Emperor Kameyama

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Emperor of Japan
Emperor Kameyama cropped.jpg
Born9 July 1249
Died4 October 1305 (aged 56)
Kameyama no Misasagi (Kyoto)

Emperor Kameyama (亀山天皇, Kameyama-tennō) (9 July 1249 – 4 October 1305), was the 90th emperor of Japan, in the traditional order of succession.[1] His reign started in 1259 and ended in 1274.[2]

Traditional history[change | change source]

Before he became the monarch, his personal name (imina) was Tsunehito-shinnō (恒仁親王).[3] The posthumous name of Kameyama comes from the place name of the emperor's tomb, in a section of Kyoto.

He was the seventh son of Emperor Go-Saga and the younger brother of Emperor Go-Fukakusa.[4]

Kameyama was the father of 36 children, including the son and heir who became Emperor Go-Uda.[5]

Events of Kameyama's life[change | change source]

  • 1258 (Shōka 2): Kameyama's son, Prince Tsunehito was named Crown Prince and heir at age nine.
  • 1259 (Shōgen 1, 11th month): In the 14th year of Go-Fukakusa's reign, he abdicated. Go-Fukakusa's younger brother got the succession (senso).[6] Soon after, Emperor Kameyama accepted the monarch's role, duties and powers (sokui).[6] This was confirmed in ceremonies.[7]
  • 1268 (Bun'ei 5): Kameyama did not answer a letter from Kublai Khan which demanded tribute. Khan, the leader of China, saw this non-response as rude and not respectful.[4]
  • 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 1st month): In the 15th year of Kameyama's reign, he abdicated.[8]
  • 19 November 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 20th day of the 10th month): Yuan China (Kublai Khan) sent a fleet and an army to invade Japan. Some military forces landed near Fukuoka in Kyūshū. This was the "Battle of Bun'ei" or the 1st Mongol Invasion. The same day, a storm sank many of the ships with the main part of the invading army. The invaders ran away to Korea.[9] During the short fight, the Hakozaki Shrine was burned to the ground.[10]
  • 1281 (Kōan 4): This is called the "Battle of Kōan" or the 2nd Mongol Invasion. A typhoon broke up the invading fleet; and this act of 'divine wind' was called kamekaze.
  • 1291 (Shōō 4): Kameyama helped to found the Buddhist temple Nanzen-ji in Kyōto.[11]
The designated Imperial mausoleum (misasagi) of Emperor Kameyama at Kyoto.
  • 1305 (Kagen 3): Kameyama died.

After his death[change | change source]

The Imperial Household Agency say the mausoleum (misasagi) of Kameyama is in Kyoto.[1] The emperor is venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine there.[12]

Eras of reign[change | change source]

The years of Kameyama's reign cover more than one era name.[13]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

The chrysanthemum symbol of the Japanese emperor and his family.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), 亀山天皇 (90); retrieved 2011-10-16.
  2. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 253-261; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 232-233; Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2002). "Kameyama Tennō" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 461.
  3. Titsingh, p. 253; Varley, p. 232.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Martin, Peter. (1997). The Chrysanthemum Throne: a History of the Emperors of Japan, p. 81.
  5. Martin, pp. 81-82.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Titsingh, p. 253.
  7. Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei); retrieved 2011-12-23.
  8. Titsingh, p. 261.
  9. Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 decisive battles: from ancient times to the present, p. 147.
  10. Turnbull, Stephen R. (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400, p. 66.[permanent dead link]
  11. Martin, p. 81
  12. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 422.
  13. Titsingh, pp. 253-261.

Other websites[change | change source]

Media related to Emperor Kameyama at Wikimedia Commons

Preceded by
Emperor Go-Fukakusa
Emperor of Japan

Succeeded by
Emperor Go-Uda