India is a country in southern Asia. With over 1.3 billion people, India is the most populous democracy in the world. It is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 8 union territories. All states, as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.
The state and union territory capitals are sorted according to no legislative and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where the executive government offices are located, the legislative capital is where the state assembly convenes, and the judicial capital is the location of the state or territorial High Courts. Union territories are marked with a dagger ().
List[change | change source]
|Administrative capitals||Legislative capitals||Judiciary capitals||Year capital was established||The Former capital|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair||Port Blair||Kolkata||1955||Calcutta (1945–1955)|
|Andhra Pradesh||Visakhapatnam||Amaravati ||Kurnool With high court benches in Visakhapatnam and Amaravati||1956||Kurnool (1953-1956)|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Silvassa||—||Mumbai||1945||Mumbai (1954–1961) |
|Daman and Diu||Daman||—||Mumbai||1987||Ahmedabad (1961–1963) |
|National Capital Territory of Delhi||New Delhi||New Delhi||New Delhi||1931||—|
|Himachal Pradesh||Shimla||Shimla (Summer)
|Jammu and Kashmir||Srinagar (Summer)
|Madhya Pradesh||Bhopal||Bhopal||Jabalpur||1956||Nagpur[e] (1861–1956)|
|Uttar Pradesh||Lucknow||Lucknow||Prayag raj||1938||—|
Explanatory notes[change | change source]
- Shilong was the joint capital of Assam and Meghalaya until 1971.
- Chandigarh is the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana, and is a Union Territory, separate from the two states.
- Raipur is the interim capital of Chhattisgarh. The town of Naya Raipur 17 km from Raipur is envisaged as the state's new capital.
- Panaji was the capital of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese.
- Nagpur was the capital of Central Provinces and Berar which was a province from 1861 until 1950. Central Province became the major constituent of Madhya Pradesh, after it was formed in 1950. Nagpur remained the capital of the new state. In 1956, Berar (Vidarbha) was separated from Madhya Pradesh, and merged with the Bombay State. Nagpur thus lost the status of a capital city. In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra.
- Mumbai / Bombay was the capital of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. Subsequently, Bombay State was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960.
- In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra. Although an official notification to this effect was only given in 1988. The India yearbook of the government of India still does not mention Nagpur, being either the second or winter capital of Maharashtra.
- Under the Nagpur pact, one of the preconditions for Vidarbha joining the state of Maharastra was that, at least one of the legislative sessions every year should be held in Nagpur. The winter session is held in Nagpur.
- Gangtok has been the capital of Sikkim since 1890. Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975.
- Chennai (Madras) was the capital of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Madras State in 1956. Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968.
- After the formation of Telangana, as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, both states will share Hyderabad as their common capital for ten years. The new Andhra Pradesh Capital City capital is going to be Amaravati, decided by the Andhra Pradesh government in April, 2016.
- Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.
Citations[change | change source]
- Library of Congress 2004.
- Sharma 2007, p. 49.
- "After 2200 Years, Amaravati Gets Back Power!". Gulte.com. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- Baruah 1999, p. xiii.
- Menon & Banerjea 2002, p. 5.
- Ring 1996, p. 288. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRing1996 (help)
- "Dharamshala Declared Second Capital of Himachal | Hill Post". www.hillpost.in. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
- Boland-Crewe & Lea 2002, p. 155.
- Kumāra 1998, p. 136.
- Kini 1974, pp. 34–35.
- Khandewale 1989, p. 21.
- Spate 1953, p. 200.
- Sati & Kumar 2004, pp. 9–10.
References[change | change source]
- Baruah, Sanjib (1999). India Against Itself: Assam and the Politics of Nationality. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3491-6. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Boland-Crewe, Tara; Lea, David (15 November 2002). Boland-Crewe, Tara; Lea, David (eds.). The Territories and States of India. Europa. ISBN 978-1-85743-148-3. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- "Country Profile: India" (PDF), Library of Congress Country Studies (5th ed.), Library of Congress Federal Research Division, December 2004, retrieved 30 September 2011
- Khandewale, Shrinivas Vishnu (1989). Industrial Area and Regional Resources: A Case Study of Nagpur Industrial Area. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-134-2. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Mathew, George (1995). Status of Panchayati Raj in the States of India, 1994. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-553-9. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Kini, N. G. S. (1974). The City Voter in India: A Study of 1967 General Elections in Nagpur. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-0-88386-524-8. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Kumāra, Braja Bihārī (1 January 1998). Small States Syndrome In India. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-691-8. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Kippen, James (2006). Gurudev's Drumming Legacy: Music, Theory, and Nationalism in the Mrdang Aur Tabla Vadanpaddhati of Gurudev Patwardhan. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5424-7. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Menon, N. R. Madhava; Banerjea, D. (2002). Criminal Justice India Series: Haryana, 2002. Allied Publishers in collaboration with National University of Juridical Sciences. ISBN 978-81-7764-518-7. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "Post-Independence Era", History of Andhra Pradesh, Government of Andhra Pradesh, archived from the original on 20 December 2013, retrieved 4 August 2012
- Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; Watson, Noelle; Boda, Sharon La; Schellinger, Paul (1 January 1996). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad; Kumar, Kamlesh (2004). Uttaranchal: Dilemma Of Plenties And Scarcities. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-898-3. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Sharma, B. K. (August 2007). Introduction to the Constitution of India (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-81-203-3246-1.
- Spate, Oskar Hermann Khristian (1953). The Changing Map Of Asia A Political Geography. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 15 August 2012.