Bunka (文化) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, , lit. "year name") after Kyōwa and before Bunsei. The period started in January 1804 and ended in April 1818. During this time, the emperors were Kōkaku-tennō (光格天皇) and Ninkō-Tennō (仁孝天皇).
Events of the Bunka era[change | edit source]
- 1804 (Bunka 1): Hayashi Jussai explained the foreign policy of the Tokugawa shogunate to the emperor in Kyoto.
- June 1805 (Bunka 2): Genpaku Sugita was granted an audience with Shogun Tokugawa Ienari to explain differences between traditional medical knowledge and Western medical knowledge.
- 25 September 1810 (Bunka 7, 27th day of the 8thmonth): Earthquake in northern Honshū (Latitude: 39.900/Longitude: 139.900), 6.6 magnitude on the Richter Scale.
- 7 December 1812 (Bunka 9, 4th day of the 11th month): Earthquake in Honshū (Latitude: 35.400/Longitude: 139.600), 6.6 magnitude on the Richter Scale.
- 1817 (Bunka 14): Emperor Kōkaku traveled in procession to Sento Imperial Palace, a palace of an abdicated emperor. The Sento Palace at that time was called Sakura Machi Palace.
- 7 May 1817 (Bunka 14, 22nd day of the 3rd month): Kōkaku abdicated; and the succession passed to his son (senso). Soon after, Emperor Ninkō's role as monarch was confirmed by ceremonies (sokui).
Related pages[change | edit source]
References[change | edit source]
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Bunka" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 91.
- Nussbaum, "Kōkaku Tennō," p. 546.
- Nussbaum, "Ninkō Tennō," p. 716; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 420-421.
- Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds, pp. 117, 163.
- Sugita Genpaku. (1969). Dawn of Western Science in Japan: Rangaku Kotohajime, p. xvi.
- U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NOAA/Japan: Significant Earthquake Database; retrieved 2011-12-13.
- Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, p. 186; Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), 後桜町天皇 (117); retrieved 2012-5-27.
- National Ditigial Archives of Japan, Sakuramachiden Gyokozu (English); retrieved 2011-12-13.
- Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, pp. 50; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Kunaichō, Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei); retrieved 2012-6-30.
Other websites[change | edit source]
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
|Era or nengō: