Livestock are domestic animals that are kept by people. Their uses are for meat, milking, wool, leather, or labor. Taking care of livestock is animal husbandry. Some types of livestock are: cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens. Chickens produce eggs; pigs produce meat; cattle, goats and sheep create milk, and sheep also create wool. Horses, cattle, camels, llamas, water buffalo, and other large animals do work for people, such as pulling wagons and other vehicles.
The breeding, keeping alive, and killing of livestock is called animal husbandry. Animal husbandry have been practiced by humans for a long time. There are different animal husbandry practices used by different cultures. It is an important part of the economy and culture of many countries.
Intensive animal farming, which is sometimes called "factory farming" is mostly used today. 99% of livestock in the US are now raised with intensive animal farming. Intensive animal farming increases the amount of things we can get from the livestock but it has also led to bad effects on animal welfare, the environment, and public health.
Etymology[change | change source]
History[change | change source]
Animal husbandry started when humans stopped hunting and gathering and settled in farming communities. Animals are domesticated when the way they breed and live are controlled by humans. After a long time, the way they act and the way they look like changes. Today, many farm animals cannot live in the wild.
The dog was domesticated in Europe and the Far East from about 15,000 years ago. Goats and sheep were domesticated between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia. Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near East and 6,000 BC in China. Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC. Cattle have been domesticated since approximately 10,500 years ago. Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC.
Some common livestock[change | change source]
|Image||Animal||Wild ancestor||Where it was domesticated||Uses|
|Horse||Tarpan||Mongolia||For riding, racing, carrying and pulling heavy things, meat, milk|
|Donkey||African wild ass||Africa||For carrying people and goods and working on the farm|
|Cattle||Eurasian auroch||Eurasia||For meat, milk and working on the farm|
|Zebu||Indian auroch||Eurasia||For meat, milk and working on the farm|
|Bali cattle||Banteng||Southeast Asia||For meat, milk and working on the farm|
|Yak||Wild yak||Tibet||For carrying goods, milk, meat and hide|
|Water buffalo||Wild water buffalo||India and Southeast Asia||For meat, milk and carrying people and their goods|
|Gayal||Gaur||India and Malaysia||For carrying people and goods and working on the farm|
|Sheep||Mouflon||Iran and Asia minor||For meat, milk and fleece|
|Goat||Bezoar ibex||Greece and Pakistan||For meat, milk and fleece|
|Reindeer||Reindeer||Eurasia||For working on the farm, milk, flesh and hide|
|Bactrian camel||Wild bactrian camel||Central Asia||For carrying people and their goods, milk, meat and racing|
|Arabian camel||Thomas's camel||North Africa and Southwest Asia||For carrying people and their goods, milk, meat and racing|
|Llama||Guanaco||Andes||For carrying goods and fleece|
|Domestic pig||Wild boar||Eurasia||Meat|
|Rabbit||European rabbit||Europe||As a pet and for meat|
|Guinea pig||Montane guinea pig||Andes||As a pet and for meat|
References[change | change source]
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- "USDA - National Agricultural Statistics Service - 2012 Census of Agriculture - List of Reports and Publications". www.nass.usda.gov. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
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- Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang (2010-04-27). "Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (17): 7686–7691. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912264107. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2867865. PMID 20404179.CS1 maint: PMC format (link)
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- Carr, Karen (2017-06-12). "Chicken history - Where are chickens from? India and China". Quatr.us Study Guides. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
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