Murmansk Oblast

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Flag of the Murmansk Oblast.
Coat of arms of the Murmansk Oblast.
Location of the oblast.

Murmansk Oblast (Russian: Му́рманская о́бласть, Murmanskaya oblast' ) is a federal subject in northwestern Russia. The administrative centre is Murmansk, where most of the population lives. The oblast has a population of 741,511.

History[change | change source]

Records show people first began to populate the area sometime between 8000 BC and 7000 BC.[1][2] The first permanent towns began to appear in the 15th century. These towns were mainly on the Tersky Coast. In the late 15th century, the area became part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. At the time, most of the economy was based on fishing.

Oblast divisions[change | change source]

The oblast is divided into six districts, six closed cities and six cities and towns under the oblast's control.

Districts[change | change source]

The six districts are: Kandalakshsky District, Kolsky District, Kovdorsky District, Lovozersky District, Pechengsky District, Tersky District.

Closed cities[change | change source]

The six closed cities are: Gadzhiyevo, Ostrovnoy, Polyarny, Severomorsk, Snezhnogorsk and Zaozyorsk.

These cities are controlled by the federal government. A "closed city" is a term for a city where residents need special permission to live there.

Cities and towns under the oblast's control[change | change source]

The six cities and towns under the oblast's control are: Murmansk, Apatity, Kirovsk, Monchegorsk, Olenegorsk and Polyarnye Zori.

These cities have their own oblast territory.

Climate[change | change source]

Most of the oblast is in the arctic circle, meaning in summer the sun is in the sky all day, while at night the sun never rises. The entire oblast also has a subarctic climate, with very cold winters, and short, warm summers. The area isn't as cold as other locations of the same longitude because of the effects of the North Atlantic Current. The current's influence also means that the northern coast is generally "warmer" than the southern central region.

Demographics[change | change source]

The native people of the area are the Sami, but they only make up 0.2% of the population today.

Below is a list of the largest cities in the oblast:

Rank City Population (2019) Coordinates
1 Murmansk 292,465 68°57′31″N 33°4′58″E / 68.95861°N 33.08278°E / 68.95861; 33.08278
2 Apatity 55,201 67°34′40″N 33°23′26″E / 67.57778°N 33.39056°E / 67.57778; 33.39056
3 Severomorsk 52,597 69°3′56″N 33°24′33″E / 69.06556°N 33.40917°E / 69.06556; 33.40917
4 Monchegorsk 41,482 67°56′35″N 32°53′31″E / 67.94306°N 32.89194°E / 67.94306; 32.89194
5 Kandalaksha 30,575 67°10′12″N 32°25′23″E / 67.17000°N 32.42306°E / 67.17000; 32.42306
6 Kirovsk 26,206 67°36′39″N 33°40′21″E / 67.61083°N 33.67250°E / 67.61083; 33.67250
7 Olenegorsk 20,697 68°8′33″N 33°15′27″E / 68.14250°N 33.25750°E / 68.14250; 33.25750
8 Polyarny 17,605 69°11′55″N 33°26′22″E / 69.19861°N 33.43944°E / 69.19861; 33.43944
9 Kovdor 16,435 67°34′12″N 30°28′26″E / 67.57000°N 30.47389°E / 67.57000; 30.47389
10 Zapolyarny 14,902 69°25′29″N 30°49′24″E / 69.42472°N 30.82333°E / 69.42472; 30.82333

Approximately 42% of the population adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church. Another 4.5% follow another form of Christianity. 1% of the population is Muslim, 12% are atheists and 28% are "spiritual but not religious."[3][4]

References[change | change source]

  1. В. Я. Шумкин. Этапы освоения Северо-Запада Европейской Арктики, 2015
  2. http://kae.rekvizit.ru/olen/olintr.htm Кольская археологическая экспедиция
  3. Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  4. 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.

Other websites[change | change source]