • Philip W. Schiller, Senior Vice President of Worldwide Product Marketing
  • Jonathan Ive, Senior Vice President of Industrial Design
  • Bertrand Serlet, Senior Vice President of Software Engineering
  • Ron Johnson, Senior Vice President of Retail
  • Sina Tamaddon, Senior Vice President of Applications
  • Scott Forstall, Senior Vice President of iPhone Software
  • Bob Mansfield, Senior Vice President of Mac Hardware
  • Daniel Cooperman, General Counsel and Secretary

Employees[change | change source]

Since formation of the Apple Computer Company in 1977, Apple has employed over 75,000 people worldwide. The majority of Apple's employees have been located in the United States but Apple has substantial manufacturing, sales, marketing, and support organizations worldwide, with some engineering operations in Paris and Tokyo.

Apple employees include employees of companies Apple owns, and less important, but still relevant companies such as FileMaker Inc. and Braeburn Capital.

Controversy[change | change source]

Apple Corps has sued Apple Inc. many times for trademark infringement. In the first case, Apple Inc. agreed not to go into the music industry. Apple Corps believes this agreement was broken when Apple Inc. launched the iTunes Store, Apple's online music store.

The two companies had trouble in the past, over the use of the Apple name. They made a deal that Apple Computers would not act as a music company. When Apple Computer Inc. began to sell their iPod, and set up their iTunes music store, Apple Corps believed they had broken their agreement, and took them to court. Apple Computers won the case, but the two companies later worked out a new deal. This deal now means that the Beatles music is now on the iTunes store, whereas it was not there before. Apple Computers was then renamed as Apple Inc. because of their mobile technology business. Steve Jobs, then CEO of Apple, Inc., has said in the past that he loves music from The Beatles, which can be considered to be very [[ironic]. [32]

References[change | change source]

  1. Books and Authors: The Denver Post Archived 20 March 2012 at WebCite
  2. "2010 Apple Form 10-K". Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  3. Apple
  4. MacWorld
  5. Linzmayer, Ronald W. (1999). Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc.. No Starch Press. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20.
  6. Apple enjoys ongoing iPod demand, BBC News, 2006-01-18. Retrieved on 2007-04-27.
  7. Apple - iPod shuffle - Technical Specifications
  8. 8.0 8.1 Apple - iPod nano - Read the technical specifications
  9. Apple - iPod classic - Read the iPod classic technical specifications
  10. 10.0 10.1 Official Apple iPod touch specifications: Archived 16 June 2009 at WebCite
  11. (PRODUCT) RED at Apple Archived 23 April 2012 at WebCite
  12. Apple - Mac
  13. Apple - MacBook Pro Family - It’s never been more powerful
  14. Apple - MacBook Air - The ultimate everyday notebook
  15. Apple - Mac mini - Even more powerful. Even more affordable
  16. Apple - iMac - The ultimate all-in-one desktop computer Archived 20 October 2009 at WebCite
  17. Apple - Mac Pro - The fastest, most powerful Mac ever
  18. Apple - iLife - Do more with photos, movies, and music on a Mac
  19. Apple - iWork - Documents, spreadsheets, and presentations. The Mac way
  20. Apple - Final Cut Pro X - A revolution in creative editing Archived 3 January 2008 at WebCite
  21. Apple - Final Cut Pro X - A revolution in creative editing
  22. Apple - Aperture - Pro performance with iPhoto simplicity
  23. Apple - Logic Pro 9 - Everything you need to make great music
  24. Apple - Logic Pro 9 - Everything you need to make great music
  25. Apple - iPhone 4S - The most amazing iPhone yet Archived 3 January 2008 at WebCite
  26. Apple - iPhone 4S - Technical Specifications Archived 16 June 2009 at WebCite
  27. Information about the Green my Apple campaign
  28. 28.0 28.1 MacBook environmental report
  29. iMac environmental report
  31. Apple Environmental Reports
  32. [1] Steve Jobs iPhone Introduction (2007)

Other websites[change | change source]