List of common misconceptions
(Redirected from Common misconceptions)Jump to navigation Jump to search
This is a list of popular wrong ideas and beliefs about notable topics. Each has been discussed in published literature.
- 1 History
- 2 Legislation and crime
- 3 Food and cooking
- 4 Words and phrases
- 5 Science
- 6 Religion
- 7 Technology
- 8 Related pages
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
History[change | change source]
Ancient to early modern history[change | change source]
- There is no evidence that Vikings wore horns on their helmets.
- King Canute did not command the tide to reverse in a fit of delusional arrogance.
- Christopher Columbus's efforts to obtain support for his voyages were not hampered by a European belief in a flat Earth. Sailors and navigators of the time knew that the Earth was like a sphere, but (correctly) disagreed with Columbus's estimate of the distance to India, which was approximately one-sixth of the actual distance. The intellectual class had known that the Earth was spherical since the works of the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. Eratosthenes made a very good estimate of the Earth's diameter around 240 BC.
- There is a legend that Marco Polo imported pasta from China which originated with the Macaroni Journal, published by an association of food industries. Durum wheat, and thus pasta as it is known today, was introduced by Arabs from Libya, during their conquest of Sicily in the late 7th century.
- Contrary to the popular image of the Pilgrim Fathers, the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts did not dress in black, wear buckles, or wear black steeple hats. According to historian James W. Baker, this image was formed in the 19th century when buckles were a kind of emblem of quaintness.
- Marie Antoinette did not actually use the words "let them eat cake" when she heard that the French peasantry was starving because they did not have bread to eat. The phrase was first published in Rousseau's Confessions when Marie was only 10 years old. Marie Antoinette was unpopular, and many attributed the phrase "let them eat cake" to her, in keeping with her reputation as being hard-hearted and disconnected from her subjects.
- George Washington did not have wooden teeth. According to a study of Washington's four known dentures by a forensic anthropologist, the dentures were made of gold, hippopotamus ivory, lead, and human and animal teeth (including horse and donkey teeth).
- The United States Declaration of Independence was not signed on July 4, 1776. The final language of the document was approved by the Second Continental Congress on that date, it was printed and distributed on July 4 and 5, but the actual signing occurred on August 2, 1776.
- The United States Constitution was written on parchment, not hemp paper.
Modern history[change | change source]
- Napoleon I (Napoleon Bonaparte) (pictured) was not particularly short. After his death in 1821, the French emperor’s height was recorded as 5 feet 2 inches in French feet. This corresponds to 5 feet 6.5 inches in modern English feet, or 1.686 metres.
- According to Time magazine, there is a common misconception among Americans that Abraham Lincoln freed all the millions of American slaves with the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863, but the Confederate constitution had prohibited other nations from freeing slaves in Rebel states. The Thirteenth Amendment, ratified on December 6, 1865, officially abolished slavery in all of the United States, under President Andrew Johnson, 8 months after Lincoln had died.
- Italian dictator Benito Mussolini did not "make the trains run on time". Much of the repair work had been performed before Mussolini and the Fascists came to power in 1922. Accounts from the era also suggest that the Italian railways' legendary adherence to timetables was more myth than reality.
- During the German Invasion of Poland in 1939, there is no evidence of Polish Cavalry mounting a brave but futile charge against German tanks using lances and sabres. Polish cavalry still carried the sabre, but were trained to fight as highly mobile, dismounted infantry and issued with light anti-tank weapons.
- During World War II, King Christian X of Denmark did not thwart Nazi attempts to identify Jews by wearing a yellow star himself. Jews in Denmark were never forced to wear the Star of David. The Danes did help most Jews flee the country before the end of the war.
- Albert Einstein did not fail mathematics in school. When shown a column claiming this fact, Einstein said "I never failed in mathematics... before I was fifteen I had mastered differential and integral calculus".
- John F. Kennedy's words "Ich bin ein Berliner" are standard German for "I am a Berliner". An urban legend has it that due to his use of the indefinite article ein, Berliner is translated as jelly doughnut, and that the population of Berlin was amused by the supposed mistake. The word Berliner is not commonly used in Berlin to refer to the Berliner Pfannkuchen; they are usually called ein Pfannkuchen.
- Eva Perón never uttered the quote "I will return and I will be millions". The quote was first formulated by the indigenous leader Túpac Katari in 1781 shortly before being executed. The misattribution to Eva Perón originates from a poem by José María Castiñeira de Dios written in Eva Perón's first-person narrative nearly ten years after her death. There is a similar quote in the Spartacus movie.
Legislation and crime[change | change source]
- A common misconception is that you must wait at least 24 hours before filing a missing person's report, but this is rarely the case; in instances where there is evidence of violence or of an unusual absence, law enforcement agencies often stress the importance of beginning an investigation promptly.
- Entrapment law in the United States does not require police officers to identify themselves as police in the case of a sting or other undercover work. The law is specifically about leading people to commit crimes they would not have considered in the normal course of events.
Food and cooking[change | change source]
- Searing meat does not "seal in" moisture, and in fact may actually cause meat to lose moisture. Generally, the value in searing meat is that it creates a brown crust with a rich flavor.
- Some cooks believe that food items cooked with wine or liquor will be non-alcoholic, because alcohol's low boiling point causes it to evaporate quickly when heated. However, a study found that some of the alcohol remains: 25% after 1 hour of baking or simmering, and 10% after 2 hours.
- Sushi does not mean "raw fish", and not all sushi includes raw fish. The name sushi refers to the vinegared rice used in it. Sushi is made with sumeshi, rice which has been gently folded with rice vinegar, salt, and sugar dressing. The rice is traditionally topped by raw fish, cooked seafood, fish roe, egg, and/or vegetables such as cucumber, daikon radish, and avocado.
- Microwave ovens do not cook food from the inside out. Microwave radiation penetrates food and causes direct heating only a short distance from the surface. This distance is called the skin depth. As an example, lean muscle tissue (meat) has a skin depth of only about 1 centimetre (0.39 in) at microwave oven frequencies.
Words and phrases[change | change source]
- The word 'fuck' did not come from in Christianized Anglo-Saxon England and it is not any kind of acronym. The earliest recorded use of 'fuck' in English comes from about 1475, in the poem Flen flyys, where it is spelled fuccant (conjugated as if a Latin verb, meaning 'they fuck'). It is of Proto-Germanic origin, and is related to Dutch fokken and Norwegian fukka. Modern English was not spoken until the 16th century, and words such as 'fornication' did not exist in any form in English until the influence of Anglo-Norman in the late 12th century.
- The word 'crap' did not originate as a back-formation of British plumber Thomas Crapper's surname. Nor does his name originate from the word 'crap', although the surname may have helped popularize the word. The surname 'Crapper' is a variant of 'Cropper', which originally referred to someone who harvested crops. The word 'crap' ultimately comes from Medieval Latin crappa, meaning 'chaff'.
- The word 'gringo' is a pejorative term for an American. It did not originate during the Mexican-American War (1846–1848) or in the American Old West (~1865–1899); Nor did it originate during any of these times as a corruption of "Green go home!", falsely said to have been shouted at green-clad American troops. The word originally simply meant "foreigner", and is probably a corruption of Spanish griego, "Greek".
- The phrase "sleep tight" did not originally refer to a supposed medieval or early modern practice of tightening feather mattresses with ropes. The word "tight" here simply means "soundly".
- People during the Old and Middle English speaking periods never pronounced "the" as "ye". The idea that they did comes from confusion with the thorn, which in old print (þe or ye) often looked like a y.
- The claim that a reporter, on assignment to Cuba, telegraphed William Randolph Hearst "...There will be no war. I wish to return" and Hearst responded, "Please remain. You furnish the pictures, and I'll furnish the war." Although this claim is included in a book, there is no evidence that the telegraph exchange ever happened, and substantial evidence that it did not.
- The Dutch confections 'pepernoot' and 'kruidnoot' are ofen confused. Both are brown cookie-like desserts but kruidnoten are hard while pepernoten are soft and chewy.
Science[change | change source]
Astronomy[change | change source]
- It is commonly claimed that the Great Wall of China is the only human-made object visible from the Moon. This is false. None of the Apollo astronauts reported seeing any specific human-made object from the Moon, and even earth-orbiting astronauts can barely see it. City lights, however, are easily visible on the night side of Earth from orbit. Shuttle astronaut Jay Apt said "...the Great Wall is almost invisible from only 180 miles up".
- Black holes, contrary to their common image, do not necessarily suck up all the matter around them. Were the Sun to be replaced by a black hole of the same mass, then the orbits of all the planets surrounding it would be unaffected. This is because "if you're outside the event horizon, you can just keep going around in circles around [a black hole], in exactly the same way that you can be in orbit around any other kind of mass".
- Seasons are not caused by the Earth being closer to the Sun in the summer than in the winter. In fact, the Earth is actually farther from the Sun when it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere. Seasons are the result of the Earth being tilted on its axis by 23.4 degrees. As the Earth orbits the Sun, different parts of the world receive different amounts of direct sunlight. When an area of the Earth's surface is oriented perpendicular to the incoming sunlight, it will receive more radiation than it will when it is oriented at an angle to the incoming sunlight. In July, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun giving longer days and more direct sunlight; in January, it is tilted away. The seasons are reversed in the Southern Hemisphere, which is tilted towards the Sun in January and away from the Sun in July.
- Meteorites are not necessarily hot when they reach the Earth. In fact, many meteorites are found with frost on them. A meteorite has been in the near-absolute zero temperature of space for billions of years, so the interior of it is very cold. A meteor's great speed is enough to melt its outside layer, but any molten metal will be quickly blown off, and the interior of the meteor does not have time to heat up because rocks are poor conductors of heat. Also, atmospheric drag can slow small meteors to terminal velocity by the time they hit the ground, giving them time to cool down.
Biology[change | change source]
- DNA is not made of protein. DNA is instead a nucleic acid. However, DNA and protein work closely together. DNA is always accompanied by proteins in the chromatin of plants and animals. See protein biosynthesis for DNA's involvement in assembling protein. See also DNA replication and Ribonuclease.
- Lemmings do not engage in mass suicidal dives off cliffs when migrating.
- Bats are not blind. All bat species have eyes and can see. Further, not all bats can echolocate and these bats have excellent night vision (see megabat vs. microbat).
- It is a common myth that an earthworm becomes two worms when cut in half. However, only a limited number of earthworm species are capable of anterior regeneration. When most earthworms are cut in half, only the front half of the worm (where the mouth is located) can survive, while the other half dies. Also, species of the planaria family of flatworms actually do become two new planaria when bisected or split down the middle.
- According to urban myth, the daddy longlegs spider (Pholcus phalangioides) is the most venomous spider in the world, but the shape of their mandibles leaves them unable to bite humans, rendering them harmless to our species. In reality, they can indeed pierce human skin, though the tiny amount of venom they carry causes only a mild burning sensation for a few seconds. In addition, there is also confusion regarding the use of the name daddy longlegs, because harvestmen (order Opiliones, which are not spiders) and crane flies (which are insects) are also known as daddy longlegs, and share (also incorrectly) the myth of being venomous.
- Poinsettias are not highly toxic. They are just mildly irritating to the skin or stomach, and may sometimes cause diarrhea and vomiting if eaten. Also, Poinsettias are not highly toxic to cats. According to the ASPCA, poinsettias may cause light to mid-range gastrointestinal discomfort in felines, with diarrhea and vomiting as the most severe consequences of ingestion.
- The flight mechanism and aerodynamics of the bumblebee (as well as other insects) are actually quite well understood, in spite of the legend that calculations show that they should not be able to fly. In the 1930s a German scientist, using flawed techniques, postulated that bumblebees theoretically should not be able to fly, although he later retracted the suggestion.
- Sharks can actually suffer from cancer. The myth that sharks do not get cancer was spread by the 1992 book Sharks don't get cancer by I. William Lane. Extracts of shark cartilage was sold as cancer prevention treatments. Reports of carcinomas in sharks exist, and current data do not allow any speculation about the incidence of tumors in sharks.
- It is not harmful to baby birds to pick them up and return them to their nests, despite the common belief that doing so will cause the mother to reject them.
- Bulls are not enraged by the color red, used in capes by professional matadors. Cattle are dichromats, so red does not stand out as a bright color. It is not the color of the cape that angers the bull, but rather the movement of the fabric that irritates the bull and incites it to charge.
- Contrary to popular belief, dogs do not sweat by salivating. It is not true that dogs do not have sweat glands or have sweat glands only on their tongues. They do sweat, mainly through the footpads. However, dogs do primarily regulate their body temperature through panting.
Evolution[change | change source]
- The word theory in the theory of evolution does not imply scientific doubt about its validity. The concepts of theory and hypothesis have specific meanings in science. While theory in colloquial usage may denote a hunch or conjecture, a scientific theory is a set of principles that explains observable phenomena in natural terms. "Scientific fact and theory are not categorically separable", and evolution is a theory in the same way as gravitation, or plate tectonics are theories.
- Humans did not evolve from chimpanzees or any other modern-day primates. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor that lived about seven million years ago. Humans are part of the Hominidae (great ape) family, that also includes chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans. The common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, which lived between 6 and 8 million years ago, evolved into two lineages. One line eventually became modern humans, and the other became the two living chimpanzee species.
- Evolution is not a progression from inferior to superior organisms, because the words inferior and superior are undefined value judgements. Evolution also does not necessarily result in the evolution of complexity, though overall it has done so. A population can evolve to become simpler, having a smaller genome.
- According to the California Academy of Sciences, only 59% of U.S. adults know humans and dinosaurs did not coexist. However, the last of the non-avian dinosaurs died 65.5 million years ago, after the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, whereas the earliest Homo Genus (humans) evolved between 2.3 and 2.4 million years ago.
- Evolution does not "plan" to improve an organism's fitness to survive. For example, an incorrect way to describe giraffe evolution is to say that giraffe necks grew longer over time because they needed to reach tall trees. Evolution does not see a need and respond to it. A mutation resulting in longer necks would be more likely to benefit an animal in an area with tall trees than an area with short trees, and thus enhance the chance of the animal surviving to pass on its longer-necked genes. Tall trees could not cause the mutation nor would they cause a higher percentage of animals to be born with longer necks. In the giraffe example, the evolution of a long neck may also have been driven by sexual selection. The idea would be that long necks evolved as a secondary sexual characteristic, giving males an advantage in "necking" contests over females. It is common for an adaptation to have more than one function.
- Mammals did not evolve from reptiles, just as humans have not evolved from chimpanzees (above). Soon after the first vertebrate land-dwellers appeared, they split into two branches. The line leading to mammals (Synapsids) diverged from the line leading to reptiles (Sauropsids) about 320 million years ago, in the mid Carboniferous period. Only much later did the modern reptilian groups (lepidosaurs, turtles and crocodiles) emerge. Mammals are the only survivors of the synapsid line. The confusion over the origin of mammals comes from conflicting definitions of "Reptile". Under Linnaean taxonomy reptiles are all amniotes except mammals and birds, thus including the synapsids as well as the first basal amniotes. With the rise of classification based on phylogeny, the Sauropsida excludes basal amniotes and the synapsid line. The synapsids are popularly known as "mammal-like reptiles". An example is Dimetrodon, which is often thought of as a dinosaur, but is in fact neither a dinosaur nor closely related to modern reptiles.
Chemistry[change | change source]
- Glass is not a high-viscosity liquid at room temperature: it is an amorphous solid, although it does have some chemical properties normally associated with liquids. Panes of stained glass windows often have thicker glass at the bottom than at the top, and this has been cited as an example of the slow flow of glass over centuries. However, this unevenness is due to the window manufacturing processes used in earlier eras, which produced glass panes that were unevenly thick at the time of their installation. Normally the thick end of glass would be installed at the bottom of the frame, but it is also common to find old windows where the thicker end has been installed to the sides or the top. In fact, the lead frames of the windows are less viscous than the panes, and if glass was indeed a slow moving liquid, the panes would warp at a higher degree.
Human body and health[change | change source]
The senses[change | change source]
- Humans have more than five senses. Although definitions vary, the actual number ranges from 9 to more than 20. In addition to sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing, which were the senses identified by Aristotle, humans can sense balance and acceleration (equilibrioception), pain (nociception), body and limb position (proprioception or kinesthetic sense), and relative temperature (thermoception). Other senses sometimes identified are the sense of time, itching, pressure, hunger, thirst, fullness of the stomach, need to urinate, need to defecate, and blood carbon dioxide levels.
Skin and hair[change | change source]
- Windburn is not caused by wind (on a cloudy day). It is actually a sunburn.
- Shaving does not cause terminal hair to grow back thicker or coarser or darker. This belief is based on the fact that hair which has never been cut has a tapered end, whereas after cutting there is no taper. Thus, the cut hair appears to be thicker, and feels coarser due to the sharper, unworn edges. The fact that shorter hairs are "harder" (less flexible) than longer hairs also contributes to this effect.
- Hair and fingernails do not continue to grow after a person dies. Rather, the skin dries and shrinks away from the bases of hairs and nails, giving the appearance of growth.
- Hair care products cannot actually "repair" split ends and damaged hair. They can prevent damage from occurring in the first place, and they can also smooth down the cuticle in a glue-like fashion so that it appears repaired, and generally make hair appear in better condition.
- The gene for red hair is not going extinct. In August 2007, many news organizations reported that redheads would become extinct, possibly as early as 2060, due to the gene for red hair being recessive. Although redheads may become more rare, they will not die out unless everyone who carries the gene dies or fails to reproduce. This myth has been around since at least 1865, and often resurfaces in American newspapers. The proportion of genes do not change because an allele is recessive. That has no effect whatsoever on its frequency. See Hardy–Weinberg law
Nutrition, food, and drink[change | change source]
- Eight glasses of water a day are not necessary to maintain health. Consuming things that contain water (e.g. juice, tea, milk, fruits or vegetables) also keeps a person hydrated.
- Drinking normal levels of caffeinated beverages does not cause a net dehydration effect. The mild diuretic effect of caffeine is offset by the large amount of water in the caffeinated beverage.
- Sugar does not cause hyperactivity in children. Double-blind trials have shown no difference in behavior between children given sugar-full or sugar-free diets, even in studies specifically looking at children with Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or those considered sensitive to sugar.
- Alcohol does not make one warmer. The reason that alcoholic drinks create the sensation of warmth is that they cause blood vessels to dilate and stimulate nerve endings near the surface of the skin with an influx of warm blood. This can actually result in making the core body temperature lower, as it allows for easier heat exchange with a cold external environment.
- Alcohol does not necessarily kill brain cells. Alcohol can however lead indirectly to the death of brain cells in two ways: (1) In chronic, heavy alcohol users whose brains have adapted to the effects of alcohol, abrupt cessation following heavy use can cause excitotoxicity leading to cellular death in multiple areas of the brain. (2) In alcoholics who get most of their daily calories from alcohol, a deficiency of thiamine can produce Korsakoff's syndrome, which is associated with serious brain damage.
- A vegetarian or vegan diet can provide enough protein. In fact, typical protein intakes of ovo-lacto vegetarians, and of vegans, meet and exceed requirements. However, a strict vegan diet does require extra Vitamin B12 for good health.
Human sexuality[change | change source]
- A popular myth regarding human sexuality is that men think about sex every seven seconds. In reality, this has not been measured, and as far as researchers can tell, this statistic greatly exaggerates the frequency of sexual thoughts.
- Another popular myth is that having sex in the days leading up to a sporting event or contest is detrimental to performance. Many studies have shown that there is no physiological basis to this myth. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that sex during the 24 hours prior to sports activity can elevate the levels of testosterone in males, which potentially could enhance their performance.
The brain[change | change source]
- Mental abilities are not absolutely separated into the left and right cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Some mental functions, such as speech and language, tend to activate one hemisphere of the brain more than the other. If one hemisphere is damaged at a very early age, however, these functions can often be recovered in part or even in full by the other hemisphere (see neuroplasticity). Other abilities such as motor control, memory, and general reasoning are served equally by the two hemispheres.
- Until very recently medical experts believed that humans were born with all of the brain cells they would ever have. However, we now know that new neurons can be created in the postnatal brain. Researchers have observed adult neurogenesis in birds, Old World Primates, and humans. The newborn neurons migrate to the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus. They are believed to integrate into existing neural circuits. However, the function and physiological significance of adult-born neurons remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that post-natal neurogenesis also occurs in the neocortex, an idea that is disputed.
- People do not use only ten percent of their brains. While it is true that a small minority of neurons in the brain are actively firing at any one time, the inactive neurons are important too. This myth has been commonplace in American culture at least as far back as the start of the 20th century, and was attributed to William James, who apparently used the expression metaphorically. Some findings of brain science (such as the high ratio of glial cells to neurons) have been mistakenly read as providing support for the myth.
Disease[change | change source]
- Drinking milk or consuming other dairy products does not increase mucus production. As a result, they do not need to be avoided by those suffering from flu or cold congestion.
- Warts on human skin are caused by viruses that are unique to humans (human papillomavirus). Humans cannot catch warts from toads or other animals; the bumps on a toad are not warts.
- Vaccines do not cause autism. Although fraudulent research by Andrew Wakefield claimed a connection, repeated attempts to reproduce the results ended in failure, and the research was ultimately shown to have been manipulated.
- Cracking ones knuckles does not cause osteoarthritis. Neither does simply exercising, as long as one does not get hurt.
- Eating nuts, popcorn, or seeds does not increase the risk of diverticulitis. These foods may actually have a protective effect.
Miscellaneous[change | change source]
- Waking sleepwalkers does not harm them. While it is true that a person may be confused or disoriented for a short time after awakening, this does not cause them further harm. In contrast, sleepwalkers may injure themselves if they trip over objects or lose their balance while sleepwalking. Such injuries are common among sleepwalkers.
- Although it is commonly believed that most body heat is lost through a person's head, heat loss through the head is not more significant than other parts of the body when naked. This may be a generalization of situations in which it is true, such as when the head is the only uncovered part of the body. For example, it has been shown that hats effectively prevent hypothermia in infants.
- Eating less than an hour before swimming does not increase the risk of experiencing muscle cramps or drowning. One study shows a correlation between alcohol consumption and drowning, but there is no evidence cited regarding stomach cramps or the consumption of food.
- Drowning is often thought to be a violent struggle, where the victim waves and calls for help. In truth, drowning is often inconspicuous to onlookers. Raising the arms and vocalising are even usually impossible due to the instinctive drowning response. Waving and yelling (known as "aquatic distress") is a sign of trouble, but not a dependable one: most victims demonstrating the instinctive drowning response do not show prior evidence of distress.
- It is a common misconception that hydrogen peroxide is a disinfectant or antiseptic for treating wounds. While it is an effective cleaning agent, hydrogen peroxide is not an effective agent for reducing bacterial infection of wounds. Further, hydrogen peroxide applied to wounds can impede healing and lead to scarring because it destroys newly formed skin cells.
Mathematics[change | change source]
- Contrary to a widespread perception, the real number 0.999...—where the decimal point is followed by an infinite sequence of nines—is exactly equal to 1. They are two different ways of writing the same real number.
- When a sequence of independent trials of a random process is observed a long run may occur. For example, when a roulette ball ended up on black 26 times in a row, and not even once on red,), the other outcome is often believed to be more likely for the next trial: it is thought to be "due". This misconception is known as the gambler's fallacy; in reality, by the definition of statistical independence, that outcome is just as likely or unlikely on the next trial as always—a property sometimes informally described by the phrase, "the system has no memory".
- The correct answer to the Monty Hall Problem is that the contestant should indeed switch doors. The original problem is as follows: on a game show, there are three closed doors, one hiding a car and each of the other two doors concealing a goat. The contestant, wishing to win the car, selects a door. The door remains closed while the host, knowing where the car is hidden, proceeds to reveal a goat behind one of the remaining doors, and then offers the contestant a chance to switch his or her initial choice of door to the other closed door. Should the contestant switch? The correct answer is that the contestant should switch, as it doubles the chances of winning the car.
Physics[change | change source]
- The Coriolis effect does not determine the direction that water rotates in a bathtub drain or a flushing toilet. The Coriolis effect caused by the Earth's daily rotation is too small to affect the direction of water in a typical bathtub drain. The effect becomes significant and noticeable only at large scales, such as in weather systems or oceanic currents. Other forces dominate the dynamics of water in drains. In addition, most toilets in the United States inject water into the bowl at an angle, causing a spin too fast to be significantly affected by the Coriolis effect.
- Gyroscopic forces are not needed for a rider to balance a bicycle. Although gyroscopic forces are a factor, the stability of a bicycle is determined primarily by inertia, steering geometry, and the rider's ability to counteract tilting by steering.
- It is not true that air takes the same time to travel above and below an aircraft's wing. This misconception is widespread among textbooks and non-technical reference books, and even appears in pilot training materials. In fact the air moving over the top of an airfoil generating lift is always moving much faster than the equal transit theory would imply, as described in the incorrect and correct explanations of lift force.
- The idea that lightning never strikes the same place twice is one of the oldest and most well-known superstitions about lightning. There is no reason that lightning would not be able to strike the same place twice; if there is a thunderstorm in a given area, then objects and places which are more prominent or conductive (and therefore minimize distance) are more likely to be struck. For instance, lightning strikes the Empire State Building in New York City about 100 times per year.
- A penny dropped from the Empire State Building will not kill a person or crack the sidewalk. The terminal velocity of a falling penny is about 30–50 miles per hour, and the penny will not exceed that speed regardless of the height from which it is dropped. At that speed, its energy is not enough to penetrate a human skull or crack concrete, as demonstrated on an episode of Mythbusters.
- It is a common misconception that the color of water in large bodies, such as the oceans, is blue due to the reflections from the sky on its surface. Reflection of light off the surface of water only contributes significantly when the water surface is extremely still, i.e., mirror-like, and the angle of incidence is high, as water's reflectivity rapidly approaches near total reflection under these circumstances, as governed by the Fresnel equations. While relatively small quantities of water are observed by humans to be colorless, pure water has a slight blue color that becomes a deeper blue as the thickness of the observed sample increases. The blue tint of water is an intrinsic property and is caused by selective absorption and scattering of white light. Impurities dissolved or suspended in water may give water different colored appearances.
Psychology[change | change source]
- Photographic or eidetic memory refers to the ability to remember images with extremely high precision—so high as to mimic a camera. However, it is highly unlikely that photographic memory exists, as to date there is no hard scientific evidence that anyone has ever had it. Many people have claimed to have a photographic memory, but those people have been shown to have good memories as a result of mnemonic devices rather than a natural capacity for detailed memory encoding. There are rare cases of individuals with exceptional memory, but none of them has a memory that mimics a camera.
- Schizophrenia is not the same thing as Dissociative identity disorder, namely split or multiple personalities. Etymologically, the term "schizophrenia" comes from the Greek roots skhizein (σχίζειν, "to split") and phrēn, phren- (φρήν, φρεν-; "mind") and is a word proposed by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler. It may have given rise to this common misconception.
Religion[change | change source]
Hebrew Bible[change | change source]
- The forbidden fruit mentioned in the Book of Genesis is commonly assumed to be an apple, and is widely depicted as such in Western art, although the Bible does not identify what type of fruit it is. The original Hebrew texts mention only tree and fruit. Early Latin translations use the word mali, which can be taken to mean both "evil" and "apple". German and French artists commonly depict the fruit as an apple from the 12th century onwards, and John Milton's Areopagitica from 1644 explicitly mentions the fruit as an apple. Jewish scholars suggested that the fruit could have been a grape, a fig, wheat, or etrog. Likewise, the Quran speaks only of a forbidden "tree" and does not identify the fruit.
- Nowhere in the Old Testament or the New Testament is Satan described as dwelling in or ruling over hell.
- The Bible does not teach that humans can or will become angels after death. This myth has been proliferated by movies such as It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Unlikely Angel (1996).
Buddhism[change | change source]
- The historical Buddha was not obese. The "chubby Buddha" or "laughing Buddha" is a tenth century Chinese folk hero by the name of Budai. In Chinese Buddhist culture, Budai came to be revered as an incarnation of Maitreya, the Bodhisattva who will become a Buddha to restore Buddhism after the teachings of the historical Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, have passed away.
- The Buddha is not a god. In early Buddhism, Siddhārtha Gautama possessed no salvific properties and strongly encouraged "self-reliance, self discipline and individual striving." However, in later developments of Mahāyāna Buddhism, notably in the Pure Land (Jìngtǔ) school of Chinese Buddhism, the Amitābha Buddha was thought to be a savior. Through faith in the Amitābha Buddha, one could be reborn in the western Pure Land. Although in Pure Land Buddhism the Buddha is considered a savior, he is still not considered a god in the common understanding of the term.
Christianity[change | change source]
- There is no evidence that Jesus was born on December 25. The Bible never claims a date of December 25, but may imply a date closer to September.
- Nowhere in the Bible does it say exactly three magi came to visit the baby Jesus, nor that they were kings, rode on camels, or that their names were Casper, Melchior and Balthazar. Three magi are supposed because three gifts are described, and artistic depictions almost always show three magi. Also, the wise men in the actual biblical narrative did not visit on the day Jesus was born, but saw Jesus as a child, in a house as many as two years afterwards (Matthew 2:11).
- The Immaculate Conception is not synonymous with the virgin birth of Jesus, nor is it a supposed belief in the virgin birth of Mary, his mother. Rather, the Immaculate Conception is the Roman Catholic belief that Mary was not subject to original sin from the first moment of her existence, when she was conceived. The confusion stems from a misunderstanding of the term "immaculate," which means "without stain" (i.e. sinless). The concept of the virgin birth, on the other hand, is the belief that Mary miraculously conceived Jesus while remaining a virgin.
- The doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary is not supported by canonical scripture, first appearing c.145 AD in the Gospel of James written several decades after the canonical ones. The Gospel of Matthew (1:24) implies that Mary and Joseph did indeed consummate a marriage after Jesus's birth, both Matthew (13:55) and the Gospel of Mark (6:3) indicate that Jesus had among his family four brothers (Joses, James, Jude and Simon) and an unspecified number of sisters. The Gospel of John makes reference to an unidentified number of Jesus's "brothers" associated with Mary and separate from his disciples. Nevertheless, the doctrine was held as truth by virtually all Christian authorities until the twentieth century, and remains a central tenet of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Roman Catholics do not believe the pope is sinless. Catholic dogma does state that a teaching based on divine revelation stated by the pope is free from error. This does not mean that the pope or everything he says is free from error, even when speaking in his official capacity.
Islam[change | change source]
- A fatwā is a non-binding legal opinion issued by an Islamic scholar under Islamic law. The popular misconception that the word means a death sentence probably stems from the fatwā issued by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran in 1989 regarding the author Salman Rushdie, whom he stated had earned a death sentence for blasphemy. This event led to fatwās gaining widespread media attention in the West.
- The word "jihad" does not always mean "holy war"; literally, the word in Arabic means "struggle". While there is such a thing as "jihad bil saif", or jihad "by the sword", many modern Islamic scholars usually say that it implies an effort or struggle of a spiritual kind. Scholar Louay Safi asserts that "misconceptions and misunderstandings regarding the nature of war and peace in Islam are widespread in both the Muslim societies and the West", as much following 9/11 as before.
Technology[change | change source]
Inventions[change | change source]
- George Washington Carver did not invent peanut butter, though he reputedly discovered three hundred uses for peanuts and hundreds more for soybeans, pecans, and sweet potatoes.
- Thomas Crapper did not invent the flush toilet; it was invented by Sir John Harrington in 1596. Crapper, however, did much to increase its popularity and came up with some related inventions, such as the ballcock mechanism used to fill toilet tanks. He was noted for the quality of his products and received several Royal Warrants. Furthermore, his surname was not the origin of the word "crap" (see under Words and phrases above).
- Thomas Edison did not invent the light bulb. He did, however, develop the first practical light bulb in 1880 (employing a carbonized bamboo filament), shortly before Joseph Swan, who invented an even more efficient bulb in 1881 (which used a cellulose filament).
- Henry Ford did not invent either the automobile or the assembly line. He did help to develop the assembly line substantially, sometimes through his own engineering but more often through sponsoring the work of his employees. Karl Benz is credited with the invention of the first modern automobile, and the assembly line was invented before, several times.
- Guglielmo Marconi did not invent radio, but only modernized it for public broadcasting and communication. No single person was responsible for the invention of radio.
- James Watt did not invent the steam engine, The invention of the steam engine was a process of development and redevelopment. Watt developed the first commercially successful steam engine by greatly improving Newcomen's machine.
Transportation[change | change source]
- Toilet waste is never intentionally dumped overboard from an aircraft. All waste is collected in tanks which are emptied on the ground by special toilet waste vehicles. A vacuum is used to allow the toilet to be flushed with less water and because plumbing cannot rely on gravity alone in an aircraft in motion. The infamous blue ice is caused by accidental leakages from the waste tank. Passenger trains, on the other hand, have historically flushed onto the tracks; however, modern trains usually have retention tanks on board the train.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Kahn, Charles (2005). World history: societies of the past. Portage & Main Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-55379-045-7. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- "Is King Canute misunderstood?" BBC news story.
- Dicks, D.R. (1970). Early Greek astronomy to Aristotle. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8014-0561-7.
- "Eratosthenes of Cyrene (276 BC-194 BC)". enotes.com. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
- Panama – Veraguas Province (PDF). LonelyPlanet.com. p. 174. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- Stengle, Jamie (2008-02-20). "Lunar eclipse: The view from history's perspective". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- National Pasta Association article FAQs section "Who "invented" pasta?"; "The story that it was Marco Polo who imported noodles to Italy and thereby gave birth to the country's pasta culture is the most pervasive myth in the history of Italian food." (Dickie 2008, p. 48). Archive copy at the Internet Archive
- S. Serventi, F. Sabban La pasta. Storia e cultura di un cibo universale, VII. Economica Laterza 2004
- Serventi, Silvano; Françoise Sabban (2002), Pasta: the story of a universal food, Trans. Antony Shugaar, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 10, ISBN 978-0-231-12442-3
- Shenkman, Rick (November 21, 2001). "Top 10 Myths about Thanksgiving". HNN.us. George Mason University. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Pollak, Michael (November 26, 1998). "Screen Grab: Mayflower descendant digs deep into the lore". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "Mythconceptions Quiz Answer Key". Colonial House. PBS.org. 2004. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
- "Mayflower Myths – Thanksgiving Holiday". History.com. January 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Keener, Candace. "HowStuffWorks "Let Them Eat Cake"". History.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- "Washington's False Teeth Not Wooden". MSNBC. 2005-01-27. Archived from the original on 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2009-08-29. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Declaration of Independence – a history". archives.gov. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2011-04-04. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Crabtree, Steve (July 6, 1999). "New Poll Gauges Americans' General Knowledge Levels". Gallup News Service. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
the Declaration... was officially signed on August 2nd.) Another 32% give a more general answer, saying that July 4th celebrates Independence Day.
- "Constitutional FAQ Answer #145". The U.S. Constitution Online. USConstitution.net. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- Kirby, Terry (2007-03-29). "Theory of 'Napoleon complex' is debunked". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on June 17, 2010. Retrieved 2009-07-13. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Fondation Napoléon". Napoleon.org. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "La taille de Napoléon" (in French). Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2010-07-22. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Cruz, Gilbert (2008-06-18). "A brief history of Juneteenth". TIME. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "Our Documents - 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery". ourdocuments.gov. 2019. Retrieved 2019-01-15.
- Cathcart, Brian (1994-04-03). "Rear window: making Italy work: did Mussolini really get the trains running on time". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2010-09-2013. Check date values in:
- Ankerstjerne, Christian. "The myth of Polish cavalry charges". Panzerworld. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
- Cavalry Myth
- Vilhjálmur Örn Vilhjálmsson. "The King and the Star — Myths created during the Occupation of Denmark" (PDF). Danish institute for international studies. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
- Isaacson, Walter (2007-03-22). "Did Einstein flunk math?". Time. Archived from the original on November 04, 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|deadurl=(help); Check date values in:
- Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. "Physics Myth Month – Einstein Failed Mathematics?". Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- Daum, Andreas W. (2007). Kennedy in Berlin. Cambridge University Press. pp. 148–149. ISBN 3506719912.
- Canoo Engineering AG. "Gebrauch des unbestimmten Artikels (German, "Use of the indefinite article")". Retrieved 2010-07-05.
- "German Myth 6: JFK a Jelly Doughnut? Berlin Speech 1963". German misnomers, myths and mistakes. About.com. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
- “Volveré y seré millones”, la frase que erróneamente la historia atribuyó a Evita (Spanish)
- Preston Sparks and Timothy Cox (November 17, 2008). "Missing persons usually found". Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- "FAQs: Question: Do you need to wait 24 hours before reporting a person missing?". National Missing Persons Coordination Center, Australian Federal Police. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Missing persons week launched". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2010-08-01.
- "Snopes on Entrapment". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Sloane (1990) 49 A Crim R 270. See also agent provocateur
- "How To Sear". freeculinaryschool.com.
- "Does searing meat really seal in moisture?". Cookthink.com. Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved 2009-08-29. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- McGee, Harold (2004). On food and cooking (revised edition). Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. Page 161, "The Searing Question".
- "Does alcohol burn off in cooking?". Ochef.com. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "How Sushi Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- Van der Vorst, Andre (2006). RF/Microwave interaction with biological tissues. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-73277-8. Page 43, "Figure 1.8.
- Douglas Harper (2010). "Fuck". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Fuck". Merriam–Webster. Merriam–Webster, Inc. 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Fuck". Webster's New World College Dictionary. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Michael Quinion (2011). "Crap". World Wide Words. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Thomas Crapper". Snopes.com. Urban Legends Reference Pages. May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Douglas Harper (2010). "Crap". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Cropper". Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press. 2003. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Crap". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin. 2001. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Gringo". Snopes.com. Urban Legends Reference Pages. April 13, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "How did the term 'Gringo' originate?". Ask Yahoo!. Yahoo! Inc. August 21, 2000. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Gringo". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2001. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Michael Quinion (2011). "Sleep tight". World Wide Words. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "What is the origin of the phrase 'sleep tight'?". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Paul Brians (2011). "Common errors in English usage". Washington State University. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- Douglas Harper (2001–2010). "Etymology Online". Online Etymology Dictionary. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved June 24, 2011.CS1 maint: date format (link)
- Eric Partridge (1961). "The concise usage and abusage". H. Hamilton. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- Campbell, W. Joseph. (2010). Getting it wrong : ten of the greatest misreported stories in American Journalism. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 9–25. ISBN 978-0-520-26209-6.
- W. Joseph Campbell, Yellow Journalism: puncturing the myths, defining the legacies (2003) p. 72
- "Space Station Astrophotography". NASA. March 24, 2003. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "Great Walls of Liar". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- Wolfson, Richard (2002). Simply Einstein: relativity demystified. Norton. p. 261. ISBN 0393051544.
- Misner, Charles W.; Kip S. Thorne, John Archibald Wheeler (1973). Gravitation. New York: Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-0344-0.[page needed]
- "Frontiers And Controversies In Astrophysics Transcript 9". Yale University. Retrieved 2011-04-26.[dead link]
- "Sun-Earth Connection". Adler Planetarium. Archived from the original on 2007-12-16. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "Ten things you thought you knew about Sun-Earth science". NASA. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- Top 10 Common Misconceptions
- Regis, Ed (2009). What is life?: investigating the nature of life in the age of synthetic biology. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-538341-6.
- Lakin, Liz (2004). "The golden age of protein: an initial teacher training perspective on the biological role of proteins in our everyday lives". International Journal of Consumer Studies 28: 127–34. doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2003.00359.x.
- "Chromatin network home page". Retrieved 2011-01-07.
- "Lemmings". Snopes. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Scott, W. (November). "The Monthly chronicle of North-country lore and legend: v.1–5; Mar. 1887-Dec. 1891". The Monthly chronicle of North-country lore and legend 5: 523. https://books.google.com/books?id=W8rUAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA523#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "Common misconceptions about bats". Archived from the original on 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- "The truth about animal clichés". Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- "Blind as a Bat?". Archived from the original on 2008-06-07. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- "Simultaneous anterior and posterior regeneration and other growth phenomena in Maldanid polychaetes". 1942.
- "Gardening with children – Worms". BBC. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Reddien, Peter W.; Alvarado, Alejandro Sanchez (2004). "Fundamentals of planarian regeneration". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 20: 725–57. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.20.010403.095114. PMID 15473858.
- Mythbusters Daddy-longlegs (Season 1, Episode 16)
- "UCR Entomology Spiders – Daddy Long Legs".
- "Spider Myths – If it could only bite". Archived from the original on 2007-07-28. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Bender, Steve, ed. (Jan 2004). "Euphorbia". The Southern Living Garden Book (2nd ed.). Birmingham, Alabama: Oxmoor House. p. 306. ISBN 0-376-03910-8.
- "Are Poinsettia plants poisonous? Fact or fiction?". Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD, Aronis JM (Nov 1996). "Poinsettia exposures have good outcomes…just as we thought". American Journal of Emergency Medicine 14 (7): 671–4. doi:10.1016/S0735-6757(96)90086-8. PMID 8906768.
- Can bees fly? The Virtual Ranger Archive copy at the Internet Archive
- Ostrander, G. K.; Cheng, KC; Wolf, JC; Wolfe, MJ (2004). "Shark cartilage, cancer and the growing threat of pseudoscience". Cancer Research 64 (23): 8485–91. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-2260. PMID 15574750.
- Lollar, Michael (16 June 2008). "Fine feathered infirmary for sick songbirds". Knoxs News. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- "Rejected baby birds". Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- "Longhorn_Information – handling". ITLA. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- "Cattle – Basic Care" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- Livestock handleing and transport. CABI. 2007. ISBN 978-1-84593-219-0. Retrieved 2011-01-28.
- "Cool Pet Facts - North Shore Animal League America.htm". Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Dog noses – myths and facts about your dog's nose – weekly pet tips by Pets.ca". Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- Varasdi, J. Allen (1989). Myth Information. Ballantine Books. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-345-35985-8.
Dogs do not sweat with their tongues as most people believe. They do have some sweat glands, but the ones of most importance are on the pads, or soles, of their feet.
- Segaloff, Nat (2001). The Everything tall tales, legends & outrageous lies book. Adams Media Corp. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-58062-514-2.
Of course, dogs sweat. You would, too, if you had to wear a fur coat in hot weather. Dogs excrete moisture through the pads on their paws.
- Olien, Michael D. (1978). The human myth : an introduction to anthropology. New York: Harper & Row. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-06-044918-6.
It is another folk tale that dogs do not sweat except through the tongue. This is an incorrect belief as dogs possess sweat glands all over the body.
- Aoki, T.; Wada, M. (2 August 1951). "Functional activity of the sweat glands in the hairy skin of the dog". Science 114 (2953): 123–124. doi:10.1126/science.114.2953.123. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/114/2953/123.short. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- How Do Dogs Sweat - Page 1
- "Evolutionary science and society: educating a new generation (TOC)" (PDF). Revised Proceedings of the BSCS, AIBS Symposium. MSU.edu. Nov 2004. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "It is not just a theory… it is a theory!". Chandra Chronicles. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. July 7, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- Kuhn, Thomas S. (1996). The structure of scientific revolutions (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-226-45808-3.
- "Misconceptions about the nature of science". UMT.edu. University of Montana, Div. Biological Sciences. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- Harmon, New York Times, Amy (August 31, 2008). "Teaching evolution to young Christian skeptics". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "Evolution: frequently asked questions". PBS.org. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Moran, Nancy A. (2002). "Microbial minimalism: genome reduction in bacterial pathogens". Cell 108 (5): 583–6. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00665-7. PMID 11893328.
- "American adults flunk basic science". Science Daily. March 13, 2009. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Understanding evolution: Misconceptions about evolution and the mechanisms of evolution". Misconception: "Natural selection involves organisms 'trying' to adapt."
- "Understanding evolution: Misconceptions about evolution and the mechanisms of evolution". Misconception: "Natural selection gives organisms what they 'need'".
- The Giraffe's Short Neck. Archived 11 November 2008 at WebCite
- Simmons R.E. & Scheepers L (1996). "Winning by a neck: sexual selection in the evolution of giraffe". The American Naturalist 148 (5): 771–786. doi:10.1086/285955. http://bill.srnr.arizona.edu/classes/182/Giraffe/WinningByANeck.pdf.
- Coven R 2000. History of life. Blackwell, Oxford. p 154
- Romer A.S. & T.S. Parsons. 1977. The Vertebrate Body. 5th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia. (6th ed. 1985)
- Colin Tudge (2000). The Variety of Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198604262. Check date values in:
- Modesto, S.P.; Anderson, J.S. (2004). "The phylogenetic definition of Reptilia". Systematic Biology 53 (5): 815–821. doi:10.1080/10635150490503026. PMID 15545258. http://sysbio.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/5/815.full.
- Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Dimetrodon is not a dinosaur: using tree thinking to understand the ancient relatives of mammals and their evolution Evolution: Education and Outreach 2, #2, 257–271, DOI: 10.1007/s12052-009-0117-4
- Chang, Kenneth (2008-07-29). "The nature of glass remains anything but clear". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Does Glass Flow". Glassnotes.com. 1998-05-30. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Jessica Cerretani (Spring 2010). "Extra Sensory Perceptions". Harvard Medicine. Harvard College. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "How many senses does a human being have?". Discovery Health. Discovery Communications Inc. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "Biology: Human Senses". CliffNotes. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "Medicine: Windburn to Sunburn". Time (magazine). Time Inc. 12 October 1936. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
...was the first demonstration that "windburn" is really sunburn
- "Shaved Hair Grows Darker". snopes.com. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Does shaving make hair grow back thicker? – MayoClinic.com
- Shaving tips for teen girls
- Cosmo Beauty Q&A: Facial Hair Post-Shave – Cosmopolitan
- Graham-Brown, Robin; Tony Burns (2007). Lecture Notes on Dermatology. Blackwell. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4051-3977-9.
- About.com Beauty.about.com
- How does hair conditioner work
- "disabled-world.com". Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- "Question: What is up with colour-enhancing shampoos? Do they work?". CBC.ca. CBC News. Archived from the original on 2011-01-13. Retrieved 2010-01-13. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Hair Myths". Glamour.com. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- Silverman, Jacob. "Are redheads going extinct?". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Kruszelnicki, Karl S. (25 November 2008). "Redheads' 'extinction' explanation splitting hairs". ABC Science. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Aubrey, Allison (April 3, 2008). "Five Myths About Drinking Water". National Public Radio. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- Dorothy Foltz-Gray. "9 Things to Stop Worrying About". MSN. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Maughan RJ, Griffin J (December 2003). "Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review". Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 16 (6): 411–420. doi:10.1046/j.1365-277X.2003.00477.x. PMID 19774754.
- Lawrence E. Armstrong, Douglas J. Casa, Carl M. Maresh, Matthew S. Ganio (July 2007). "Caffeine, Fluid-Electrolyte Balance, Temperature Regulation: Summary And Future Research". Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews 35 (3): 135–140. doi:10.1097/jes.0b013e3180a02cc1. PMID 17620932.
- Vreeman RC, Carroll AE (2008). "Festive medical myths". BMJ 337: a2769. doi:10.1136/bmj.a2769. PMID 19091758.
- "Medical Myths – University of Arkansas Medical Sciences". University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- Fullerton-Smith, Jill (2007). The Truth About Food. Bloomsbury. pp. 115–117. ISBN 978-0-7475-8685-2.
Most parents assume that children plus sugary foods equals raucous and uncontrollable behaviour.[…] according to nutrition experts, the belief that children experience a "sugar high" is a myth.
- Brandstadt, William G. (December 19, 1967). "Popular Misconceptions Regarding Intoxication". Middlesboro Daily News. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- Pierson, Rebecca (December 9, 2004). "Hypothermia main outdoors threat". Elizabethton Star. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- Seixas, Judy (April 15, 1977). "Writer Tells Of Alcohol Dangers, Misconceptions". The Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "Alcohol for Warmth".
- "Study finds alcohol doesn't kill off brain cells | News.com.au". News Limited. 2007-07-10. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
- Lovinger D.M. (1993). "Excitotoxicity and alcohol-related brain damage". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 17: 19–27. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1993.tb00720.x.
- Kopelman MD, Thomson AD, Guerrini I, Marshall EJ (2009). "The Korsakoff syndrome: clinical aspects, psychology and treatment". Alcohol and Alcoholism 44 (2): 148–54. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agn118. PMID 19151162.
- Webb, Densie (September 2010). "Defending Vegan Diets — RDs Aim to Clear Up Common Misconceptions About Vegan Diets". Today's Dietician: 20. http://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/082510p20.shtml. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Matthews, Jessica (4 November 2009). "Are vegetarian diets safe?". Ask the Expert. American Council on Exercise. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "How can I get enough protein? The protein myth". Physician's Committee for Responsible Medicine. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Who eat milk and egg products
- Messina, Virginia; Reed Mangles, Mark Messina (2004). The dietitian's guide to vegetarian diets. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7637-3241-7.
- "LiveScience.com: The Most Popular Myths in Science". LiveScience. Archived from the original on 8 March 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- Ahuja, Anjana (1 February 2006). "Every 7 seconds? That's a fantasy". The Times. London. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- Mikkelson, Barbara. "Daydream Deceiver". Snopes.com. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- "Sex before the big game?". Nature. 2006-06-09. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- "Sex and Sports: Should Athletes Abstain Before Big Events?". National Geographic. 2006-02-22. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- Westen et al. 2006 "Psychology: Australian and New Zealand edition" John Wiley p.107
- Goswami, U (2006). "Neuroscience and education: from research to practice?". Nature reviews. Neuroscience 7 (5): 406–11. doi:10.1038/nrn1907. PMID 16607400.
- "Adult Neurogenesis". Brain Briefings. Society for Neuroscience. June 2007.
- Goldman SA, Nottebohm F (April 1983). "Neuronal production, migration, and differentiation in a vocal control nucleus of the adult female canary brain". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80 (8): 2390–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.8.2390. PMC 393826. PMID 6572982. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6572982.
- Gould, E; Reeves, AJ; Fallah, M; Tanapat, P; Gross, CG; Fuchs, E (1999). "Hippocampal neurogenesis in adult Old World primates". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (9): 5263–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.9.5263. PMC 21852. PMID 10220454.
- Eriksson, Peter S.; Perfilieva, Ekaterina; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Alborn, Ann-Marie; Nordborg, Claes; Peterson, Daniel A.; Gage, Fred H. (1998). "Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus". Nature Medicine 4 (11): 1313–7. doi:10.1038/3305. PMID 9809557.
- Reh, Thomas A.; Ponti, Giovanna; Peretto, Paolo; Bonfanti, Luca (2008). Reh, Thomas A.. ed. "Genesis of Neuronal and Glial Progenitors in the Cerebellar Cortex of Peripuberal and Adult Rabbits". PLoS ONE 3 (6): e2366. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002366. PMC 2396292. PMID 18523645.
- Zhao, Chunmei; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H. (2008). "Mechanisms and Functional Implications of Adult Neurogenesis". Cell 132 (4): 645–60. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.033. PMID 18295581.
- Gould, E; Reeves, AJ; Graziano, MS; Gross, CG (1999). "Neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult primates". Science 286 (5439): 548–52. doi:10.1126/science.286.5439.548. PMID 10521353.
- Zhao, M; Momma, S; Delfani, K; Carlen, M; Cassidy, RM; Johansson, CB; Brismar, H; Shupliakov, O et al. (2003). "Evidence for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian substantia nigra". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (13): 7925–30. doi:10.1073/pnas.1131955100. PMC 164689. PMID 12792021.
- Shankle, WR; Rafii, MS; Landing, BH; Fallon, JH (1999). "Approximate doubling of numbers of neurons in postnatal human cerebral cortex and in 35 specific cytoarchitectural areas from birth to 72 months". Pediatric and developmental pathology 2 (3): 244–59. doi:10.1007/s100249900120. PMID 10191348.
- Rakic, P (2002). "Adult neurogenesis in mammals: an identity crisis". The Journal of neuroscience 22 (3): 614–8. PMID 11826088.
- "Snopes on brains". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Radford, Benjamin (March/April 1999). "The Ten-Percent Myth". Skeptical Inquirer (Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal). ISSN 0194-6730. http://www.csicop.org/si/show/the_ten-percent_myth. Retrieved 2009-04-15. "It's the old myth heard time and again about how people use only ten percent of their brains".
- Beyerstein, Barry L. (1999). "Whence cometh the myth that we only use 10% of our brains?". In Sergio Della Sala (ed.). Mind myths: exploring popular assumptions about the mind and brain. Wiley. pp. 3–24. ISBN 978-0-471-98303-3.
- Pinnock, CB; Graham, NM; Mylvaganam, A; Douglas, RM (1990). "Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2". The American review of respiratory disease 141 (2): 352–6. PMID 2154152.
- Patricia Queen Samour; Kathy King Helm (2005). Handbook of pediatric nutrition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-0-7637-8356-3.
- London Drugs. "''Putting an End to Warts''". www.londondrugs.com. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "British Medical Journal: Wakefield's article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent". Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- Bosomworth NJ (September 2009). "Exercise and knee osteoarthritis: benefit or hazard?". Can Fam Physician 55 (9): 871–8. PMC 2743580. PMID 19752252.
- Deweber, K.; Olszewski, M. and Ortolano, R. (2011). "Knuckle cracking and hand osteoarthritis". Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM 24 (2): 169–74. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2011.02.100156. PMID 21383216.
- Atkins, William. "Diverticulitis isn't anti-nut any more". Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- Weisberger, L; Jamieson, B. (July 2009). "Clinical inquiries: How can you help prevent a recurrence of diverticulitis?". The Journal of family practice 58 (7): 381–2. PMID 19607778.
- "Sleepwalking: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments". MedicineNet, Inc. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- "Sleepwalking". National Sleep Foundation. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- Sessler, D.I., Moayeri, A., et al. (1990). "Thermoregulatory vasoconstriction decreases cutaneous heat loss". Anesthesiology 73 (4): 656–60. doi:10.1097/00000542-199010000-00011. ISSN 0003-3022. PMID 2221434. http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Abstract/1990/10000/Thermoregulatory_Vasoconstriction_Decreases.11.aspx.
- Ian Sample, science correspondent (2008-12-18). "Scientists debunk myth that most heat is lost through head | Science". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- Stothers, JK (1981). "Head insulation and heat loss in the newborn.". British Medical Journal (Royal Coll Paediatrics) 56 (7): 530.
- O'Connor, Anahad (2005-06-28). "The Claim: Never Swim After Eating". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-16.; "Hour Missed Brooks". Snopes. 2005-01-03. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- Vittone, Mario. "It doesn't look like they're drowning" (PDF). On Scene: The Journal of U.S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue. p. 14.
- Fletemeyer, John; Pia (Chapter author) (1999). "Chapter 14 ("Reflections on Lifeguard surveillance programs")". Drowning: new perspectives on intervention and prevention, Volume 1998. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-57444-223-6.
- O’Connor, Anahd (2007-06-19). "Really? The claim: hydrogen peroxide is a good treatment for small wounds". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
- Carroll, Aaron E.; Rachel C. Vreeman (2011-07-12). "Medical myths don't die easily". CNN. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
- "Hydrogen peroxide disrupts scarless fetal wound repair". Cat.inist.fr. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- Eccles, Peter J. (1997). An introduction to mathematical reasoning: numbers, sets, and functions. Cambridge University Press. p. 167. ISBN 0521597188.
Intuition suggests that this means that the repeating decimal is also less than 1, and this is a common misconception.[dead link]
- Maor, Eli (1991). To infinity and beyond: a cultural history of the infinite. Princeton University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-691-02511-7.
Many people find it hard to accept this simple fact, and one can often hear a heated discussion as to its validity.
- Henk Tijms (2007). Understanding probability: chance rules in everyday life. Cambridge University Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-521-70172-3.
- Nicholas Maxwell (2004). Data matters: conceptual statistics for a random world. Key College. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-930190-89-4.
- W. Edward Craighead; Charles B. Nemeroff, ed. (2000). The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. 2. Wiley. p. 617. ISBN 978-0-471-24097-6.
- "The Monty Hall problem (or three door problem) is one of the most famous examples of a 'cognitive illusion'." Schuyler W. Huck, Statistical misconceptions. Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis group, 2009, page 100. here
- "Dependent Events and the Monty Hall Problem". Pennsylvania Department of Education, teaching module.
- Massimo Piatelli-Palmarini "Probability blindness: Neither rational nor capricious", Bostonia, March/April 1991, 28–35: "No other statistical puzzle comes so close to fooling all of the people all of the time". (As quoted in Rosenhouse, Jason: The Monty Hall Problem. Oxford University Press 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-536789-8, p. 31.)
- Frasier, Alistair (October 16, 1996). "Bad Coriolis". ems.psu.edu. Penn State College of Earth an Materials Sciences. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "Coriolis Force Effect on Drains". snopes.com. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- "Which way will my bathtub drain". Usenet Physics FAQ. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
- Whitt, Frank R.; Wilson, David G. (1982). Bicycling Science (Second ed.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. pp. 198–233. ISBN 978-0-262-23111-4.
- Klein, Richard E.; et al. "Bicycle Science". LoseTheTrainingWheels.org. Archived from the original on 2006-10-10. Retrieved 2006-08-04. Explicit use of et al. in:
- Jones, David E.H. (1970). "The stability of the bicycle". Physics Today 23: 34–40. doi:10.1063/1.3022064. http://socrates.berkeley.edu/%7Efajans/Teaching/MoreBikeFiles/JonesBikeBW.pdf.
- "Incorrect Lift Theory". grc.nasa.gov. NASA Glenn Research Center. July 28, 2008. Retrieved 2011-01-13. (Java applet).
- "spinoff 2005-Lightning Often Strikes Twice". Spinoff. Office of the Chief Technologist, NASA. March 25, 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- Staff (May 17, 2010). "Full weather report story from WeatherBug.com". Weather.weatherbug.com. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- "Dropping A Penny From The Top Of The Empire State Building Isn't Dangerous". misconceptionjunction.com.
- Dickey TD, Kattawar GW, Voss KJ (2011). "Shedding new light on light in the ocean". Physics Today 64 (4): 44–49. http://ptonline.aip.org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_64/iss_4/44_1.shtml.
- Braun CL, Smirnov SN (1993). "Why is water blue?". J. Chem. Edu. 70 (8): 612. doi:10.1021/ed070p612. http://inside.mines.edu/fs_home/dwu/classes/CH353/study/Why%20is%20Water%20Blue.pdf.
- "Photographic Memory". indianapublicmedia.org.
- "Kaavya Syndrome The accused Harvard plagiarist doesn't have a photographic memory. No one does". slate.com. Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Schizophrenia". National Alliance on Mental Illness.
- "10 Myths About Mental Illness". Mental Health Association.
- "Schizophrenia: Dispelling the Myths". schizophreniasymptoms.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Iles, Alan (10/04/2018). "Schizophrenia". Mental Health News. Mental Health News. Retrieved 10/04/2018. Check date values in:
- "5 Myths About Dissociative Identity Disorder". discovery.com.
- "Schizophrenia vs. Dissociative Identity Disorder". thebrainhealth.com.
- Szpek, Heidi. Voices from the University: The Legacy of the Hebrew Bible. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-595-25619-8.
- Cecil Adams. "The Straight Dope: Was the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden an apple?". Retrieved 2010-01-15.
- Babylonian Talmud, Berakhot, 40a
- Genesis Rabba 15 7
- The Straight Dope: Was the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden an apple?
- Tim O'Hearn (2005). "What Does the Bible Say About…Satan in Hell?". Minutes With Messiah. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Britt Gillette (September 10, 2009). "Satan, Hell, and Bible Prophecy". BrittGillette.com: A Christian Examination of Bible Prophecy and Emerging Technology. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Do Humans Become Angels When They Die?". I Believe in Angels.com. 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Eymann, Paul (2002). "Do people become angels after death?". Christian Answers. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- Debo Adeyemo. "Do humans ever become Angels?". Answers2Prayer. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "The Laughing Buddha". about.com. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- "Buddhism – Major Differences". Buddhanet.net. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- "The Chinese Buddhist Schools". =Buddhanet.net. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- "Why Jesus Christ Wasn't Born on December 25". gnmagazine.org. United Church of God. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- G. Schiller. Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I,1971 (English trans from German),. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-85331-270-3.
- Mikkelson, David and Barbara. "Snopes.com – Three Wise Men". Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- Vermes, Geza (2006). The Nativity: History and Legend. London: Penguin. p. 22.
- "Religion & Ethics – Beliefs: The Immaculate Conception". BBC.co.uk. 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- The correct formulation is "that Mary miraculously conceived Jesus while remaining a virgin" as stated in the English Wikipedia article on the virgin birth of Jesus.
- Simon Rafe. "Infallibility versus Impeccability". Saint Michael's Basic Training: Apologetics. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Jim Blackburn (December 14, 2004). "In What Sense Is the Pope Infallible?". Catholic Answers Forums. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- David MacDonald and Mark Bonocore. "Is the Pope Sinless?". The Pope, Bishop of Rome Catholic and Orthodox relations. CatholicBridge.com. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- Isbister, William H. (November 23, 2002). "A "good" fatwa". British Medical Journal 325 (7374): 1227. PMC 1124693.
- Vultee, Fred (October 2006). "Fatwa on the Bunny". Journal of Communication Inquiry 30 (4): 319–336. doi:10.1177/0196859906290919. http://jci.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/30/4/319?ck=nck. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- "In Depth: Islam, Fatwa FAQ". CBC News Online. June 15, 2006. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- Khadduri, Majid (1955). War and Peace in the Law of Islam. Johns Hopkins Press. pp. 74–80. ISBN 9781584776956.
- Buckles, Luke (2004). The complete idiot's guide to world religions, 3rd ed. Alpha. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-59257-222-9.
- "Western definition of "jihad" must be corrected – Italian expert". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA). March 29, 2007.
- Safi, Louay M. (2003). Peace and the limits of war: transcending the classical conception of Jihad. International Institute of Islamic Thought. p. preface. ISBN 978-1-56564-402-1.
- History of Peanut Butter Peanut-butter.org.
- A True Renaissance Man. American Scientist.
- "Thomas Crapper". Snopes. 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
- Robert, Friedel; Paul Israel (1987). Edison's electric light: Biography of an invention. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. pp. 115–117. ISBN 978-0-8135-1118-4.
- Sorensen, Charles E.; with Williamson, Samuel T. (1956). My forty years with Ford. New York: Norton. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-8143-3279-5. LCCN 56-010854.
- Ralph Stein (1967). The Automobile Book. Paul Hamlyn Ltd.
- see Terracotta Army and Venetian Arsenal
- Rhoads, B. Eric. "Just who invented radio and which was the first station?". QSL.net. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "Who Invented Radio?". WorldRadio. CCrane.com. May 2006. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- Bishop, Don (February 1, 2002). "Who invented radio?". Mobile Dev & Design. Penton Media, Inc. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- Rolt, L.T.C. (1962). James Watt. Batsford. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-163-47052-7.
- Carroll, John Millar (1991). Designing interaction: psychology at the human-computer interface. Cambridge University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-521-40056-5.
- Green, Joey (2005). Contrary to Popular Belief: More Than 250 False Facts Revealed. Broadway Books. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7679-1992-0.
- "Invention: myth and reality". Physics World. 1990.
- "True myths: James Watt's kettle, his condenser, and his chemistry". Science History Publication Ltd. 2004.
- "An evolutionary framework for experimental innovation" (PDF). Australian Government Department of Defence Defence Science and Technology Organisation.
- How Stuff works. "How does the toilet in a commercial airliner work?". Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- Philips, Matt (2008-11-19). "On World Toilet Day, Let Us Praise the Airline Lav". The Middle Seat Terminal (Wall Street Journal). Retrieved 2009-04-02.
Further reading[change | change source]
- Diefendorf, David (2007). Amazing… But False!: Hundreds of "Facts" You Thought Were True, But Aren't. Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4027-3791-6.
- Green, Joey (2005). Contrary to Popular Belief: More than 250 False Facts Revealed. Broadway. ISBN 978-0-7679-1992-0.
- Johnsen, Ferris (1994). The Encyclopedia of Popular Misconceptions: The Ultimate Debunker's Guide to Widely Accepted Fallacies. Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8065-1556-4.
- Kruszelnicki, Karl; Adam Yazxhi (2006). Great Mythconceptions: The Science Behind the Myths. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7407-5364-0.
- Lloyd, John; John Mitchinson (2006). The Book of General Ignorance. Harmony Books. ISBN 978-0-307-39491-0.
- Lloyd, John; John Mitchinson (2010). The Second Book of General Ignorance. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-27285-3.
- O'Conner, Patricia T.; Kellerman, Stewart (2009). Origins of the Specious: Myths and Misconceptions of the English Language. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-6660-5.
- Tuleja, Tad (1999). Fabulous Fallacies: More than 300 Popular Beliefs That Are Not True. Galahad Books. ISBN 978-1-57866-065-0.
- Varasdi, J. Allen (1996). Myth Information: More Than 590 Popular Misconceptions, Fallacies, and Misbeliefs Explained!. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-41049-8.