List of state and union territory capitals in India

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India is a country in southern Asia. With over 1.3 billion people, India is the most populous democracy in the world. It is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 8 union territories.[1] All states, as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.[2] Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.

The state and union territory capitals are sorted according to no legislative and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where the executive government offices are located, the legislative capital is where the state assembly convenes, and the judicial capital is the location of the state or territorial High Courts. Union territories are marked with a dagger (†).

List[change | change source]

State or
union territory
Administrative capitals Legislative capitals Judiciary capitals Year capital was established The Former capital
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair Port Blair Kolkata 1955 Calcutta (1945–1955)
Andhra Pradesh Visakhapatnam Amaravati [3] Kurnool With high court benches in Visakhapatnam and Amaravati 1956 Kurnool (1953-1956)
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Itanagar Guwahati 1986
Assam Dispur Guwahati Guwahati 1975 Shillong[a] (1874–1952)
Bihar Patna Patna Patna 1912
Chandigarh Chandigarh[b]  — Chandigarh 1966  —
Chhattisgarh Naya Raipur[c] Raipur Bilaspur 2000  —
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Silvassa  — Mumbai 1945 Mumbai (1954–1961)
Panaji (1961–1987)
Daman and Diu Daman  — Mumbai 1987 Ahmedabad (1961–1963)
Panaji (1963–1987)
National Capital Territory of Delhi New Delhi New Delhi New Delhi 1931  —
Goa Panaji[d] Porvorim Mumbai 1961 Panaji (1961–1987)
Gujarat Gandhinagar Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1960 Ahmedabad (1960–1970)
Haryana Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966  —
Himachal Pradesh Shimla

Dharamshala (W/2nd)[7]

Shimla (Summer)


Shimla  1971


Bilaspur (1950–1956)
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1947  —
Jharkhand Ranchi Ranchi Ranchi 2000
Karnataka Bengaluru Bengaluru Bengaluru 1940 (Mysore)
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Kochi 1956
Lakshadweep Kavaratti Kavaratti Kochi 1956
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Bhopal Jabalpur 1956 Nagpur[e] (1861–1956)
Maharashtra Mumbai[f]
Nagpur (W/2nd)[g]
Mumbai (S+B)
Nagpur (W)[h]
Mumbai 1818
Manipur Imphal Imphal Imphal 1947  —
Meghalaya Shillong Shillong Shillong 1970  —
Mizoram Aizawl Aizawl Guwahati 1972  —
Nagaland Kohima Kohima Guwahati 1963  —
Odisha Bhubaneswar Bhubaneswar Cuttack 1948 Cuttack (1936–1948)
Puducherry Puducherry Puducherry Chennai 1954 Madras (1948–1954)
Punjab Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966
Rajasthan Jaipur Jaipur Jodhpur 1950  —
Sikkim Gangtok[i] Gangtok Gangtok 1890  —
Tamil Nadu Chennai[j] Chennai Chennai 1956  
Telangana Hyderabad[k] Hyderabad Hyderabad 2014  —
Tripura Agartala Agartala Agartala 1956  —
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Lucknow Prayagraj 1938  —
Uttarakhand Dehradun[l] Dehradun Nainital 2000  —
West Bengal Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata 1947  

Explanatory notes[change | change source]

  1. Shilong was the joint capital of Assam and Meghalaya until 1971.[4]
  2. Chandigarh is the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana, and is a Union Territory, separate from the two states.[5]
  3. Raipur is the interim capital of Chhattisgarh. The town of Naya Raipur 17 km from Raipur is envisaged as the state's new capital.
  4. Panaji was the capital of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese.[6]
  5. Nagpur was the capital of Central Provinces and Berar which was a province from 1861 until 1950.[8] Central Province became the major constituent of Madhya Pradesh, after it was formed in 1950.[8] Nagpur remained the capital of the new state.[9] In 1956, Berar (Vidarbha) was separated from Madhya Pradesh, and merged with the Bombay State. Nagpur thus lost the status of a capital city. In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra.[10]
  6. Mumbai / Bombay was the capital of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. Subsequently, Bombay State was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960.
  7. In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra.[10] Although an official notification to this effect was only given in 1988. The India yearbook of the government of India still does not mention Nagpur, being either the second or winter capital of Maharashtra.
  8. Under the Nagpur pact, one of the preconditions for Vidarbha joining the state of Maharastra was that, at least one of the legislative sessions every year should be held in Nagpur. The winter session is held in Nagpur.[11]
  9. Gangtok has been the capital of Sikkim since 1890. Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975.[12]
  10. Chennai (Madras) was the capital of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Madras State in 1956. Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968.
  11. After the formation of Telangana, as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, both states will share Hyderabad as their common capital for ten years. The new Andhra Pradesh Capital City capital is going to be Amaravati, decided by the Andhra Pradesh government in April, 2016.
  12. Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.[13]

Citations[change | change source]

  1. Library of Congress 2004.
  2. Sharma 2007, p. 49.
  3. "After 2200 Years, Amaravati Gets Back Power!". Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  4. Baruah 1999, p. xiii.
  5. Menon & Banerjea 2002, p. 5.
  6. Ring 1996, p. 288.
  7. "Dharamshala Declared Second Capital of Himachal | Hill Post". 20 January 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Boland-Crewe & Lea 2002, p. 155.
  9. Kumāra 1998, p. 136.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Kini 1974, pp. 34–35.
  11. Khandewale 1989, p. 21.
  12. Spate 1953, p. 200.
  13. Sati & Kumar 2004, pp. 9–10.

References[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]