|Directed by||Andrew Stanton|
|Produced by||Graham Walters|
|Screenplay by||Andrew Stanton
|Story by||Andrew Stanton|
|Music by||Thomas Newman|
|Editing by||David Ian Salter|
Walt Disney Pictures
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Pictures|
|Release date(s)||May 30, 2003|
|Running time||100 minutes|
Finding Nemo is a 2003 American computer-animated comedy film written and directed by Andrew Stanton, released by Walt Disney Pictures, and the fifth film produced by Pixar Animation Studios. It tells the story of the over-protective clownfish named Marlin (Albert Brooks) who, along with a regal blue tang named Dory (Ellen DeGeneres), searches for his captured son Nemo (Alexander Gould) in Sydney Harbour. Along the way, Marlin learns to take risks and let Nemo take care of himself. It is Pixar's first film to be released in cinemas in the northern hemisphere summer. The film was re-released for the first time in 3D on September 14, 2012, and it was released on Blu-ray on December 4, 2012. A sequel, Finding Dory, is currently in development, set to be released on November 25, 2015.
The film received extremely positive reviews and won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. It was the second highest-grossing film of the year, earning a total of $921 million worldwide. Finding Nemo is also the best-selling DVD of all time, with over 40 million copies sold as of 2006, and was the highest-grossing G-rated film of all time before Pixar's own Toy Story 3 overtook it. It is also the 22nd highest-grossing film of all time, as well as the 3rd highest-grossing animated film. In 2008, the American Film Institute named it the tenth greatest animated film ever made during their Top 10.
Plot[change | change source]
Two clownfish, Marlin and his wife Coral are admiring their new home in the Great Barrier Reef and their clutch of eggs that are due to hatch in a few days. Suddenly, a barracuda attacks them, leaving Marlin unconscious. Coral and all but one of their eggs are also eaten. Marlin names this egg Nemo, a name that Coral liked.
The movie next shows Nemo's first day of school. Nemo has a tiny right fin, because his egg was injured by the barracuda attack. This makes it difficult for him to swim. After Marlin embarrasses Nemo during a school field trip, Nemo disobeys his father and sneaks away from the reef towards a boat. So he gets captured by scuba divers. As the boat sails away, one of the divers accidentally knocks his diving mask into the water.
While trying to save Nemo, Marlin meets Dory, a good-hearted and optimistic Regal blue tang with short-term memory loss. While meeting three sharks on a fish-free diet, Bruce, a great white shark; Anchor, a hammerhead shark; and Chum, a mako shark, Marlin discovers the diver's mask that was dropped from the boat and notices an address written on it. However, when he argues with Dory and accidentally gives her a nosebleed, the scent of blood causes Bruce to lose control of himself and attempt to eat Marlin and Dory. The two escape from Bruce but the mask falls into a trench in the deep sea. During a hazardous struggle with an anglerfish in the trench, Dory realizes she is able to read the address written on the mask, which leads to Sydney, Australia, and manages to remember it. After receiving directions to Sydney from a large school of Silver moony, Marlin and Dory accidentally run into a bloom of jellyfish that nearly sting them to death; Marlin falls exhausted after the risky escape and wakes up to see a surf-cultured Green sea turtle named Crush, who takes Dory and him on the East Australian Current. In the current, Marlin shares the story of his journey with a group of young sea turtles who spread the story around the ocean.
Meanwhile, Nemo's captor - P. Sherman, a dentist - places him into a fish tank in his office on Sydney Harbour. There, Nemo meets a group of aquarium fish called the "Tank Gang", led by a crafty and ambitious moorish idol named Gill. The "Tank Gang" includes Bloat, a puffer fish; Bubbles, a Yellow tang; Peach, a starfish; Gurgle, a Royal gramma; Jacques, a pacific cleaner shrimp; and Deb, a Blacktailed humbug. The fish are frightened to learn that the dentist plans to give Nemo to his niece, Darla. She is infamous for killing a goldfish given to her previously by constantly shaking the bag. In order to avoid this fate, Gill gives Nemo a role in an escape plan, which involves jamming the tank's filter and forcing the dentist to remove the fish from the tank to clean it manually. The fish would be placed in plastic bags, at which point they would roll out the window and into the harbor. After a friendly pelican named Nigel visits with news of Marlin's adventure, Nemo succeeds in jamming the filter, but the plan backfires when the dentist installs a new high-tech filter.
While leaving the East Australian Current, Marlin and Dory get lost in the blooms of plankton and krill and are caught by a blue whale. Inside the whale's immense mouth, Marlin tries to escape while Dory talks with it in whale-speak. So, the whale carries them to Sydney Harbour and expels them through his blowhole. They are met by Nigel, who recognizes Marlin from the stories he has heard and rescues him and Dory from a flock of hungry seagulls by scooping them into his beak and taking them to the dentist's man's office. By this time, Darla has arrived and the dentist is prepared to give Nemo to her. Nemo tries to play dead in hopes of saving himself, and, at the same time, Nigel arrives. Marlin sees Nemo and mistakes this act for the actual death of his son. After a struggle, Gill helps Nemo escape into a drain through a sink.
Sad, Marlin leaves Dory and begins to swim back home. Dory then loses her memory and becomes confused, but meets Nemo, who has reached the ocean through an underwater drainpipe. Dory's memory is restored after she reads the word "Sydney" on a nearby drainpipe and, remembering her journey, she guides Nemo to Marlin. After the two joyfully reunite, Dory is caught in a fishing net with a school of grouper. Nemo bravely enters the net and directs the group to swim downward to break the net, reminiscent of a similar scenario that occurred in the fish tank earlier. The fish, including Dory, succeed in breaking the net and escape. After some days, Nemo leaves for school once more and Marlin who is no longer overprotective or doubtful of his son's safety, proudly watches Nemo swim away into the distance.
Back at the dentist's office, the high-tech filter breaks down and The Tank Gang escape into the harbor. But, they realize that they are trapped in the bags of water that the dentist put them into when cleaning the tank.
Cast[change | change source]
- Albert Brooks as Marlin, a clownfish, Nemo's father
- Ellen DeGeneres as Dory, a regal blue tang
- Alexander Gould as Nemo, a young clownfish, Marlin's son
- Willem Dafoe as Gill, a moorish idol
- Brad Garrett as Bloat, a pufferfish
- Allison Janney as Peach, a starfish
- Austin Pendleton as Gurgle, a royal gramma
- Stephen Root as Bubbles, a yellow tang
- Vicki Lewis as Deb (and her sister, "Flo", Deb's reflection), a four-striped damselfish
- Joe Ranft as Jacques, a Pacific cleaner shrimp
- Geoffrey Rush as Nigel, an Australian pelican
- John Ratzenberger as the school of Silver moony
- Andrew Stanton as Crush, a green sea turtle.
- Nicholas Bird as Squirt, a young sea turtle, Crush's son
- Bob Peterson as Mr. Ray, a spotted eagle ray, Nemo's school teacher
- Barry Humphries as Bruce, a great white shark
- Eric Bana as Anchor, a hammerhead shark, Bruce's sidekick
- Bruce Spence as Chum, a mako shark, Bruce's sidekick
- Jordy Ranft as Tad, a young yellow longnose butterflyfish
- Erica Beck as Pearl, a young flapjack octopus
- Erik Per Sullivan as Sheldon, a young seahorse
- Bill Hunter as Dr. Philip Sherman, the dentist who captured Nemo on a SCUBA diving trip
- LuLu Ebeling as Darla, Dr. Sherman's niece, known as a "fish-killer"
- Elizabeth Perkins as Coral, Marlin's wife and Nemo's mother
- Rove McManus as a crab
Reception[change | change source]
Finding Nemo currently holds a 99% fresh rating at Rotten Tomatoes with 100% by top critics, and an average of 89% on Metacritic. Roger Ebert gave the film four stars, calling it "one of those rare movies where I wanted to sit in the front row and let the images wash out to the edges of my field of vision." Broadway star Nathan Lane who was the voice of Timon the meerkat in The Lion King, said Finding Nemo was his favorite animated film.
The film's use of clownfish prompted mass purchase of the animal as pets in the United States, even though the movie portrayed the use of fish as pets negatively and suggested that saltwater aquariums are notably tricky and expensive to maintain. The demand for clownfish was supplied by large-scale harvesting of tropical fish in regions like Vanuatu.
At the same time, the film had a quote that "all drains lead back to the ocean" (Nemo escapes from the aquarium by going down a sink drain, ending up in the sea). Since water typically undergoes treatment before leading to the ocean, the JWC Environmental company quipped that a more realistic title for the movie might be Grinding Nemo. However, in Sydney, much of the sewer system does pass directly to outfall pipes deep offshore, without a high level of treatment (although pumping and some filtering occur). Additionally, according to the DVD, there was a cut sequence with Nemo going through a treatment plant's mechanisms before ending up in the ocean pipes. However, in the final product, logos for "Sydney Water Treatment" are featured prominently along the path to the ocean, implying that Nemo did pass through some water treatment.
The Australian Tourism Commission (ATC) launched several marketing campaigns in China and the USA in order to improve tourism in Australia, many of them utilising Finding Nemo clips. Queensland also used Finding Nemo to draw tourists to promote its state for vacationers.
On the 3-D re-release, Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly wrote that its emotional power was deepened by "the dimensionality of the oceanic deep" where "the spatial mysteries of watery currents and floating worlds are exactly where 3-D explorers were born to boldly go."
The 3-D re-release also prompted a retrospective on the film then nine years after its initial release. Stephen Whitty of the Newark Star-Ledger described it as "A genuinely funny and touching film that, in less than a decade, has established itself as a timeless classic," with Roger Moore of the McClatchy-Tribune News Service calling the movie "the gold standard against which all other modern animated films are measured."
Home media[change | change source]
Finding Nemo was released on DVD and VHS on November 4, 2003. The film was also released on DVD in a "Gold Edition", which came with a Finding Nemo stuffed toy character. The film had a home video release on both Blu-ray and Blu-ray 3D on December 4, 2012, with both a 3-disc and a 5-disc set.
Production[change | change source]
The inspiration for Nemo was made up of multiple experiences. The idea goes back to when director Andrew Stanton was a child, when he loved going to the dentist to see the fish tank, assuming that the fish were from the ocean and wanted to go home. In 1992 shortly after his son was born, he and his family took a trip to Six Flags Discovery Kingdom (which was called Marine World at the time). There he saw the shark tube and various exhibits he felt that the underwater world could be done beautifully in computer animation. Later, in 1997 he took his son for a walk in the park, but found that he was over protecting him constantly and lost an opportunity to have any "father-son experiences" on that day. In an interview with National Geographic magazine, he stated that the idea for the characters of Marlin and Nemo came from a photograph of two clownfish peeking out of an anemone:
"It was so arresting. I had no idea what kind of fish they were, but I couldn't take my eyes off them. And as an entertainer, the fact that they were called clownfish—it was perfect. There's almost nothing more appealing than these little fish that want to play peekaboo with you."
Also, clownfish are very colourful, but don't tend to come out of an anemone very often, and for a character who has to go on a dangerous journey, Stanton felt a clownfish was the perfect kind of fish for the character.
Pre-production of the film took place in early 1997. Stanton began writing the screenplay during the post-production of A Bug's Life. As such, it began production with a complete screenplay, something that co-director Lee Unkrich called "very unusual for an animated film." The artists took scuba diving lessons so they could go and study the coral reef. The idea for the initiation sequence came from a story conference between Andrew Stanton and Bob Peterson while driving to record the actors. Ellen DeGeneres was cast after Stanton was watching Ellen with his wife and seeing Ellen "change the subject five times before finishing one sentence" as Stanton recalled. There was a pelican character known as Gerald (who in the final film ends up swallowing and choking on Marlin and Dory) who was originally a friend of Nigel. They were going to play against each other as Nigel being neat fastidious while Gerald being scruffy and sloppy. However the filmmakers could not find an appropriate scene for them that didn't slow the pace of the picture down, so Gerald's character was minimized.
Stanton himself provided the voice of Crush the sea turtle. Stanton originally did the voice for the film's story reel, and assumed they would find an actor later. When Stanton's performance was popular in test screenings, Stanton decided to keep his performance in the film. Stanton recorded all his dialogue while lying on a sofa in co-director Lee Unkrich's office.
Crush's son Squirt was voiced by Nicholas Bird, the young son of fellow Pixar director Brad Bird. According to Stanton, the elder Bird was playing a tape recording of his young son around the Pixar studios one day. Stanton felt the voice was "this generation's Thumper" and immediately cast Nicholas.
Megan Mullally revealed that she was originally doing a voice in the film. According to Mullally, the producers were dissatisfied to learn that the voice of her character Karen Walker on the television show Will & Grace was not her natural speaking voice. The producers hired her anyway, and then strongly encouraged her to use her Karen Walker voice for the role. When Mullally refused, she was dismissed.
Finding Nemo shares many plot elements with Pierrot the Clownfish, a children's book published in 2002, but allegedly conceived in 1995. The author, Franck Le Calvez, sued Disney for infringement of his intellectual rights. The judge ruled against him, citing the color differences between Pierrot and Nemo.
To ensure that the movements of the fish in the film were believable the animators essentially took a crash course in fish biology and oceanography. They visited aquariums, went diving in Hawaii and received in-house lectures from an ichthyologist.
Box office[change | change source]
Finding Nemo earned $380,673,009 in North America, and $540,900,000 in other countries, for a worldwide total of $921,573,009. It is the second highest-grossing film of 2003, behind The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. In North America, outside North America, and worldwide, it was the highest-grossing Pixar film, up until 2010 when Toy Story 3 surpassed it.
Finding Nemo set an opening-weekend record for an animated feature, making $70,251,710 (first surpassed by Shrek 2). It became the highest-grossing animated film in North America ($339.7 million), outside North America ($528.2 million) and worldwide ($867.9 million), in all three occasions outgrossing The Lion King. In North America, it was surpassed by both Shrek 2 in 2004, and Toy Story 3 in 2010. After the re-release of The Lion King in 2011, it stands as the fourth highest-grossing animated film in these regions. Outside North America, it was surpassed by Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs, Toy Story 3, and Ice Age: Continental Drift. Worldwide, it now ranks third among animated films.
The film had impressive box office runs in many international markets. In Japan, its highest-grossing market after North America, it grossed $102.4 million becoming the highest-grossing Western animated film until it was out-grossed by Toy Story 3 ($126.7 million). Following in biggest grosses are the UK, Ireland and Malta, where it grossed £37.2 million ($67.1 million), France and the Maghreb region ($64.8 million), Germany ($53.9 million), and Spain ($29.5 million).
3D re-release[change | change source]
After the success of the 3D re-release of The Lion King, Disney and Pixar re-released Finding Nemo in 3D on September 14, 2012, with a conversion cost estimated below $5 million. For the opening weekend of its 3D re-release in North America, Finding Nemo grossed $16.7 million, debuting at the No. 2 spot behind Resident Evil: Retribution. From seven foreign markets, it earned a total of $5.1 million.
Accolades[change | change source]
Finding Nemo won the Academy Award and Saturn Award for Best Animated Film. It also won the award for best Animated Film at the Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards, the Las Vegas Film Critics Society Awards, the National Board of Review Awards, the Online Film Critics Society Awards, and the Toronto Film Critics Association Awards.
The film received many awards, including:
- Kids Choice Awards for Favorite Movie and Favorite Voice from an Animated Movie, Ellen DeGeneres.
- Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress, Ellen DeGeneres
Finding Nemo was also nominated for:
- Two Chicago Film Critics Association Awards for Best Picture and Best Supporting Actress, Ellen DeGeneres
- A Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy
- Two MTV Movie Awards for Best Movie and Best Comedic Performance, Ellen DeGeneres
In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten top Ten", the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres, after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Finding Nemo was acknowledged as the 10th best film in the animation genre. It was the most recently released film among all ten lists, and one of only three movies made after the year 2000, the others being The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring and Shrek.
Video game[change | change source]
A video game based on the film was released in 2003, for PC, Xbox, PS2, GameCube and GBA.
Sequel[change | change source]
In 2005, after disagreements between Disney's Michael Eisner and Pixar's Steve Jobs over the distribution of Pixar's films, Disney announced that they would be creating a new animation studio, Circle 7 Animation, to make sequels to the seven Disney-owned Pixar films (which consisted of the films released between 1995 and 2006). The studio had put Toy Story 3 and Monsters, Inc. 2 in development, and had also hired screenwriter Laurie Craig to write a draft for Finding Nemo 2. Circle 7 was subsequently shut down after Robert Iger replaced Eisner as CEO of Disney and arranged the acquisition of Pixar.
In July 2012, it was reported that Andrew Stanton is developing a sequel to Finding Nemo, with Victoria Strouse writing the script and a schedule to be released in 2016. However, the same day the news of a potential sequel broke, director Andrew Stanton posted a message on his personal Twitter calling into question the accuracy of these reports. The message said, "Didn't you all learn from Chicken Little? Everyone calm down. Don't believe everything you read. Nothing to see here now. #skyisnotfalling" According to the report by Hollywood Reporter published in August 2012, Ellen DeGeneres is in negotiations to reprise her role of Dory. In September 2012, it was confirmed by Stanton saying: "What was immediately on the list was writing a second Carter movie. When that went away, everything slid up. I know I'll be accused by more sarcastic people that it's a reaction to Carter not doing well, but only in its timing, but not in its conceit."
References[change | change source]
- "Finding Nemo (2003)". Box Office Mojo. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=findingnemo.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- Boone, Louis E.Contemporary Business 2006, Thomson South-Western, page 4 – ISBN 0-324-32089-2
- "Top 10 Animation". American Film Institute. http://www.afi.com/10top10/animation.html. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- "Finding Nemo 3D (2012)". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/finding_nemo_3d/. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- "Finding Nemo". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/finding-nemo. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- Finding Nemo Review– rogerebert.com
- American Film Institute (August 19, 2009). "Nathan Lane's Favorite Animated Movie? FINDING NEMO". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WzNVkgAy-r0. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- Jackson, Elizabeth (November 29, 2002). "Acquiring Nemo". The Business Report. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/busrpt/stories/s1000651.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-10.
- Corcoran, Mark (November 9, 2002). "Vanuatu – Saving Nemo". ABC Foreign Correspondent. http://www.abc.net.au/foreign/content/2004/s1239666.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-23.
- Company Warns of 'Grinding Nemo', FoxNews.com/AP, June 6, 2003.
- Sydney Water. "Coastal sewage treatment plants operated by Sydney Water". Sydney Water. http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsAndOperations/WastewaterTreatmentPlants/Coastal.cfm. Retrieved 2006-11-26.
- authorities hope ``Nemo" will lead Chinese tourists to Australia
- Mitchell, Peter (November 3, 2002). "Nemo-led recovery hope". The Age (Melbourne). http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/03/1054406187273.html. Retrieved 2006-10-23.
- Dennis, Anthony (February 11, 2003). "Sydney ignores Nemo". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/08/11/1060588323028.html?from=storyrhs. Retrieved 2006-10-23.
- Schwarzbaum, Lisa (15 September 2012). "Finding Nemo 3D". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20627138,00.html. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Whitty, Stephen. "Finding Nemo 3D review". nj.com. http://www.nj.com/entertainment/index.ssf/2012/09/finding_nemo_3d_review_pixar_p.html. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Moore, Roger. "'Finding Nemo' in 3D hits theaters". StarNewsOnline. http://www.starnewsonline.com/article/20120912/ENT/120919892?Title=Review-Finding-Nemo-in-3D-hits-theaters-. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Finding Nemo, 2004 DVD, commentary
- The Pixar Story by Leslie Iwerks, 2007 documentary
- Beautiful Friendship National Geographic magazine, January 2010
- Megan Mullally – Megan Mullally Dropped From Finding Nemo
- Aude Lagorce, 03.12.04, 9:17 AM ET. "French Court Denies Disney Ban". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/2004/03/12/cx_al_0312nemo.html. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- Lovgren, Stefan. "For Finding Nemo, Animators Dove Into Fish Study". National Geographic News. National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/05/0530_030530_findingnemo.html. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "Top Grossing Films of 2003". Boxofficemojo.com. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=2003&p=.htm.
- "Pixar". Boxofficemojo.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/franchises/chart/?id=pixar.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
- "WORLDWIDE GROSSES". Boxofficemojo.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/world/. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
- "Animation". Boxofficemojo.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/genres/chart/?id=animation.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
- "JAPAN ALL TIME OPENINGS". Boxofficemojo.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/intl/japan/opening/. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
- "Box Office Mojo International". Boxofficemojo.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/intl/. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
- Smith, Grady (October 4, 2011). "'Beauty and the Beast,' 'The Little Mermaid,' 'Finding Nemo,' 'Monsters, Inc.' get 3-D re-releases". Entertainment Weekly. http://insidemovies.ew.com/2011/10/04/disney-3d-beauty-beast-mermaid/. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- Segers, Frank (September 16, 2012). "Foreign Box Office: 'Resident Evil: Retribution' Rules Overseas, Grossing $50 Million in 65 Markets". Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/foreign-box-office-resident-evil-retribution-madagascar-3-ted-seth-mcfarlane-370653. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "Weekend Report: 'Resident Evil 5,' 'Nemo 3D' Lead Another Slow Weekend". Box Office Mojo. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=3526&p=.htm. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
- Awards for Finding Nemo (Retrieved on February 12, 2008)
- American Film Institute (2008-06-17). "AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres". ComingSoon.net. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=46072. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- Hill, Jim (August 7, 2005). "The Skinny on Circle Seven". http://jimhillmedia.com/editor_in_chief1/b/jim_hill/archive/2005/08/08/655.aspx. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Armstrong, Josh (March 5, 2012). "Bob Hilgenberg and Rob Muir on the Rise and Fall of Disney’s Circle 7 Animation". http://animatedviews.com/2012/bob-hilgenberg-and-rob-muir-on-the-rise-and-fall-of-disneys-circle-7-animation/. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- "‘John Carter’ Helmer Andrew Stanton Dives Back Into Animation With ‘Finding Nemo’ Sequel". Deadline.com.
- Kit, Borys (July 17, 2012). "Andrew Stanton to Direct Pixar's 'Finding Nemo' Sequel". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/andrew-stanton-pixar-finding-nemo-sequel-350267. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Stanton, Andrew. "@andrewstanton". Twitter. https://twitter.com/andrewstanton/status/225380771039420416. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- Rose, Lacey (August 21, 2012). "Ellen DeGeneres in Talks to Return for 'Finding Nemo' Sequel (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/ellen-degeneres-finding-nemo-sequal-pixar-364553. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Keegan, Rebecca (September 8, 2012). "Director Andrew Stanton looks back on 'John Carter's' rocky path". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/moviesnow/la-et-mn-john-carter-director-20120908,0,4090564,full.story. Retrieved September 8, 2012.