List of presidents of the United States
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This list includes all people who have been sworn as President of the United States.
- "Presidents". whitehouse.gov. Washington, D.C.: White House. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- "Chronological List of Presidents, First Ladies, and Vice Presidents of the United States". Washington, D.C.: Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- Kelly, Martin (February 17, 2020). "Chart of the Presidents and Vice Presidents". thoughtco.com. New York City: Dotdash. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- Presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
- Reflects the president's political party at the start of their presidency. Changes during their time in office are noted. Also reflects the vice president's political party unless otherwise noted beside the individual's name.
- Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction that became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States that were contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
- The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
- Died in office of natural causes.
- Early during Adams' term the Democratic-Republican Party dissolved; his allies in Congress and at the state-level were referred to as "Adams' Men" during the Adams presidency. When Andrew Jackson became president in 1829, this group became the "Anti-Jackson" opposition, and organized themselves as the National Republican Party.
- John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition led by Jackson.
- Resigned from office
- John Tyler was sworn in as president on April 6, 1841.
- John Tyler was elected vice president on the Whig Party ticket in 1840. His policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
- Millard Fillmore was sworn in as president on July 10, 1850.
- Died April 15, 1865; see Assassination of Abraham Lincoln for further details.
- When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
- While president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
- Died September 19, 1881; see Assassination of James A. Garfield for further details.
- Chester A. Arthur was initially sworn in as president on September 20, 1881, and then again on September 22.
- Died September 14, 1901; see Assassination of William McKinley for further details.
- Calvin Coolidge was initially sworn in as president on August 3, 1923, and then again on August 21.
- Died November 22, 1963; see Assassination of John F. Kennedy for further details.
- Appointed as vice president under terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, Section 2.
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