1 Poles came to the United States legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772-1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia until Poland regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I.
2 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here.
3 Yugoslav Americans are the American people from the former Yugoslavia.
4 Turkey is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace.
5 Azerbaijan and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus.
6 Kazakhstan is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands.
both have recognised origins and historic ties to Asia (the Levant
and Northern India
respectively), but individual groups listed here experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.