History of Japan

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The History of Japan has old texts (things people have written) that go back to the 1st century, but archaeologists have found proof of people living in Japan for the last several thousand years from the time when the last Ice age ended.

Prehistory[change | change source]

Sannai-Maruyama site Aomori Japan.Jomon period. Around 5000 years before

The first period of Japan's history is its prehistory, before the written history of Japan. Archeologists have found pottery from that time. Japan’s Paleolithic era covers a period from around 100,000 BC to around 12,000 BC. Archeologists have found some polished tools made of stones. Some of them are kept in Tokyo National Museum. These tools are more than 32,000 years old.[source?]

Jomon Period[change | change source]

Jōmon Pottery British Museumo

The Jomon period lasted for about 10,000 years, from 10,000 BC to around 300 BC. This was the Mesolithic era for Japan. Some scholars say that during this period, Neolithic culture also developed in Japan.

Archeologists have found several pieces of pottery of that time. Some are clay figures and some are vessels and potteries of different shapes.

Yayoi Period[change | change source]

Storage Jar, 500 BC - 200 AD, Japan,Yayoi period

The Yayoi period covered about 550 years, from around 300 BC till around 250. The period's name came from a location in Tokyo.[1]

By that time, Japanese people had learnt the cultivation of rice, and agriculture became the main part of the Japanese society. Because of this, differences in social status started to occur.

Different clans controlled different areas and they also fought among themselves. Some Chinese texts tell about this time. These texts describe Japan as Wa. Later, the Yamatai came into being when about 30 smaller parts of Japan of that time united under a queen named Himiko.

Ancient and Classical Japan[change | change source]

The Ancient and Classical period covers about 900 years, beginning from the mid-3rd century till the end of the 12th century. Japanese history during this period may further be divided into several smaller periods. These are described below.

Kofun period[change | change source]

In the history of Japan, the period from the mid-3rd century until the mid-6th century is known as the Kofun period.

Kofun is a large tomb made at this era, and people who had social power were buried. Buddhism had not reached Japan by this time. Many kofuns were made in many places. This fact lets us to know that many social groups all around the country made up an authority, and this leads to the Yamato dynasty.

The Yamato dynasty started to have take more action against Korea and China. In the 4th century, they started to advance to Korea to get iron. By this, cultures and technologies of Korea and China started to be introduced to Japan. They also fought with Goguryeo and Silla, which are countries in Korea. In the 5th century, the five kings of Wa made effort to have relationship with China.

Asuka period[change | change source]

HORYUJI-1999-3

The second period is called the Asuka period (mid-6th century till around 710). Asuka is the place where the base of Yamato dynasty took place. By this time Buddhism had reached Japan.

Prince Shotoku with Two Princes by Kano Osanobu 1842

From the end of the 6th century to the early 7th century, Empress Suiko and her nephew Prince Shotoku innovated the political system so that the emperor gets power. They also sent missions to the Sui Dynasty.

The trend of centralization still continues. In 645, the Taika Reforms takes place, and the political system changes a lot.

In 663, the nation fights with the Tang Dynasty and Silla (Battle of Baekgang), but loses.

In 672, the Jinshin war occurs and Prince Ōama becomes the emperor (Emperor:Tenno天皇). In his era, Japan starts to make a Chinese style law system (Ritsuryo). Also, the word "nihon" or "nippon" ("日本"), which means "Japan" in Japanese, was started to be used in the era of Tenmu.

Nara Period[change | change source]

During this period, from the year 707, steps were taken to shift the capital to Heijō-kyō, a place near present-day Nara. This was completed in 710. A new city was built. The city was built to look like the Chinese capital city of that time. At that time, the Tang Dynasty was ruling China, and the capital was at Chang'an (now Xi'an).

During the Nara period, development was slow. The Emperor’s family members were always fighting for power with the Buddhists and other groups. At that time, Japan had friendly relations with Korea and China’s Tang Dynasty. The capital was shifted twice. In 784, the capital was moved to Nagaoka and in 794 to Kyoto.

Heian Period[change | change source]

Fragment of an emaki from the 12th century Genji Monogatari.(copy) written in Kana

The years from 794 to 1185 are known as the Heian period (平安時代, Heian jidai). This grouping of years is named after city of Heian-kyō, which is the early name of present-day Kyoto.[2] The Heian period produced many cultural achievements, such as the Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu. The power of the Japanese imperial court (that is, the Emperor, his ministers and other important persons) rose. This period is also famous for its art, poetry and literature. Japanese culture also became Japanese way.The language used in this period was called Late Old Japanese. The writing systems known as Kana emerged at this time.[3][4] By the end of this period (that is, by the end of the 12th century), a number of groups came into being. These groups were highly armed and they fought among themselves. The situation was like a civil war, that is, war among different sections of society. Finally, groups of people called Samurai led society under the political rule of a Shogun. The Heian Period ended due to the Genpei War.

Feudal Japan[change | change source]

The period from around the 12th century through the 19th century is called feudal period in the history of Japan. The Japanese Emperor was the head of the government, but he had no real power. Many powerful families (called daimyo and military groups called shogun) ruled Japan during this period. The feudal period of Japan is generally sub-divided into different periods named after the shogunate which ruled during that period.

Kamakura Period[change | change source]

The years 1185 to 1333 are known as the Kamakura period (鎌倉時代, Kamakura jidai).[5] This grouping of years is named after city of Kamakura which was the center of power of the Kamakura shogunate. Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder and first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate. The period is named after the government of Kamakura Shogunate. In this period, Mongols tried to invade Japan between the years 1272 and 1281. Japanese were successful at driving away the Mongols.[6] But, this badly affected Japan. Shogunate also became weak and its rule ended in 1333. For a short time, Go Daigo became the emperor of Japan.

Muromachi Period[change | change source]

The Muromachi period began in 1336 and ended in 1573. Emperor Go-Daigo lost his throne. The government of the Ashikaga shogunate took control of most parts of Japan. This period ended in 1573. In that year the 15th and the last shogun named Ashikaga Yoshiaki was forced to leave the capital Kyōto.

During this period, in 1542, a Portuguese ship reached Japan and made the first direct contact between both cultures, including the knowledge of firearms. In the next few years, merchants and also some Christian missionaries from several European countries, mainly Portugal, the Netherlands, England, and Spain, reached the shores of Japan.

Azuchi-Momoyama Period[change | change source]

Azuchi-Momoyama period covers the years from 1568 to 1600. During these years, different parts of Japan became united again. Japan's military power grew. In 1592, Japan wanted to conquer China. At that time China was ruled by the Ming Dynasty. Toyotomi Hideyoshi was one of the main leaders of Japan. He sent an army of 160,000 samurai to Korea. The Japanese could not win and retreated back to Japan. In 1597, Japan again sent an army to Korea. In 1598, Toyotomi Hideyoshi died. After his death, the Japanese dropped the idea of conquering Korea and China.

During this period, the Japanese brought many Koreans to Japan. These Koreans were very good at making pottery and at other arts. Some of them were very educated. Japan gained new information and knowledge from these Koreans.

Yaita Kinbee Kiyosada, the Japanese blacksmith who was ordered to copy and reverse engineer Portuguese matchlock muskets could not make the screw properly himself and had to give a his 16 year old daughter Wakasa in marriage to a Portuguese in exchange for the Portuguese teaching him to build the muskets. Today Japanese in Tageshima regard Wakasa as a heroine for giving herself to a Portuguese man in exchange for teaching how to screw the end of the musket barrel and a statue was built in her honour as well as candy, restaurants and boast named after her.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Japanese prostitutes were required to prove they were not Christian in order to work in prostitution by the Tokugawa government.[15][16]

Edo Period[change | change source]

A group of Samurai

During the Edo period, Japan had many small rulers. There were about 200 of them. They were called daimyo, and they were all ruled by the Tokugawa shogunate which was leaded by the Tokugawa clan. The shoguate's capital was relocated to Edo. This place was at modern-day Tokyo. Fifteen shoguns controlled the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo Period.

Tôjin-yashiki, the Chinese merchant colony on a square island was south of Dejima where the Dutch merchants were. Japanese prostitutes from the Maruyama red light district of Nagasaki visited both the Dutch and Chinese men to have sex with them. Japanese artists drew erotic paintings of the foreign men having seen with Japanese women.[17][18][19][20][21][22]

Japanese peasant men were not required to kill wives who committed adultery but samurai were.[23] The majority of the Japanese people in this period were townspeople, fisher people or peasant commoners and they did not take adultery, virginity or paternity of their children as serious issues unlike the samurai families, who were a minority of the Japanese population. Japanese commoner women and men mixed with each other and had out of wedlock or bastard children through adultery and they made up the majority of prostitutes.[24] Japanese commoners did not have surnames until the Meiji restoration in the 19th century.

The Edo period is also a very important period in the history of Japan. The main developments include:

  • Samurai became the highest group in Japanese society. Farmers, artisans, and merchants were lower than the Samurai.
  • Common persons were organised in groups of five. If any one of them made any mistake or did anything wrong, all five persons were responsible.
  • New artistic movements and forms of theatre. Ukiyo-e wood-block printing was invented. New forms of theatre included kabuki and bunraku theatres.
  • Trade and commerce continued to rise during the Edo period.

In 1867, the Tokugawa Shogunate returned its political power to the emperor. Although, the emperor did not know how to rule the country because the last time the emperor had power was 500 years ago. So, the shogunate still remained in authority.

In 1868, the Boshin War occurred between the Japanese emperor and the Tokugawa shogunate. Japan again came under the actual rule of an emperor as the Tokugawa shogunate was defeated.

Seclusion[change | change source]

Beginning from the early 17th century, the Tokugawa shogunate followed a policy of seclusion, known as sakoku in Japanese language. They suspected that traders, merchants, and missionaries from Europe wanted to bring Japan under the control of European powers. All traders and missionaries from other countries were forced to leave Japan, except for the Dutch, the Koreans, and the Chinese.

Even during the period of seclusion, the Japanese continued to gain information and knowledge about other parts of the world.

End of seclusion[change | change source]

This policy of seclusion lasted for about 200 years until it ended under American military force. On July 8th 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States Navy reached Edo with four warships. The ships were heavily armed and their guns pointed towards the city. After this display of American military power, Japan was forced to agree to trade with other countries. The Japanese called these ships the kurofune or the Black Ships.

Next year, on March 31st 1854, Perry came with seven ships and the Japanese signed a treaty (known as the Convention of Kanagawa) that established a diplomatic relationship with the United States. Another treaty (known as the Harris Treaty) was signed with the United States on July 29th 1858. This treaty gave more facilities to foreigners coming to Japan and expanded trade with Japan. Many Japanese were not happy with reopening diplomatic relations and trade with other countries.

"For years several countries have applied for trade, but you have opposed them on account of a national law. You have thus acted against divine principles and your sin cannot be greater than it is. What we say does not necessarily mean, as has already been communicated by the Dutch boat, that we expect mutual trade by all means. If you are still to disagree we would then take up arms and inquire into the sin against the divine principles, and you would also make sure of your law and fight in defence. When one considers such an occasion, however, one will realize the victory will naturally be ours and you shall by no means overcome us. If in such a situation you seek for a reconciliation, you should put up the white flag that we have recently presented to you, and we would accordingly stop firing and conclude peace with you, turning our battleships aside." -Commodore Perry

After Commodore Perry's visit, Japan began to deliberately accept Western culture to the point of hiring Westerners to teach Western customs and traditions to the Japanese starting in the Meiji era. Many Japanese politicians have since also encouraged the Westernization of Japan using the term Datsu-A Ron, which means the argument for "leaving Asia" or "Good-bye Asia". In Datsu-A Ron, "Westernization" was described as an "unavoidable" but "fruitful" change. After Japan's surrender to the United States and its allies ended World War II, the Westernization process of Japanese culture was further intensified and today, Japan is notably among the most Westernized countries in Asia.[25]

Meiji Restoration[change | change source]

The Meiji Restoration is an important period of history of Japan. Emperor Meiji ruled Japan and regained power from the shogunate. The Meiji Restoration began with the Boshin War of 1868. Emperor Meiji wanted Japan to become Westernized. Many changes occurred in Japan’s government and culture.

The Iwakura Mission or Iwakura Embassy (岩倉使節団, Iwakura Shisetsudan) was a Japanese diplomatic voyage to the United States and Europe conducted between 1871 and 1873 by leading statesmen and scholars of the Meiji period. Although it was not the only such mission, it is the most well-known and possibly most significant in terms of its impact on the modernization of Japan after a long period of isolation from the West. The mission was first proposed by the influential Dutch missionary and engineer Guido Verbeck.[26]

Cong Liangbi was the owner of the Zhenye match producing company in Qinghai and Jinan and his sales for 1927-1928 were recorded in a survey by the Chinese Match Union. A Chinese businessman named Cong Liangbi in the match industry from Qingdao, Shandong who led the local Red Swastika Society branch had multiple concubines besides his Chinese first wife, Cong Jingshu (Xuannan) née Chi, he had a Japanese concubine from the time he stayed in Japan for business and another Chinese concubine, Cong Wanying (Shijian). The name of the Japanese wife transliterated into pinyin was Gaoqiao Xingzi. She was a temporary wife and they married for a period of 10 years agreed to in a written contract which said daughters would belong to the Japanese mother and sons to the Chinese father. She bore 2 sons, in 1906, Liumen, and in 1902, Zhengmen. Cong's Chinese wife back home in 1904 bore a son, Tongmen.[27][28][29]

A Xiangshan (Zhongshan), Guangdong born Chinese compradore named Su Jiesheng had a Chinese wife in Guangdong, but he also went to Japan and took a Japanese concubine and had a child by a Japanese maid who gave birth to his son Su Manshu (1884-1918), who was raised by the concubine but then also raised by the Guangdong based wife.[30] The Japanese maid left when he was 3 months old so the Japanese concubine was called Kawai-sen and the boy grew up in Yokohama until he was 6 when he was sent to Guangdong in China.[31] He arrived in Guangdong in 1889. He went back to Japan in 1898 to Yokohama and to Tokyo in 1902.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]

Modern feminist ideas about letting women out of the house and participating in public life were taught to Chinese students studying in Japan by Japanese women.[43]

Japanese peasant commoners did not care about the paternal identity of their children since they didn't have surname before the Meiji restoration and the maternal families accepted out of wedlock children born to yobai (night crawling) when Japanese men snuck into women's homes they were not married to and impregnated them without marrying them.[44]

Han Chinese viewed the Uyghur women's practice of temporary marriage as morally corrupt.[45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52]

Japanese girls prostituted to the Dutch were called Oranda yuki san while Japanese girls prostituted to the Chinese were called Karayuki-san.[53] Japanese women were prostituted around the world as Karayuki san and Korean women were also taken into prostitution by the Japanese.[54]

Japanese sex tourists in the 1970s to 1990s often went to South Korea for sex with South Korean women and a connection was drawn by feminists to Japanese exploitation of Korean comfort women during World War II as well as Japanese women's prostitution as Karayuki-san in Singapore and other countries in Southeast Asia. There were 200,000 South Korean women servicing Japanese men as prostitutes by 1973.[55][56][57][58][59][60][61]

Japanese Karayuki san prostitutes spearheaded Japan's economic advance into Southeast Asian regions ilke Singapore in the late 19th century.[62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70]

Japanese karayuki san prostitutes were sent to Australia.[71]

The Japanese Murata rifle was based on the French Gras rifle.[72]

Many Japanese buildings, products and planes were copies of western ones like the Tokyo dome of 1988 which copied the 1981 Metrodome, the Japanese DSK A 25 in 1954 which copied the BMW's R 25 of 1951, the Japanese zero fighter of 1939 which copied the Gloster F.5/34 of 1937 and the Toshiba vacuum cleaner of 1931 which copied GE's electric cleaner of 1928 and Seiki's Nippon camera of 1941 which copied Leica Illa's camera of 1935 and Shigeru Mizuki's rocketman in 1958 which copied DC Comics superman of 1938.[73][74] The "Japanese" military planes Kawasaki Ki-5, Kawasaki Army Type 92 and Kawasaki Army Type 88 were designed by aircraft engineer Richard Vogt, a German.

Indigenously designed military aircraft in China during the war against Japan included the Kwangsi type 3, Chu XP-0 and Zhong 28-Qia while Russian American Zakharchenko designed Zhong 28-B and FuHsing AP-1 (Fuxing AP-1).[75][76][77][78][79][80]

The Japanese let volunteers from Okinawa into their army since 1890 and in 1898 Okinawa was given universal military conscription and were parts of all arms of the Japanese military, unlike Koreans where there was no conscription until the very last year of World War II since the Japanese did not trust Koreans unlike Okinawans.[81] Taiwanese were also distrusted by the Japanese, with volunteers from Taiwan only allowed in 1942 and conscription only implemented in 1945.[82][83]

Wars with China and Russia[change | change source]

At the end of the 19th century, many Japanese believed that Japan needed to expand in order to face Western foreign powers. This resulted in wars with its neighboring counties. In 1894-1895, Japan and China had a war. Another war took place with Russia in 1904-1905. Japan became a world power after these wars. Russian influence continued to grow inside China.

Anglo-Japanese Alliance[change | change source]

By the beginning of the 20th century, Russian influence was increasing in China. Japan and the United Kingdom used to get economic and other benefits from their relationship with China. Japan and the United Kingdom did not like Russia’s growing influence in China. Japan and the United Kingdom formed a military alliance, called the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, on January 30th 1902. Russia was not happy at this type of agreement between Japan and the United Kingdom. Russia tried to form a similar military alliance with Germany and France. On March 6th 1902, Russia formed a military alliance with France but not Germany.

The Russo-Japanese War began between Japan and Russia. Japan won the Russo-Japanese War. The United States mediated the peace negotiations between Japan and Russia. Japan got a number of concessions. In 1910, Japan invaded and annexed Korea.

Chinese bandits called Honghuzi fought against Japan or Russia in the Russo-Japanese war.[84]

World War I to End of World War II[change | change source]

In 1914, the First World War broke out. Japan also entered the war. It attacked several places (of East Asia), which were colonies of Germany. After the war ended in 1919, Japan developed very fast. It became one of the major powers of Asia.

The US brought Japanese settlers to Mindanao in the Philippines where they sided with the invading Japanese in World War II.[85][86][87][88][89][90]

A huge proportion of Japanese Brazilians were pro Axis and some engaged in terrorist activities to sabotage Allied war efforts. Many Japanese even suffered mass delusion when the war ended and believed that Japan had won the war and that the Allied fleet was wiped out.[91]

Japanese Americans were funding the Japanese military before the Pearl Harbor attack.[92][93]

World War II[change | change source]

Before the beginning of the Second World War, Japan was fighting with China. This is called Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). According to the United States government's own Department of State's Office of the Historian, the US did nothing to help China against the Japanese from 1937 to 1940 when Japan and China were engaged in total war. US officials and policymakers did not want to help. Meanwhile, Japan's military obtained the majority of its iron, steel and oil from the United States between 1937 and 1940. The treaty of commerce between the United States and Japan was not abrogated until January 1940 and even then the United States did not embargo Japan right away. The United States only began giving aid to China after 1940 when Japan and China already fought for three years.[94] When the Second World War broke out in 1939, Japan went to the side of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Japanese planes attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The fighting continued for years. When the USA dropped the first atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan accepted defeat and surrendered in 1945.

World War II and Japanese occupation of the Philippines

Japan launched a surprise attack on the Clark Air Base in Pampanga on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops on Luzon. The defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay.

On January 2, 1942, General MacArthur declared the capital city, Manila, an open city to prevent its destruction. The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May of the same year. Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. It is estimated that about 10,000 Filipinos and 1,200 Americans died before reaching their destination.

President Quezon and Osmeña had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and later left for the United States, where they set up a government in exile. MacArthur was ordered to Australia, where he started to plan for a return to the Philippines.

The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission. They initially organized a Council of State, through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943, when they declared the Philippines an independent republic. The Japanese-sponsored republic headed by President José P. Laurel proved to be unpopular.

Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground and guerrilla activity. The Philippine Army, as well as remnants of the U.S. Army Forces Far East, continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war and was considered an auxiliary unit of the United States Army. Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces. One element of resistance in the Central Luzon area was furnished by the Hukbalahap, which armed some 30,000 people and extended their control over much of Luzon.

The occupation of the Philippines by Japan ended at the war's conclusion. The American army had been fighting the Philippines Campaign since October 1944, when MacArthur's Sixth United States Army landed on Leyte. Landings in other parts of the country had followed, and the Allies, with the Philippine Commonwealth troops, pushed toward Manila. However, fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on September 2, 1945. The Philippines suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction, especially during the Battle of Manila. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed, a large portion during the final months of the war, and Manila had been extensively damaged.

Occupied Japan[change | change source]

After the end of the Second World War, Japan came under international control. Japan became an important friend of the US when it entered into the Cold war with Korea. Over next few years, many political, economic and social changes took place. Japanese Diet (legislature) came into being. In 1951, USA and 45 other countries signed an agreement with Japan, and Japan again became an independent nation with full power (a country with full sovereignty) on 28th April 1952.

Japan experienced dramatic political and social transformation under the Allied occupation in 1945–1952. US General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers, served as Japan's de facto leader and played a central role in implementing reforms

As the new de facto ruler of Japan, Douglas MacArthur ordered the drafting of a new constitution for Japan in February 1946.[15]

So great was his influence in Japan that he has been dubbed the Gaijin Shōgun

The Shinto Directive was an order issued in 1945[1] to the Japanese government by Occupation authorities to abolish state support for the Shinto religion.

In 1946, at the request of the GHQ, the Shōwa Emperor (Hirohito) proclaimed in the Humanity Declaration that he had never been an akitsumikami (現御神), divinity in human form, and claimed his relation to the people did not rely on such a mythological idea but on a historically developed family-like reliance.

Since the enactment of the 1947 constitution, the role of emperor has been relegated to a ceremonial head of state without even nominal political powers.[95]

The Deming Prize is the longest-running and one of the highest awards on TQM (Total Quality Management) in the world. It recognizes both individuals for their contributions to the field of Total Quality Management (TQM) and businesses that have successfully implemented TQM.[96] It was established in 1951 to honor W. Edwards Deming who contributed greatly to Japan’s proliferation of statistical quality control after World War II. His teachings helped Japan build its foundation by which the level of Japan’s product quality has been recognized as the highest in the world, was originally designed to reward Japanese companies for major advances in quality improvement. Over the years it has grown, under the guidance of the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) to where it is now also available to non-Japanese companies, albeit usually operating in Japan, and also to individuals recognized as having made major contributions to the advancement of quality. The awards ceremony is broadcast every year in Japan on national television.[97]

European visitors to Japan observed that the lower classes owere a simple, crude, and child-like people. Public nudity was widespread amongst all ages with little shame, as was public spitting and urination. Bawdy jokes were uttered in public without batting an eye. This was in considerable contrast to the aristocracy with their fine clothing and elaborate etiquette.

Following the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese ruling class sought to tame the commoners so Europeans might not think they were little more than savages with a bone in their nose. Public nudity and urination were banned in the bigger cities, where foreigners were most likely to visit, and various backward, barbaric, and disgusting religious rituals were outlawed. The upper class took to wearing Western clothing. For the commoners, traditional garb continued to be the norm.

During the post-WWII occupation, Douglas MacArthur further took it upon himself to civilize Japan. The wearing of Western clothing for everyone was encouraged—for women, blouses, skirts, brassieres, and panties instead of kimonos, and for men, shirts, trousers, and boxer shorts. It may be noted that while Japanese men traditionally wore a loincloth known as a fundosi, women generally went commando under their kimonos—it was observed that on windy days they would "often be blown open, presenting quite an eyeful.

Post-Occupation Japan[change | change source]

Post-Occupation Japan means Japan after its occupation and control by a group of nations had ended. This is the period after the Second World War. The Second World War had damaged Japan very badly. It has almost lost its industry and economy was in a very bad shape. After the war, Japan received assistance and technology from the US and several other countries of Europe. The progress was very rapid. For about 30 years, from around the 1950s to the 1980s, Japan grew very fast. It became one of the major economic powers of the world.

When the UN forces were fighting in Korea during the Korean War, Japan was one of the major suppliers. This also helped Japan’s economy. By 1980s, Japan had become the world’s second largest economy, after the USA. At first, there was very close relationship between Japan and the USA. But, Japan’s economic might resulted into trade deficit for the USA. A trade deficit results when imports are more than exports. Thus, USA was importing more than it exported to Japan.

For various reasons, this phase of rapid development ended in the 1990s. Some historians have described this decade as the lost decade of Japanese economy. About 5 to 10 persons in 100 persons could not find any work.

Political life[change | change source]

By 1952, Japan had become free from most of the controls of the occupation period. It got its own democratic system. Various political parties came into being and Japan’s political life became active.

Modern Life (Heisei Era)[change | change source]

Historians and sociologists call the recent era modern life. In Japanese, this is called the Heisei period. By 1989, Japan’s economy had become very large. Much development had taken place. In the Gulf war of 1991, Japan gave billions of dollars.

A 1973 article in the New York Times reported that Indonesians hated Japanese businessmen due to their practices and attitudes towards them.[98]

The Jewish American engineer Jerome Lemelson developed the camcorder and walkman audio recorder for the Japanese company Sony.[99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107]

Japan also faced some problems. In 1995, a big earthquake took place in Kobe. Another earthquake took place on 23rd October 2004 in Niigata Prefecture, and a very destructive tsunami damaged the north east coast in March 2011, causing a nuclear accident in Fukushima Prefecture.

On 8 July 2022, former Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe was assassinated while giving a speech in Nara at aged 67.

References[change | change source]

  1. Shinya Shōda (2007). "A Comment on the Yayoi Period Dating Controversy". Bulletin of the Society for East Asian Archaeology. 1. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  2. Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan,"Nara and Heian Periods". Retrieved 2011-10-20.
  3. 伊藤, 隆 (2011). 新しい日本の歴史. 育鵬社. p. 55. ISBN 978-4-594-06401-3.
  4. Shively; McCullough, eds. (1988). Heian Japan. the Cambridge hist of Japan. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 12-13. ISBN 9780521223539. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  5. Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan,"Kamakura and Muromachi periods". Retrieved 2011-10-20.
  6. "Mongol Invasion 1274-1281". Archived from the original on 2009-12-07. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
  7. Lidin, Olof G. (2004). TANEGASHIMA – THE ARRIVAL OF EUROPE IN JAPAN (PDF). Monograph Series. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Press. p. 8-14.
  8. "TANEGASHIMA, THE ISLAND OF THE PORTUGUESE GUN". Cultural Affairs Bureau (文化局).
  9. "Introduction of Firearms". 国土交通省 九州地方整備局. Kyushu Regional Land Sustainability Plan Promotion Office. 2019.
  10. "Introduction of Firearms".
  11. "Matchlocks, Samurai, Money and a Pretty Girl". Standing Well Back - IED & EOD Evolutions. 27 November 2012.
  12. https://en.topwar.ru/150187-japonskie-mushketery.html https://edoflourishing.blogspot.com/2016/04/teppo-guns.html https://darumapedianews.blogspot.com/2016/04/edo-teppo-guns.html https://www.militaria.co.za/nmb/topic/14688-the-tanegashima-breach-plug-bisen/
  13. "Very small matchlock, any ideas? - Ethnographic Arms & Armour".
  14. Finch & Co - Visions and Visitations. p. 28.
  15. Elison, George (1988). Deus Destroyed: The Image of Christianity in Early Modern Japan. Volume 72 of Harvard East Asian series. Vol. 141 of Harvard East Asian monographs (3, illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. p. 4. ISBN 0674199626. ISSN 0073-0483. For instance , a whore's initial contract required such a formula ; for officialdom was most concerned that the lady's customers not be contaminated . 3 The governmental measures were fortified by an artfully composed image of ...
  16. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:pmbZXw4c8-8J:https://hi.by1lib.org/book/17021560/2952e4%3Fdsource%3Drecommend https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:AfwBEgscxREJ:https://ebin.pub/deus-destroyed-the-image-of-christianity-in-early-modern-japan-reprintnbsped-0674199626-9780674199620.html
  17. Kruijff, Marijn (6 September 2019). "Dejima Sensuality Between Foreigners and Japanese Sex Workers". Classical Shunga Art.
  18. Kruijff, Marijn (27 August 2018). "Chokyosai Eiri's Famous Portrayal of A Horny Dutchman". Classical Shunga Art.
  19. *Leupp, Gary P., Interracial Intimacy in Japan: Western Men and Japanese Women, 1543-1900, Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd, UK. 2003.
  20. Hoendervangers, Ilja (June 1, 2019). Biggest devotee of the Dutch intellect and culture: Shiba Kōkan's perception of Dutch painting and the Dutch portrayal (A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of a Japanstudies BA Degree). Leiden University Faculty of Humanities. pp. 3–34.
  21. Vos, Frits (December 2014). Breuker, Remco; Penny, Benjamin (eds.). "Forgotten Foibles: Love and the Dutch at Dejima (1641-1854)". East Asian History. The Australian National University and Leiden University (39): 139–52. ISSN 1839-9010.
  22. "Forgotten Foibles: Love and the Dutch at Dejima (1641–1854) | East Asian History".
  23. Millett, Kate (2016). Sexual Politics. Collaborators Catharine MacKinnon, Rebecca Mead (reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0231541725. A samurai was entitled, and in the face of public knowledge, even obliged, to execute an adulterous wife, whereas a chónin (common citizen) or peasant might respond as he pleased. In cases of cross-class adultery, the lower-class male ...
  24. Leupp, Gary P. (2003). Interracial Intimacy in Japan: Western Men and Japanese Women, 1543-1900 (illustrated ed.). A&C Black. p. 48. ISBN 0826460747.
  25. https://web.archive.org/web/20221005180134/https://i.4cdn.org/his/1664727498337415.png
  26. https://web.archive.org/web/20221005180133/https://i.4cdn.org/his/1664727580652078.jpg
  27. https://ur.u1lib.org/book/3489891/0eaace Archived 2022-09-22 at the Wayback Machine https://ur.b-ok.lat/book/3489891/0eaace[permanent dead link] https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.7312/shi-18560-013/pdf
  28. Shi, Xia (20 March 2018). At Home in the World: Women and Charity in Late Qing and Early Republican China. ISBN 9780231546232.
  29. "Actor Cong Shan's mother has passed away at the age of 87. She was a famous Kunqu Opera artist". inf.news. 2022-09-23.
  30. McDougall, Bonnie S.; Louie, Kam (1997). The Literature of China in the Twentieth Century (reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 90, 91. ISBN 0231110855. This was also the year when China was defeated in the War against Japan , an event which had a tremendous effect on Zeng ... ( present - day Zhongshan ) in Guangdong who was resident in Japan ; Su Manshu's natural mother , a Japanese maid ...
  31. Li, Tíen (1997). Writing in Crisis: Translation, Genre, and Identity in Modern Chinese Poetry (reprint ed.). University of Michigan. p. 35. ISBN 0591416581. He was born in Yokohama , Japan . His father , Su Jiesheng , was a successful Chinese comprador from Guangdong Province , and his mother was a Japanese maid of the Su household , possibly a sister of Su Jiesheng's concubine , Kawai ...
  32. Modern Chinese Literature, 8 tomas. Contributors San Francisco State University. Center for the Study of Modern Chinese Literature, University of Colorado Boulder. Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures, University of Colorado, Boulder. Dept. of Oriental Languages and Literatures. San Francisco State University Center for the Study of Modern Chinese Literature. 1994. p. 129. Su Manshu ( 1884-1918 ) Su Manshu was born in Yokohama , Japan , into a comprador family from Guangdong ; his mother was a Japanese maid in the family house , and he was raised by his father's Japanese concubine until sent to China in ...{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  33. McDougall, Bonnie S.; Louie, Kam (1997). The Literature of China in the Twentieth Century (reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 90. ISBN 0231110855. Su Manshu ( 1884 – 1918 ) Su Manshu's father , Su Jiesheng , was a compradore from Xiangshan ( present - day Zhongshan ) in Guangdong who was resident in Japan ; Su Manshu's natural mother , a Japanese maid , left the family's employ ...
  34. Li, Tíen (1997). Writing in Crisis: Translation, Genre, and Identity in Modern Chinese Poetry (reprint ed.). University of Michigan. p. 35. ISBN 0591416581. His father , Su Jiesheng , was a successful Chinese comprador from Guangdong Province , and his mother was a Japanese maid of the Su household , possibly a sister of Su Jiesheng's concubine , Kawai - sen , who nurtured Su Manshu after ...
  35. Barnstone, Tony; Ping, Chou, eds. (2010). The Anchor Book of Chinese Poetry: From Ancient to Contemporary, The Full 3000-Year Tradition. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 335. ISBN 978-0307481474. SU MANSHU (THE HALF MONK) [1884-I918) Novelist, poet, Buddhist monk, and revolutionary Su Manshu was born Su jian in 1 884 in Yokohama, japan. His father was a Chinese merchant, and his mother his father's japanese maid.
  36. Chinese Studies in History, Volume 41. -summer 1974, Asian translation series. International Arts and Sciences Press. 2007. p. 37. ... biological mother Wakako was the Su family maid or the niece of Kawai was still erroneous . Luo Xiaoming's life experience was similar to that of Su Manshu . His father was a Chinese merchant in Japan and his mother was Japanese .
  37. Liu, Wuji (1972). Su Man-shu. World Authors Series. Vol. 191 of Twayne's world authors series: China. Twayne. p. 89, 17, 158. ISBN 0805728708. and Liu Wu - chi introduced it in the Chronological Life of Su Manshu and Other Articles ( 1927 ) and the Complete Works of Man - shu ( 1928 ) . ... revealed that Man - shu was born not to Kawai but to Owaka , a Japanese maid . Over Su ... from the patriarch Su Shih - ch'ang , Man - shu's grandfather , down to Man - shu's inferior generation ( see Appendix I ) . While members of the Su family agreed unanimously in repudiating the idea of his having a Japanese father ...
  38. Twayne's World Authors Series, Volume 191. Twayne's World Authors Series. Twayne Publishers. 1972. p. 89, 157, 158. and Liu Wu - chi introduced it in the Chronological Life of Su Manshu and Other Articles ( 1927 ) and the Complete Works of Man - shu ( 1928 ) . ... revealed that Man - shu was born not to Kawai but to Owaka , a Japanese maid . Over Su ... Man - shu's grandfather , down to Man - shu's inferior generation ( see Appendix I ) . While members of the Su family agreed unanimously in repudiating the idea of his having a Japanese father , Su Wei - lu , who was close to Elder ...
  39. Modern Chinese Literature, Volume 8. Contributors San Francisco State University. Center for the Study of Modern Chinese Literature, University of Colorado Boulder. Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures, University of Colorado, Boulder. Dept. of Oriental Languages and Literatures. San Francisco State University Center for the Study of Modern Chinese Literature. 1994. p. 129. Su Manshu ( 1884-1918 ) Su Manshu was born in Yokohama , Japan , into a comprador family from Guangdong ; his mother was a Japanese maid in the family house , and he was raised by his father's Japanese concubine until sent to China in ...{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  40. Pollard, David (1988). Doleželová-Velingerová, Milena (ed.). A Selective Guide to Chinese Literature: 1900 - 1949. Vol. 1 of A Selective Guide to Chinese Literature: 1900-1949 (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 160. ISBN 9004078800. A mishap leads him first to his former nurse , who tells him that his mother is a widowed Japanese lady who brought him to China ... Su Manshu's achievement is to give classic expression to these feelings of young love , of solicitude ...
  41. The Japan Daily Mail. 1906. p. 238. Mar. 24 Mrs. Tyne and servant , Mr. Malcolm McEachern , America ...... P . M ....... Manchuria Su . Mar. ... Minnesola - F ; Mar ; 30 Manshu Muru , Japanese converted cruiser , 2,981 , burger , Master Harvey Hamburger , Mrs. Ellis H.
  42. The Japan Daily Mail, Volume 47. A.H. Blackwell. 1907. p. 350. Em . of India i Su . ... Mrs. E. Eneibbas , Mr. S. U. Ford , Mr. B. U. F. April 12 and General . ... Japan Tu . April 9 gawa , 241h Mir . , - Anping and ' Takao via poris , Miss G. L. Kemmerer and maid , Miss L. Laemelle , Hongkong .
  43. Judge, Joan (2005). Goodman, Bryna; Larson, Wendy (eds.). Gender in Motion– Divisions of Labor and Cultural Change in Late Imperial and Modern China (reprint ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 136. ISBN 0742581349. This made it possible for her to run the household without the help of a Japanese maid who might have compromised the ... Later, as a teacher herself, Chen worked at a school in Guangdong where the principal, the elder sister of He ...
  44. Love in Modern Japan– Its Estrangement from Self, Sex and Society. Vol. 1 of Anthropology of Asia. Routledge. 2006. p. 30. ISBN 1135988633.
  45. Sykes, Ella Constance; Sykes, Percy Molesworth, Sir (1920). Through deserts and oases of central Asia. London: Macmillan and co., limited. p. 65.
  46. Sykes, Miss Ella (1920). Through Deserts And Oases Of Central Asia. p. 65.
  47. Ella Constance, Sykes; Sykes, Percy Molesworth, Sir (1920). Through deserts and oases of central Asia. London: Macmillan. p. 65.
  48. Sykes, Percy (1920). Through Deserts and Oases of Central Asia. p. 65.
  49. Sykes, Percy (1920). Through Deserts And Oases Of Central Asia. p. 65.
  50. Sykes, Ella Constance; Sykes, Percy, Sir (1920). Through deserts and oases of central Asia [microform]. London ; Toronto: Macmillan. p. 65. ISBN 9780665668487.
  51. "Through Deserts and Oases of Central Asia, by Ella Sykes et al. | the Online Books Page".
  52. Through deserts and oases of central Asia. Macmillan. 1920. OL 13518917M.
  53. Martínez, Julia (01 Jan 20). "Mapping the Trafficking of Women across Colonial Southeast Asia, 1600s–1930s". Journal of Global Slavery. 1 (2–3): 224–247. doi:10.1163/2405836X-00102004. classed as kara-yuki, meaning those “those off to the Chinese,” or oranda- yuki, meaning “those off to the Dutch,” and ... Osaka Mainichi, 14 Oct. 1928, in. {{cite journal}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  54. Ch’oe, Kil-song. "5. Diary of a Japanese Military Brothel Manager". The Origins of the US Army's Korean Comfort Women (6).
  55. Matsui, Yayori. “The Sex Tourist’s Yen.” New Internationalist, July 1993, https://newint.org/features/1993/07/05/sex.
  56. Zhu, Jessica. "A Continuum of Violence: Karayuki-san, Comfort Women, and Sex Tourism in Japan". University of Stanford. Archived from the original on 2013-07-25. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Check |url= value (help)
  57. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:MAtNXUrAo7EJ:https://ojs.stanford.edu/ojs/index.php/sjfgss/article/download/2100/1473/8314 https://web.archive.org/web/20220921231010/https://ojs.stanford.edu/ojs/index.php/sjfgss/article/download/2100/1473
  58. Kaneda, Kimiko. “Testimonies of the Victims: Testimony I Kimiko Kaneda (South Korea).” Atonement Project of the Asian Women’s Fund, 1998, https://www.awf.or.jp/e3/oralhistory-00.html.
  59. Norma, Caroline (2018). Comfort Women and Post-Occupation Corporate Japan. ASAA Women in Asia Series. Routledge. ISBN 978-1351185257. Even more so than women in Japan, Korean women were racially and economically subordinated to Japanese men. For the postoccupation state, this meant they ...
  60. Norma, Caroline (2018). Comfort Women and Post-Occupation Corporate Japan. ASAA Women in Asia Series. Routledge. ISBN 978-1351185257. ... a nationally prostituted female population of 200,000 women, with 47,000 of them incarcerated in 15,000 alcoholserving venues and other similar ...
  61. Norma, Caroline (2018). Comfort Women and Post-Occupation Corporate Japan. ASAA Women in Asia Series. Routledge. ISBN 978-1351185257. the reporter estimated there were 200,000 women korea-wide who were being prostituted by foreign men as part of tourism in the country. Most of these foreign men were Japanese. One high-class hotel in Seoul surveyed in 1973 had 2000 rooms that were 99 per cent occupied by Japanese tourists. Of these guests, 150 had kisaeng staying wit them.511
  62. Hirakawa, Hitoshi and Shimizu, Hiroshi. Japan and Singapore in the World Economy : Japan's Economic Advance Into Singapore 1870-1965. Routledge, 1999. EBSCOhost, https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/12921010.
  63. Imamura, Shohei. “Karayuki-San, The Making of a Prostitute.” Icarus Films, 1975.
  64. Mihalopoulos, Bin. “The making of prostitutes: The Karayuki-san.” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 25:1, 41-56, 1993, doi:10.1080/14672715.1993.10408345.
  65. Miyazaki, Kohei. “Rare interview tapes with Japanese 'karayuki-san' prostitute in Singapore surface.” The Mainichi, 30 December 2020, https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20201230/p2a/00m/0na/016000c.
  66. Tsukuda Koji and Kato Michinori. “Nanyo no Shin Nihonjin Mura [New Japanese Villages in the South Seas].” 1919.
  67. Warren, James Francis. “Karayuki-san of Singapore: 1877 — 1941.” Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 62, no. 2 (257), 1989, pp. 45–80. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41493135.
  68. Baskett, Michael (2008). The Attractive Empire: Transnational Film Culture in Imperial Japan (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 188. ISBN 9780824864606. ... and 1945 have Nanyo-related content; Nihon nyusu eigashi (Mainichi Shinbun, 1977). ... Sawamura Tsutomu, “Karayuki-san,” Eiga hyoron (Apr. 1937), 129.
  69. "Rare interview tapes with Japanese 'karayuki-san' prostitute in Singapore surface". The Mainichi. December 30, 2020.
  70. "Breaking..Rare interview tapes with 1904 Japanese 'karayuki-san' prostitute in Singapore surface".
  71. SISSONS, D. C. S. (1977). "Karayuki-san: Japanese prostitutes in Australia, 1887–1916 (I & II)" (PDF). In STOCKWIN, ARTHUR; TAMURA, KEIKO (eds.). Bridging Australia and Japan: Volume 1. Historical Studies. Vol. 17. ANU Press. pp. 323–341. doi:10.1080/10314617708595555. ISBN 9781760460860. JSTOR j.ctt1q1crmh.10.
  72. "11mm Murata formed from French Gras?". 7 November 2021.
  73. Dinh, Michelle Lynn (Feb 28, 2014). "Surprising knock-off goods from Japan".
  74. https://www.quora.com/Did-Japan-in-the-1960s-to-1980s-have-the-reputation-for-being-a-product-copycat-like-China-has-today https://www.quora.com/Is-it-true-that-people-in-the-past-saw-Japanese-products-as-cheap-copies-like-how-we-see-Chinese-products-today
  75. Demin, Anatolii. "Soviet Fighters in the Sky of China VI (1937-1940)". J-Aircraft - Japanese Aircraft, Ships & Historical Research. Aviatsiia i Kosmonavtika 2.2001. translated by George M. Mellinger, Twin Cities Aero Historians
  76. "Johan de Wolf converts the AvUsk I-152 to the Zhông 28B in 1/72nd scale". Aviation of Japan 日本の航空史. 14 March 2013.
  77. "Polikarpov I-15". Asisbiz. 8 October 2021.
  78. "Zhong 28B". Каропка.ру — стендовые модели, военная миниатюра.
  79. "N215SF | North American T-28B Trojan | JK zhong". Aviation photos - 4 million+ on JetPhotos.
  80. https://forum.warthunder.com/index.php?/topic/471134-chu-xp-0-only-indigenous-chinese-ww2-plane/ https://forum.warthunder.com/index.php?/topic/476624-fuhsing-ap-1-ww2-indigenous-chinese-multirole-aircraft/ https://ww2aircraft.net/forum/threads/chinese-training-aircraft-1937-40.58926/ https://www.pinterest.com/pin/ww2-aircraft-and-weapon-systems-allies-and-neutrals--708261478873742033/ https://www.pinterest.cl/pin/johan-de-wolf-converts-the-avusk-i152-to-the-zhng-28b-in-172nd-scale--737183032738677623/
  81. Henderson, Gregory (1973). "1 Okinawa: The Bacground". In Henderson, Gregory (ed.). Public Diplomacy and Political Change. Praeger special studies in international politics and government. Ardent Media.
  82. Chou Wan-yao (1996). 從比較的觀點看台灣與韓國的皇民化運動(1937-1945年). In Chang Yen-hsien (張炎憲); Lee Hsiao-feng (李筱峰); Tai Pao-tsun (戴寶村) (eds.). 台灣史論文精選(下) (in Chinese). Taipei: Yu-shan. pp. 161–201. ISBN 9789579361378.
  83. 天皇子民――皇民化運動與台灣民族意識 Archived 2011-10-02 at the Wayback Machine
  84. Egorov, Boris (Aug 4, 2020). "How Chinese gangs terrorized Russia for half a century". Russia Behind the Headlines.
  85. https://twitter.com/inquirerdotnet/status/790780157162323968 https://twitter.com/kmanlupigINQ/status/344619413481336832 https://twitter.com/kmanlupigINQ/status/790777977856417792 https://twitter.com/kmanlupigINQ/status/790776591727026176
  86. Kaneshiro, Edith M. (2002). "Chapter 5 "The Other Japanese" Okinawan immigrants to the Philippines, 1903-1941". In Nakasone, Ronald Y. (ed.). Okinawan Diaspora (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 81, 82. ISBN 0824825306.
  87. KANESHIRO, EDITH M. (2007). ""The Other Japanese": Okinawan Immigrants to the Philippines, 1903-1941". In Chien, Joyce N.; Ikeda, Kiyoshi (eds.). Uchinaanchu Diaspora : Memories, Continuities and Constructions. Social Process in Hawai'i. Vol. 42. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. p. 61-82, 72, 73. ISBN 978-0-8248-3287-2. ISSN 0737-6871-42. {{cite book}}: Check |issn= value (help); More than one of |pages= and |page= specified (help)
  88. Flynn, Dennis O.; Giráldez, Arturo; Sobredo, James (2018). Studies in Pacific History: Economics, Politics, and Migration. Routledge Revivals. Routledge. ISBN 978-1351742481.
  89. Zulueta, Johanna O. (2022). Okinawan Women's Stories of Migration: From War Brides to Isse. Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia Series (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1000553055.
  90. Triplet, William S. (2001). Ferrell, Robert H. (ed.). In the Philippines and Okinawa: A Memoir, 1945-194. University of Missouri Press. p. 35. ISBN 0826263321.
  91. KUMASAKA, Y.; SAITO, H (April 1970). "Kachigumi: A Collective Delusion among the Japanese and Their Descendants in Brazil". Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal. 15 (2): 167–175. doi:10.1177/070674377001500210. PMID 5478601. S2CID 10487940.
  92. United States. Congress. House. Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1938-1944) (1943). Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Hearings Before a Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Seventy-fifth Congress, Third Session-Seventy-eighth Congress, Second Session, on H. Res. 282, to Investigate (l) the Extent ... Vol. 8 of Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Hearings Before a Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Seventy-fifth Congress, Third Session-Seventy-eighth Congress, Second Session, on H. Res. 282, to Investigate (l) the Extent, Character, and Objects of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States, (2) the Diffusion Within the United States of Subversive and Un-American Propaganda that is Instigated from Foreign Countries Or of a Domestic Origin and Attacks the Principle of the Form of Government as Guaranteed by Our Constitution, and (3) All Other Questions in Relation Thereto that Would Aid Congress in Any Necessary Remedial Legislation, United States. Congress. House. Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1938-1944). U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 199. Hearings Before a Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Seventy-fifth Congress, Third Session-Seventy-eighth Congress, ... He was most active in campaings to raise money for Japan's war chest .
  93. United States. Congress. House. Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1941). Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Volume 3-8. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 199. Special Committee on Un-American Activities ... It is significant that a similar census was taken by the Japanese - American News in San Francisco of all ... He was most active in campaings to raise money for Japan's war chest .
  94. "Japan, China, the United States and the Road to Pearl Harbor, 1937–41". Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute United States Department of State. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 2021-11-16. Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  95. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2022-10-05. Retrieved 2022-10-05.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  96. Evans, James R; Lindsay, William M (1993), "5: Total Quality Management", The Management and Control of Quality (4 ed.), Minneapolis, Minnesota: West Publishing, p. 112, ISBN 9780314008640, OCLC 25873758
  97. https://web.archive.org/web/20221005175637/https://i.4cdn.org/his/1664727716611473.jpg
  98. Schanberg, Sydney H. (Dec 20, 1973). "Japanese Stir Anger in Indonesia". The New York Times.
  99. Harlow, Olivia. "History of the Camcorder". Legacybox.
  100. Wallace, Dillon. "Who Invented Camcorder?". EasyTechJunkie.
  101. Beam, J. "Who Invented the Video Camera?". EasyTechJunkie.
  102. "Camcorder - New World Encyclopedia".
  103. "A history of the camcorder". hightower.video. 07 Dec. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  104. Hellerman, Jason (September 4, 2020). "When Were Cameras Invented?". No Film School.
  105. "Camcorder - Invented by Sony". Edubilla. 1983.
  106. "The History Of Video Camera And Camcorder Recording". Memories on Video. Dec 14, 2018.
  107. Lindblad, Mason (March 17, 2022). "Who Invented the Video Camera?". FILTERGRADE.