|His Excellency |
The President of France
|Emperor of the French|
|Reign||2 December 1852 –|
4 September 1870
|Predecessor||Monarchy re-created |
Louis Philippe I
as King of the French
|Successor||Monarchy abolished |
Louis Jules Trochu
as President of the Government of National Defense'’ Adolphe Thiers
|President of the French Republic|
|In office||20 December 1848 –|
2 December 1852
|Predecessor||Republic re-created |
as Chief of the Executive Power
|Born||20 April 1808|
Paris, French Empire
|Died||9 January 1873 (aged 64)|
St Michael's Abbey, England
|Spouse||Eugénie de Montijo|
|Issue||Louis Napoléon, Prince Imperial|
|House||House of Bonaparte|
|Father||Louis I of Holland|
|Mother||Hortense de Beauharnais|
Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (1808–1873) was the first President of the French Republic and the last monarch of France. Made president by popular vote in 1848, Napoleon III ascended to the throne on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of his uncle, Napoleon I's, coronation. He ruled as Emperor of the French until September 1870, when he was captured in the Franco-Prussian War.
Early life[change | change source]
Napoleon III, generally known as "Louis Napoléon" before he became emperor, was the son of Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoléon. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter by the first marriage of Napoleon's wife Josephine de Beauharnais. Louis-Napoléon was a second son and a replacement child. His older brother, Napoléon Charles Bonaparte, died at age four. During Napoleon I's reign, Louis-Napoléon's parents had been made king and queen of a French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland.
After Napoleon I's military defeats and deposition in 1815 and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France, all members of the Bonaparte dynasty were forced into exile. Louis Napoleon was quietly exiled to the United States of America, and spent four years in New York City. He also visited Central America. He secretly returned to France and attempted yet another coup in August 1840, sailing with some hired soldiers into Boulogne. In 1844, his uncle Joseph died, making him the direct heir apparent to the Bonaparte claim. Two years later, his father Louis died, making Louis-Napoléon the clear Bonapartist candidate to rule France.
Louis-Napoléon lived within the borders of the United Kingdom until the revolution of February 1848 in France deposed Louis-Philippe I and established a Republic. He was now free to return to France, which he immediately did.
Ruler of France[change | change source]
In 1848, he was elected President of France in a land slide victory. He won the election because of his popular name and French people hoped that he would return his uncle's glory. He used his rank as stepping stone to greater power. Finally in 1852, he crowned himself as Emperor Napoleon III and the Second French Empire was born. In 1856, Eugenie gave birth to a legitimate son and heir, Louis Napoléon, the Prince Impérial.
On 28 April 1855 Napoleon survived an attempted assassination. On 14 January 1858 Napoleon and his wife escaped another assassination attempt, plotted by Felice Orsini. Until about 1861, Napoleon's regime exhibited decidedly authoritarian characteristics, using press censorship to prevent the spread of opposition, manipulating elections, and depriving the Parliament of the right to free debate or any real power. His foreign policy included support for Maximilian I of Mexico.
A far more dangerous threat to Napoleon, however, was looming. France saw its dominance on the continent of Europe eroded by Prussia's crushing victory over Austria in the Austro-Prussian War in June–August 1866. To prevent Prussia under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck becoming even more powerful, Napoleon began the Franco-Prussian War. This war proved disastrous, and was instrumental in giving birth to the German Empire, which would take France's place as the major land power on the continent of Europe. In the 1870 Battle of Sedan Prussian forces captured the Emperor. The forces of the Third Republic deposed his government in Paris two days later.
Death[change | change source]
Napoleon spent the last few years of his life in exile in England, with Eugenie and their only son. The family lived at Camden Place Chislehurst (then in Kent), where he died on 9 January 1873. He was haunted to the end by bitter regrets and by painful memories of the battle at which he lost everything.
Napoleon was originally buried at St. Mary's, the Catholic Church in Chislehurst. However, after his son died in 1879 fighting in the British Army against the Zulus in South Africa, the bereaved Eugenie decided to build a monastery. The building would house monks driven out of France by the anti-religious laws of the Third Republic, and would provide a suitable resting place for her husband and son.
Legacy[change | change source]
An important legacy of Napoleon III's reign was the rebuilding of Paris under the supervision of Georges-Eugène Haussmann. One purpose was reduce the ability of future revolutionaries to challenge the government by blocking the small, medieval streets of Paris with barricades. However, the main reason for the complete transformation of Paris was Napoleon III's desire to modernize Paris based on what he had seen of the modernizations of London during his exile there in the 1840s.
Titles and styles[change | change source]
- 20 April 1808 – 9 July 1810: His Imperial and Royal Highness Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, Prince of Holland
- 20 April 1808 – 25 July 1846: His Imperial Highness Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, Prince Imperial of France
- 20 December 1848 – 2 December 1852: His Excellency Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic ("fr: Le Prince-President")
- 2 December 1852 – 4 September 1870: His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of the French
- 4 September 1870 – 9 January 1873: His Imperial Majesty the former Emperor of the French
References[change | change source]
- Edges of Experience: Memory and Emergence : Proceedings of the 16th International Congress for Analytical Psychology, ed. Lyn Cowan (Einsiedeln Switzerland: Daimon, 2006), p. 786
- Henry Walter De Puy, Louis Napoleon and the Bonaparte Family: Comprising a Memoir of Their (New York: C.M. Saxton, 1859), p. 60