List of tallest buildings
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This list of tallest buildings includes skyscrapers with continuously occupiable floors and a height of at least 350 m. Non-building structures, such as towers, are not included in this list (see list of tallest buildings and structures).
Historically, the world's tallest man-made structure was the ancient tomb - the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, which held the position for over 3,800 years until the construction of Lincoln Cathedral in England in 1311. Until the completion of the Washington Monument in 1884 the world's tallest buildings were Christian churches and cathedrals in Europe. The early skyscraper was pioneered in Chicago with the 138 ft (42.1 m) Home Insurance Building in 1885, forming the basis for which the United States would hold the position of the world's tallest building throughout the 20th century until 1998, when the Petronas Towers were completed. Since then only two buildings have held the title: Taipei 101 in 2004 and Burj Khalifa in 2010.
Ranking criteria and alternatives[change | change source]
The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world. The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft). However, the CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, and some buildings included within the lists in this article are not considered finished by the CTBUH.
- height to structural or architectural top;
- height to floor of highest occupied floor;
- height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009); and
- height to top of any part of the building.
Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, changes to which would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.
Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. This led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building (i.e. 40 Wall Street) employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.
Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor, at 255 m (837 ft). They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (98 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.
Tallest buildings in the world[change | change source]
As of 2020[update], this list includes all 75 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,150 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Of these, 37 are in China. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center at 417 metres (1,368 ft) after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the twin towers had not been destroyed and One World Trade Center never built, the WTC towers would rank 34 and 35 on the list today.
|bold||Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world|
|1||Burj Khalifa||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||828||2,717||163||2010|
|2||Shanghai Tower||Shanghai||China||632||2,073||128||2015||The tallest twisted building.|
|3||Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||601||1,971||120||2012||Tallest building with a clock face.|
|4||Ping An Finance Center||Shenzhen||China||599||1,965||115||2017||Shares the record of the highest observation deck with Shanghai Tower (#2) at 562 m.|
|5||Lotte World Tower||Seoul||South Korea||554.5||1,819||123||2016|
|6||One World Trade Center||New York City||United States||541.3||1,776||104||2014|
|7||Guangzhou CTF Finance Center||Guangzhou||China||530||1,739||111||2016|
|8||Tianjin CTF Finance Center||Tianjin||530||1,739||98||2018|
|10||Taipei 101||Taipei||Taiwan||508||1,667||101||2004||The world's tallest building from 2004 to 2010.|
|11||Shanghai World Financial Center||Shanghai||China||492||1,614||101||2008||Was the tallest building in China until the completion of the adjacent Shanghai Tower.|
|12||International Commerce Centre||Hong Kong||484||1,588||118||2010|
|13||Central Park Tower||New York City||United States||472||1,550||98||2020||Tallest residential building in the world. Topped out in September 2019.|
|14||Lakhta Center||Saint Petersburg||Russia||462||1,516||86||2018||Tallest building in Europe since 2018.|
|15||Landmark 81||Ho Chi Minh City||Vietnam||461.2||1,513||81||2018|
|16||Changsha IFS Tower T1||Changsha||China||452.1||1,483||88||2017|
|17||Petronas Tower 1||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||451.9||1,483||88||1998||Tallest twin towers in the world; were the world's tallest buildings upon completion in 1998, and the first tallest building since 1908 outside of the United States.|
|Petronas Tower 2|
|21||The Exchange 106||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||445.1||1,460||97||2018|
|22||Willis Tower||Chicago||United States||442.1||1,450||108||1974||Formerly known, and still commonly referred to, as the Sears Tower. It was the tallest building in the world from 1974 until 1998.|
|24||Guangzhou International Finance Center||Guangzhou||440||1,440||103||2010|
|26||111 West 57th Street||New York City||United States||435.3||1,428||82||2019|
|28||Dongguan International Trade Center 1||Dongguan||China||426.9||1,401||88||2019|
|29||432 Park Avenue||New York City||United States||425.5||1,396||88||2015||Third-tallest residential building in the world.|
|30||Marina 101||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||425||1,394||101|
|31||Trump International Hotel and Tower||Chicago||United States||423.2||1,388||98||2009|
|32||Jin Mao Tower||Shanghai||China||421||1,380||88||1999|
|33||Princess Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||414||1,358||101||2012|
|34||Al Hamra Tower||Kuwait City||Kuwait||412.6||1,354||80||2011|
|35||International Finance Centre||Hong Kong||China||412||1,352||88||2003|
|36||Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower||Busan||South Korea||411.6||1,352||101||2019|
|37||Nanning China Resources Tower||Nanning||China||402.7||1,321||85||2018|
|39||Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1||Guiyang||China||401||1,316||79||2021|
|39||China Resources Headquarters||Shenzhen||China||392.5||1,288||67||2017|
|40||23 Marina||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||392.4||1,287||89||2012|
|42||Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1||Shenzhen||388.1||1,273||80||2017|
|43||30 Hudson Yards||New York City||United States||386.6||1,268||73||2018|
|44||Capital Market Authority Headquarters||Riyadh||Saudi Arabia||385||1,263||77||2016|
|45||Shun Hing Square||Shenzhen||China||384||1,260||69||1996|
|46||Eton Place Dalian Tower 1||Dalian||383||1,257||81||2015|
|47||Logan Century Center 1||Nanning||381.3||1,251||82||2017|
|48||Burj Mohammed bin Rashid||Abu Dhabi||United Arab Emirates||381.2||1,251||88||2014|
|49||Empire State Building||New York City||United States||381||1,250||102||1931||Tallest building in the world from 1931 until 1972; tallest man-made structure in the world from 1931 to 1967; first building in the world to contain over 100 floors|
|50||Elite Residence||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||380.5||1,248||87||2012|
|52||Central Plaza||Hong Kong||373.9||1,226||78||1992|
|53||Federation Tower (East Tower)||Moscow||Russia||373.7||1,226||95||2016|
|54||Dalian International Trade Center||Dalian||China||370.2||1,214||86||2018|
|55||Address Boulevard||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||370||1,214||72||2017|
|56||Haitian Center Tower 2 ||Qingdao||China||369||1,211||72||2020|
|57||Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A||Nanjing||368.1||1,208||76||2018|
|58||Bank of China Tower||Hong Kong||367||1,205||70||1990|
|59||Bank of America Tower||New York City||United States||365.8||1,200||56||2009|
|60||Vista Tower||Chicago||United States||362.9||1,191||101||2019|
|61||Almas Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||360||1,181||68||2009|
|63||Gevora Hotel||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||356.3||1,169||75||2012|
|64||JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1||1,166||82|
|JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2||355|
|66||Emirates Office Tower||354.6||1,163||54||2000|
|67||Raffles City Chongqing T3N||Chongqing||China||354.5||79||2018|
|Raffles City Chongqing T4N||2019|
|69||OKO Tower - South Tower||Moscow||Russia||354||1,160||85||2015|
|70||The Marina Torch||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||352||1,155||86||2011|
|71||Forum 66 Tower 1||Shenyang||China||350.6||1,150||68||2015|
|73||Xi An Glory International Financial Center||Xi'an||350||1,148||75||2017|
Alternative measurements[change | change source]
Height to pinnacle (highest point)[change | change source]
This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.
This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now named Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.
If the World Trade Center towers were still standing today they would occupy numbers 12 (North Tower at 526.7 m (1,728 ft)) and 37 on the list (or 11 and 36, for it can be assumed the rebuilt One World Trade Center would have never been built).
|†||Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural|
Height to occupied floor[change | change source]
This height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building. Template:Row indexer
Buildings under construction[change | change source]
This is a list of buildings taller than 350 m that are currently under construction. On-hold buildings whose construction was interrupted after it had reached a significantly advanced state are also listed.
List by continent[change | change source]
The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height (click on name of continent for continent-specific list):
|Asia||Burj Khalifa||828 m (2,717 ft)||163||2010||United Arab Emirates||Dubai|
|North America||One World Trade Center||541.3 m (1,776 ft)||104||2014||United States||New York City|
|Europe||Lakhta Center||462 m (1,516 ft)||86||2018||Russia||St. Petersburg|
|Australia||Q1||323 m (1,060 ft)||78||2005||Australia||Gold Coast|
|South America||Gran Torre Santiago||300 m (980 ft)||64||2012||Chile||Santiago|
|Africa||The Leonardo||227 m (745 ft)||55||2019||South Africa||Johannesburg|
|Antarctica||Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings||15 m (49 ft)||—||2005||N/A||McMurdo Station|
Related pages[change | change source]
- History of the world's tallest buildings
- List of tallest buildings by height to roof
- List of tallest twin buildings and structures
- List of buildings with 100 floors or more
- List of architects of supertall buildings
- List of cities with the most skyscrapers
- List of future tallest buildings
- List of tallest buildings in Asia
- List of tallest buildings in Southeast Asia
- List of tallest buildings and structures in South Asia
- List of tallest buildings and structures
- List of largest buildings
- List of tallest freestanding structures
- List of tallest hotels
- List of tallest residential buildings
- List of tallest structures
- List of tallest structures by country
- Skyscraper Index
- Vanity height
Notes[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
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- "Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height". Ctbuh.org. Archived from the original on 2013-11-17. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
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- Young, Michael (September 17, 2019). "Central Park Tower Officially Tops Out 1,550 Feet Above Midtown, Becoming World's Tallest Residential Building". New York YIMBY. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
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- Hai Tian Center Tower 2 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
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- "All Global Buildings". CTBUH. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- Jeddah Tower at Emporis
- Jeddah Tower at Emporis
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- Suzhou Zhongnan Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
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- Greenland Jinmao International Financial Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
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- Tianshan Gate of the World Plots 27 and 28 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Chongqing Tall Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Shandong IFC at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Nanjing Financial City Phase II Plot C Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Ningbo Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- One Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Evergrande Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- One Chengmai Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Iconic Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Guangdong Business Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Coronation Square Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Xujiahui Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Uptown Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Galaxy Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Galaxy Tower 2 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Ciel Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- "Oberoi Oasis Residential Tower;". CTBUH. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- Ping An Finance Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Huiyun Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- "Greenland Group Suzhou Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- Il Primo Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Agricultural Development Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- "Costanera Center es oficialmente el edificio más alto de Latinoámerica". La Segunda. 2012-02-14.
- "New Sandton skyscraper is the tallest building in Africa - it offers a view of Magaliesberg". Fin24. September 20, 2019.
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- Pacheco, Luis Eduardo. "McMurdo Station, Antarctica - Stratospheric balloon launches". stratocat.com.ar. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Jones, W. Vernon. "Report on the Balloon Program" Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee Meeting. 16 April 2013.
Other websites[change | change source]
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