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Esox lucius1.jpg
Northern pike (E. lucius)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Superorder: Protacanthopterygii
Order: Esociformes
Family: Esocidae
G. Cuvier, 1817
Genus: Esox
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Esox lucius
Linnaeus, 1758

Esox is a genus of fresh water fish. It is the only living genus in the family Esocidae. The oldest known example of Esox is the fossil Esox tiemani.[1] It dates to about 62 million years ago and was found in Alberta, Canada.[1] Esox are commonly called pike and pickerel. They are found in the northern parts of North America, Europe and Asia.[2] One species, Esox lucius, the Northern pike, is found in both Europe and North America.[2] Esox are large predatory fish with a long cylindrical body. They have a green color (various shades) with yellow eyes. Pike and pickerel share a forked tail fin and a large pointed head.[2] Their dorsal and anal fins are located far back on their bodies.[2] All species have very sharp teeth.

Species[change | change source]

Currently there are five species in the Esox family. The study of this family is not complete. There are several known hybrids between species which occur naturally.[3] The five species are:

Forage[change | change source]

All species of Esox are predatory feeders.[5] They eat other fish, small mammals and birds.[5] Pike will eat almost anything that doesn't eat them first.[6]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Joseph S. Nelson, Fishes of the World (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006), p. 205
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Lawrence M. Page; Brooks M. Burr, Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011), p. 60
  3. Pike: Biology and Exploitation ed. John Craig (London: Chapman & Hall 1996), p. 2
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Fishes of the Middle Savannah River Basin: With Emphasis on the Savannah , ed. Barton C. Marcy (Athens, GA; London: University of Georgia Press, 2005), p. 241
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mark Everard, Britain's Freshwater Fishes (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013), p. 94
  6. Vin T. Sparano, The Complete Outdoors Encyclopedia (New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Griffin, 2000), p. 482

Other websites[change | change source]