Pope Boniface IX
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|Papacy began||2 November 1389|
|Papacy ended||1 October 1404|
|Predecessor||Pope Urban VI|
|Successor||Pope Innocent VII|
|Birth name||Piero Tomacelli|
|Died||October 1, 1404
|Other Popes named Boniface|
Early life [change]
Pope Boniface was involved in Italian and European political disputes.
Papal actions [change]
- 1391 – University of Ferrara established
- 1392 – University of Efurt confirmed
- 1396 – Jubilee celebrated at Rome
- 1398 – University of Fermo established
Boniface canonized St. Birgitta of Sweden.
Western Schism [change]
|Popes of the Western Schism|
Related pages [change]
- "List of Popes," Catholic Encyclopedia (2009); retrieved 2011-11-29.
- "Pope Boniface IX", Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2011-11-29.
- Montor, Artaud de. (1911). "Pope Boniface IX," The Lives and Times of the Popes, Vol. 4, p. 85.
- Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. (1838). "Boniface IX," Penny cyclopaedia, Vol. 5, p. 154.
- Note on ordinal numbering: Popes Boniface VIII–IX are really the 7th and 8th popes with that name. This is because Boniface VII is now parsed as an antipope; but during the reign of Boniface VIII, this was not recognized. The "true" or actual eighth pope Boniface identified himself with the ordinal number IX. In other words, the numbering of popes after the 7th Boniface needs to be explained -- compare Popes Benedict XI–XVI.
- Motor, p. 87.
- "Boniface IX," Encyclopedia Britannica (1910), Vol. 4, p. 207.
- "Western Schism," Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2011-11-29.
Other websites [change]
- Media related to Bonifacius IX at Wikimedia Commons
- "Pope Boniface IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company.