Israel–Gaza war (2023-2024)

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Israel–Hamas war (2023–present)
Part of the Gaza–Israel conflict

  Gaza under Hamas' control
  Evacuated areas inside Israel
  Territories in the Gaza Strip under Israeli control
  Areas in the Gaza Strip that Israel ordered its citizens to evacuate
Date7 October 2023 – present
(6 months and 6 days)
Location
Status Ongoing
Belligerents
Hamas
PIJ
PFLP[1]
DFLP[2]
Non-Palestinian groups:
 Hezbollah[3]
 Ansarallah[4]
 Israel
Supported by:
 United States[5]
 Germany[6]
 United Kingdom
Commanders and leaders
Ismail Haniyeh
Mohammed Al-Deif
Yahya Sinwar
Ziyad al-Nakhalah
Nayef Hawatmeh
Ahmad Saadat
Hezbollah Hassan Nasrallah
Yemen Abdul-Malik al-Houthi
Benjamin Netanyahu
Israel Isaac Herzog
Yoav Gallant
Israel Benny Gantz
Herzi Halevi
Israel Yaron Finkelman[7]
Units involved
  • Israel Defense Forces
  • Israel Police
  • Israel Shin Bet
  • Strength
    20,000–40,000
    2,500 entered Israel[source?]
    530,500[10][11]
    Casualties and losses

    Gaza Strip:

    West Bank:[e]

    Inside Israel:

    • 1,000+ militants killed (according to Israel)[23]

    Lebanon:

    Israel:

    Inside Gaza:

    On 7 October 2023, Palestinian militant groups from Gaza, led by Hamas, launched an offensive against Israel called Operation Al Aqsa Flood.[34] Thousands of rockets were fired into Israel. During the morning, militants entered some nearby military bases and towns in Israel. They entered by land, air, and sea. About 1,100 Israelis were killed, and about 245 were kidnapped. The militants also killed and kidnapped some foreigners.[35] An Israeli operation called Iron Swords by the IDF was launched in response to the offensive, killing about 1,000 militants (according to Israel) and over 33,360 people in Gaza.[36][37] Hamas stated that its attack was in response to the continued Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, the blockade of the Gaza Strip, the expansion of illegal Israeli settlements and increase in Israeli settler violence.[38][39][40] The armed conflict is part of the Gaza–Israel conflict, which is part of the Israel–Palestine conflict.

    Names[change | change source]

    Palestinian militant groups call the offensive Operation al-Aqsa Flood (amaliyyat ṭūfān al-ʾAqṣā).[41][42][34][43] Israeli authorities call its counteroffensive Operation Iron Swords (Mivtsá charavót barzél).[44] Some news agencies and commentators have called the ongoing conflict the Third Intifada (related pages, First and Second Intifadas).[45] Others have called it the Sukkot War, after the festivity celebrated the day the conflict started.[46][47] Many analysts and officials have called the first conflict, "Israel's 9/11 moment".[48][49][50]

    Deaths[change | change source]

    Israeli and Palestinian deaths

    Israel[change | change source]

    Palestinian militants killed about 1,139 people in Israel (including 604 soldiers[51] and some foreigners). The Israeli forces claim they killed about 1,000 of the Palestinian invaders.[52][53]

    The 1,139 number counts the 822 Israeli civilians,[54] 604 Israeli soldiers,[51] 61+ police officers,[51] 10 Shin Bet members[55] and 166 foreigners and dual-nationals.[56]

    The police commander of Rahat, was killed.[57] The commander of the Nahal Brigade, Colonel Yonatan Steinberg, was killed near Kerem Shalom.[58] In Ashkelon,[59] at least 68 died.[60] Dozens of bodies were reportedly discovered at a place, in Re'im, where there had been a party.[61] The Battle of Re'im happened, and there was fighting at a military base there. Colonel Roi Levy was killed in the battle.[62] On 4 November, Abu Obaida said that at least 60 Israeli captives/POWs were killed by the Israeli airstrikes, but there was no independent verification about it.[63] Foreigners were killed. (See section below, "Foreign and dual-national victims".) Israeli forces stated that they killed 3 Israeli hostages by mistake in Gaza Strip, which led to protests in israel.[64]

    Palestine[change | change source]

    Over 33,091 people have been killed in Gaza, most of whom were civilians (according to the Palestinian Health Ministry).[18] Doctors Without Borders said that Israel attacked the Indonesian Hospital in the Gaza Strip, killing one nurse and one ambulance driver while injuring several others.[65] The (home or) family home of Mohammed Deif, the (top) commander of the Al Qassam Brigades was hit by an airstrike in Khan Younis; his father, brother and at least two other relatives were killed in the attack.[66] According to Committee to Protect Journalists, at least 89 Palestinian journalists were killed by the Israeli airstrikes as of 28 February 2024.[67] While other reports says, at least 132 Palestinian journalists were killed as of 16 February 2024.[68]

    Lebanon[change | change source]

    • 265 Hezbollah fighters killed[69]
      12 Amal Movement fighters[69]
      At least, 2 Palestinian Islamic Jihad fighters[70]
      60+ civilians[69][71]

    Foreign and dual-national victims[change | change source]

    Around 100 foreigners were killed. Some of those had nationality from more than one country, dual nationals. They are from [24 or] 23 countries, according to the Washington Post on 11 October.[72] (Foreigners were also taken hostage and kidnapped. See section below, "Kidnappings".)[73]

    10 Nepalis were killed by Hamas,[74] 1 Indonesian medic killed by Israel,[75] 16 Syrians killed by IDF.[76]

    11 Americans killed by Hamas/Israel.[77]

    3 Israeli hostages in Gaza killed by IDF.[64]

    Kidnappings[change | change source]

    Approximately 245 hostages were taken; 105 of whom were released during the prisoner exchange deal from November 24 to 30.[78][79]

    Around 130-150 IDF soldiers[80] and civilians were taken as hostages. At least 200 Israelis were taken prisoner by Hamas and moved to the Gaza Strip.[81] Most of the hostages were civilians. Many of those were taken from a rave party.[82] Some foreigners were also captured. Some of those have nationality from more than one country.[83]

    •  Israeli hostages, 13 hostages came back to Israel on November 26; Earlier, 13 hostages were released (November 24).
    • from  Thailand, 4 came back (from Gaza) to Israel on November 26; Earlier, 10 were set free (November 24); Thai authorities think that 18 are still kidnapped (as of November 26).[84][85][86]
    • from    Nepal, 17 people were captured (by Hamas) during the conflict
    • from  Ukraine, 9 people
    • from  Germany, [7 or] 8 people are confirmed to be hostages [as of the end of October] but the total is likely [9 or] 10 more, according to German authorities;[87][88] Israeli-German Shani Louk was found dead in October.[89]
    • from  Austria, 2 people
    • from  Philippines, 1 hostage was set free [November 25].[85] Earlier that month, 2 people were hostages.
    • from  Mexico, 2 people[90]
    • from  France, 1 person[91]
    • from  Chile, 1 person
    • from  Denmark, 1 person[92]

    The bodies of two Israeli hostages were found in buildings near the Shifa hospital; One was a 65-year old civilian, the other was a 19-year old soldier, according to Israeli authorities. [93] The IDF said earlier (October 13) that Israeli remains and personal items were found on the Gaza Strip, during 2023 Israeli ground operations there.[94]

    Of these, 4 hostages have been released [as of the middle of November],[95][h] and a captured Israeli soldier was rescued by Israeli forces.

    Of the 4 hostages that have been released (as of October 25), two are Israelis and 2 are Americans.[101]

    Injured people, refugees, and missing people[change | change source]

    Damage_in_Gaza_Strip_during_the_October_2023_-_46
    Medics transport an injured Palestinian child into Al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City following an Israeli airstrike on 11 October 2023.
    • Gaza Strip: 75,750+ injured[18]
    • Israel: 10,500+ injured[102]

    Refugees[change | change source]

    1,900,000 Palestinians displaced in Gaza[103]
    500,000+ Israelis displaced[104]

    Missing[change | change source]

    Israel (As per IDF): Around 100 are missing.[105]

    Palestine (As per Palestinian Health Ministry): Around 8,000+ palestinians are missing.[106]

    Invasion of Gaza Strip (since October 27)[change | change source]

    • "The Israeli army began its ground invasion in Gaza on October 27, moving tanks, bulldozers and combat engineers and other soldiers into the Gaza Strip.[107] According to The Times of Israel, Most of the Israeli soldiers are still waiting on the Israeli side of the Gaza border, and are so far not putting in more effort than doing "overnight raids"; Furthermore, a major invasion has not started yet.[108]
    • Israeli soldiers are in the Gaza Strip (as of October 28), and they seem to be concentrating[109] their efforts "on the northern area of the Gaza Strip, in Beit Hanoun, and pushing down a bit further south from there", according to a report (from the Israeli city Sderot) by BBC International editor, Jerusalem; Furthermore, the soldiers are part of a big raid or ground offensive. (Some other media, call it an invasion.) Furthermore, Israeli forces are likely trying "to clear out tunnels, probably with special forces spotting targets for [...] air force attacks".[109] (Hundreds of kilometers of tunnels, are under Gaza; Militants are known to use those tunnels)
    • By October 29, the Israeli soldiers had gone into the Gaza Strip, for the third day in a row.[110]
    • On October 30, A kidnapped Israeli soldier (rank, Private) was freed in an operation by IDF, and with help from Shin Bet and Mossad.[111]
    • On October 31, rockets (or missiles) were fired (from a fighter jet), at Jabalia refugee camp's al-Yafawiya neighbourhood; It is in northern Gaza; Ibrahim Biari (a Hamas commander) was killed, according to Israeli authorities, a claim which Hamas denied.[112] Dozens[113] of Hamas militants "were also killed [...] when underground tunnels below the camp collapsed" after the rocket hits, according to a media report about what an Israeli authority said. Furthermore, around 40-200 civilians were killed and around 150 others were injured.[114] The attack is part of the Jabalia refugee camp airstrikes.
    • On November 1, IDF announced that 9 soldiers of its Givati Brigade were killed when a anti-tank guided missile hit the armoured vehicle they were in.[115] The total number of Israeli soldiers who were killed during the invasion of Gaza, raised to 15.[116]
    • On November 3, Israeli forces struck a convoy of ambulance killing at least 15 people with 60 more injuries.[117]
    • On November 6, Israeli missile attacks targeted the Nasser Medical Complex in Gaza City, hitting the Al-Nasser Children's Hospital, eight people were killed in the strike and dozens more were injured.[118] Later that day, Israeli forces released footage of its advancement in Gaza, several rocket launching sites were discovered.[119] Abu Obaida, spokesperson of Al-Qassam Brigades, announced that 27 israeli tanks have been destroyed by the group in last 2 days.[120]
    • On November 16, Due to shortage of Fuel, internet and phone networks were shut down in the Gaza Strip, according to the two primary telecom providers Jawwal and Paltel.[121]
    • On November 17, After the United States asked, Israel agreed to let 140,000 liters of fuel enter the Gaza Strip in every two days. As a result, the internet and phone services in the area were restored.[122]
    • On November 18, Israeli strikes killed more than 80 people in Jabalia refugee camp. At least 50 civilians who were sheltered in a UN-run school were killed in this attack.[123]
    • On November 22, Israel and Hamas reached a temporary ceasefire agreement, providing for a four-day ceasefire in exchange of release of prisoners. The deal was to end in 4 days (till 27 November) but it continued till 30 November after negotiations by Qatar. The deal let to 105 hostages getting released by Hamas while Israel released 240 palestinians.[79]

    War crimes[change | change source]

    A UN Commission to the Israel-Palestine conflict said (October 10) that there is "clear evidence that war crimes may have been [done] in the latest [...] violence in Israel and Gaza".[124][125] B'Tselem, a human rights organization from Israel, said that Hamas' killing of civilians and taking of hostages, are war crimes.[126] It accused the Israeli government of (doing or) committing war crimes against the people of Gaza, including the bombing of civilians, the use of white phosphorous bomb, the closing of border crossings, and the cutting of power and water supplies. (Water mains, or large pipes that tap water usually can run through, were stopped from having that water go from Israel to Gaza. Regarding giving electrical power to the electrical grid: fuel to make electrical power at Gaza's power station has been stopped from going from Israel to Gaza.)

    Human Rights Watch (also) gave examples of acts that Hamas and Israel has done, which HRW points out as war crimes.[127] On December 29, 2023, South Africa accused Israel of risking a Genocide in Gaza and filed a lawsuit against Israel at the International Court of Justice.[128]

    Famine[change | change source]

    On March 27, 2024, the government of Ireland announced that it will join the lawsuit of South Africa v. Israel and stated that "restricting food and other essentials in Gaza may constitute genocidal intent".[129]

    On March 28, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) stated "that Palestinians in Gaza are no longer facing only a risk of famine ... but that famine is setting in," and ordered Israel to unblock food aid.[130] All 16 judges backed the order that Israel must ensure without delay unhindered supply on a large scale:

    "The State of Israel shall ... Take all necessary and effective measures to ensure, without delay, in full co-operation with the United Nations, the unhindered provision at scale by all concerned of urgently needed basic services and humanitarian assistance, including food, water, electricity, fuel, shelter, clothing, hygiene and sanitation requirements, as well as medical supplies and medical care to Palestinians throughout Gaza, including by increasing the capacity and number of land crossing points and maintaining them open for as long as necessary;"[131][132]

    Attacks on aid deliveries and aid workers[change | change source]

    On April 1, 2024, seven aid workers of from World Central Kitchen [en] were killed in an Israeli airstrike in Gaza.[133] According to the Humanitarian Coordinator [en] for Palestine, Jamie McGoldrick, the attack on WCK was not an "isolated incident", the recorderd number of killed aid workers in the last six months in Gaza was nearly three times as high as in any other single conflict in a year. Due to this continuing threat the aid groups had to stop their work.[134]

    Electrical power[change | change source]

    Israel Electric Corporation (owned by the Israeli government) stopped giving electrical power to the electrical grid of the Gaza Strip. Israeli authorities also stopped the Gaza Strip from getting fuel. The Gaza Strip's only power station ran out of fuel.[135]

    International response[change | change source]

    Some countries, mostly the western world, have given criticism against the attacks in Israel. While countries, which includes Russia, China and Venezuela and most of the Arab world and Islamic world, have given criticism against the attacks on Gaza. The foreign ministry of Jordan said that, "If the war continued, it may get a popular impression that it's a war between western and arab islamic world."[136]

    On 18 October 2023, a resolution about a "humanitarian pause" to deliver lifesaving aid to millions in Gaza, was not approved by the United Nations Security Council; The proposed resolution came from Brazil's authorities, and the United States vetoed it.[137]

    On 27 October, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution ES-10/21 calling for an "immediate and sustained" humanitarian ceasefire and stopping of fighting.

    On 13 November 2023, United Nations observed a moment of silence with half-staff to mourn and honour 101 staff of UNRWA, that were killed in Gaza.[138]

    United States[change | change source]

    United States authorities have sent two aircraft carriers with its combat airplanes and escorting warships, to the area to support Israel.[139][140][141] On November 5, an Ohio-class nuclear submarine started (its stay or) a deployment in the Middle East, according to United States authorities.[141]

    US authorities think that there is a chance that the conflict could spread to other countries in the region.[142] U.S. authorities are against the taking of U.S. citizens as hostages by Hamas.[143] U.S. officials think that there is a chance that Iran-backed forces in Syria and Lebanon may open additional fronts against Israel.[144] US President Joe Biden and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had a phone call (October 8) and Biden said he has "deep sympathy" for the killed, missing, and wounded in Israel and (promised or) pledged his "full support" to Israel.[145]

    The USA has also sent munitions to Israel.[146]

    On 25 March 2024, the U.S. government finally let a United Nations Security Council resolution pass that called for an immediate ceasefire between Israel and Hamas.[147]

    On March 29, the Washington Post reported that the U.S. government approved the transfer of "billions of dollars worth of bombs and fighter jets", including "more than 1,800 MK84 2,000-pound bombs [en] and 500 MK82 500-pound bombs".[148][149]

    After the airstrike on the aid workers from World Central Kitchen, Biden called the prime minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu on 4 April 2024, and "made clear the need for Israel to announce and implement a series of specific, concrete, and measurable steps to address civilian harm, humanitarian suffering, and the safety of aid workers."[150] On 5 April 2024, 40 members of Congress from the Democratic party (including Nancy Pelosi) urged Joe Biden in an open letter to stopp the arms shippments:

    "we strongly urge you to reconsider your recent decision to authorize the transfer of a new arms package to Israel, and to withhold this and any future offensive arms transfers until a full investigation into the airstrike is completed."[151]

    Response to the warfare of October 2023[change | change source]

    Response to the attacks on Gaza[change | change source]

    Toronto_rally_for_Palestine_-_20231028-195425775
    Pro-Palestine rally in Toronto, Canada

    The leaders of some countries have tried to find words to give criticism to parts of Israel's attack (or retaliation) against Gaza.

    The Foreign ministry of United Arab Emirates (UAE) called for an immediate ceasefire.[152]

    Norway's prime minister said that Israel has a right to defend itself; He added that "we must give emphasis[153] [or say that it is important] that the Israelis show consideration towards civilians" [in Gaza].

    Malaysian Prime Minister, Anwar Ibrahim called for a ceasefire and for Palestinians to be "treated as human beings".[154] On December 20, 2023, Malaysian PM announced a block on Israeli-linked ships with immediate effect. Ships that are on their way to israel will also be not allowed to stop at any Malaysian ports.[155]

    Algerian President, Abdelmadjid Tebboune called on the International Criminal Court (ICC) to take action to hold Israel responsible for crimes that it is committing against Palestinians.[156]

    During the start this war, The French embassy in Israel condemned the attacks and described Hamas' actions as "inadmissible terrorist attacks". While on 10th of November, French President, Emmanuel Macron called for a ceasefire and urged Israel to stop bombing Gaza and killing civilians.[157]

    Response (non-military) in Israel[change | change source]

    The sign is saying, "Together we Win". It shows support of Israel. Raanana, October 2023

    Haaretz, a newspaper, printed an editorial which said that the attack was the "clear responsibility of one person: Benjamin Netanyahu". The newspaper said that the prime minister [did not see and tell about the dangers that he was leading Israel into, or he] has "completely failed to identify the dangers he was consciously leading Israel into when establishing a government of annexation and dispossession" (or taking away someone's possessions).[158]

    Related pages[change | change source]

    Notes[change | change source]

    1. Per the UN
    2. Per Gaza Health Ministry and Government Information Office:[12]
    3. 75% women and children[12][19]
    4. 70% women and children[20]
    5. per Palestinian Authority
    6. Including:
      • 270 Hezbollah fighters[24]
      • 4+ PIJ fighters[25]
      • 15 Amal Movement fighters
      • 6+ Hamas fighters[26]
      • 70+ civilians[27]
    7. as per Al Qassam Brigades
    8. Including:

    References[change | change source]

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    2. "الحرية – بيان عسكري صادر عن كتائب المقاومة الوطنية (قوات الشهيد عمر القاسم) استشهاد ثلاثة من مقاتلينا داخل اراضينا المحتلة عام 48". Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
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