Revolutions of 1989

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The Revolutions of 1989 or the Fall of Communism were a series of revolutions against communist and socialist governments around the world, especially in Europe. It caused the end of the Cold War, saw the end of most communist states and the United States becoming the world's only superpower. It also caused the end of the Soviet Union due to the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. After the revolutions, the only remaining communist countries were China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea and Vietnam, however people in these countries did hold protests against the government (like the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in China) and there were many reforms after 1991 (like đổi mới in Vietnam, which was similar to Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms in the Soviet Union, glasnost and perestroika).

End of communism and socialism by country[change | change source]

In Europe[change | change source]

Country Year communism ended
 Poland 1989
 Hungary 1989
 East Germany 1989[a]
 Czechoslovakia 1989[b]
 Bulgaria 1989
 Romania 1989
 Yugoslavia 1990
 Albania 1990
 Mongolia 1990
 Soviet Union 1991

Outside Europe[change | change source]

Outside Europe, communist and socialist governments in Africa, Asia and the Middle East also lost power in the late 1980s and the early 1990s, as did the short-lived People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada in 1983 (after the Americans invaded Grenada).

Breakup of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia[change | change source]

Soviet Union[change | change source]

All of the republics of the Soviet Union except for Lithuania fully left the Soviet Union at some point in 1991; Lithuania left in 1990, making it the first to declare independence.

Country Year of leaving
 Lithuania 1990
 Georgia (country) 1991
 Estonia 1991
 Latvia 1991
 Ukraine 1991
 Moldova 1991
 Kyrgyzstan 1991
 Uzbekistan 1991
 Tajikistan 1991
 Armenia 1991
 Azerbaijan 1991
 Turkmenistan 1991
 Belarus 1991
 Kazakhstan 1991
 Russia 1991

Yugoslavia[change | change source]

Country Year of leaving
 Slovenia 1991
 Croatia 1991
 Macedonia 1991
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992
 Serbia and Montenegro 1992[c]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Unified with West Germany to become Germany in 1990.
  2. Split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992.
  3. Serbia and Montenegro was officially called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, not to be confused with the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the country that existed until 1992. In 2006, the country split into Serbia and Montenegro. In 2008, Kosovo declared independence from Serbia, but this is still disputed, see political status of Kosovo and international recognition of Kosovo.