Religion

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Symbols of various religions.
Religion
Abrahamic religions
Christianity · Islam · Judaism · Baha'i
Dharmic religions
Hinduism · Buddhism · Jainism · Sikhism
Other religions
Unitarian Universalism · Raelism · Wicca · Zoroastrianism · Eckankar · Druidry · Yoruba religion · Taoism · Deism · Mormonism
Nontheism
Atheism · Agnosticism · Ignosticism
Holy texts
Pravachanasara · Bible · Qur'an · Torah · Vedas · Aqdas · Avesta · Tripitaka · Adi Granth · Book of Shadows

A Religion is belief in a set of laws of interactions between different things and living beings in the world. It is belief in identifying which are necessary truths and which are contingent truths. There are many different religions, each with a belief in different set of laws and truths.

The largest religions are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Sikhism, Judaism and Jainism. There are many other religions.[1]. As per US Supreme Court, Atheism and Humanism are religions.

Comparison of various religions[change | change source]

Comparison of various religions
Christianity Buddhism Atheism Jainism Islam
Karma(Cause/Effect) Affirms Affirms[2] Denies[2] Affirms[2] Affirms
Afterlife Eternal Heaven/Eternal Hell Reincarnation[3] Denies[4] Reincarnation[2] Eternal Heaven/Eternal Hell
Ascetic life Denies Affirms Denies Affirms Denies except in Sufism
Rituals, Bhakti Affirms Affirms, optional[5]
(Pali: Bhatti)
Denies Affirms, optional[6] Affirms
Non-killing and Vegetarianism Affirms with respect to humans only,
but Just War affirmed
Affirms,
Unclear on meat as food[7]
Strongest proponent
of non-violence;
Vegetarianism to avoid
violence against animals[8]
Affirms with respect to muslims only,
but Just War affirmed
Free will Calvinism Denies, Arminianism Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms[9]
Maya Affirms[10] Affirms
(prapañca)[11]
Denies Affirms Affirms[12][13]
Soul Affirms Denies[14] Denies[15] Affirms[16]:119 Affirms[17]
Creator God Affirms Denies Denies Denies Affirms
Epistemology
(Pramana)
Pratyak?a(God only),
Anuma?a,
Sabda
Pratyak?a,
Anuma?a[18][19]
Pratyak?a[20] Pratyak?a,
Anuma?a,
Sabda[18]
Pratyak?a(God only),
Anuma?a,
Sabda
Epistemic authority Bible/Pope Buddha text[21] Jain Agamas Quran
Salvation
(Soteriology)
Eternal Heaven Nirvana
(realize Sunyata)[22]
Siddha[23] Eternal Heaven
Metaphysics
(Ultimate Reality)
God, Matter, Time, Space, Souls Sunyata[24][25] Matter Matter, Time, Space, Souls,
Principle of Motion, Principle of Rest[26]
God, Matter, Time, Space, Souls

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Major Religions by adherents". 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named collins. ().
  3. Damien Keown (2013), Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199663835, pages 32-46
  4. Haribhadrasuri (Translator: M Jain, 1989), Saddarsanasamuccaya, Asiatic Society, Template:Oclc
  5. Karel Werner (1995), Love Divine: Studies in Bhakti and Devotional Mysticism, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700702350, pages 45-46
  6. John Cort, Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN, pages 64-68, 86-90, 100-112
  7. U Tahtinen (1976), Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London, ISBN 978-0091233402, pages 75-78, 94-106
  8. U Tahtinen (1976), Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London, ISBN 978-0091233402, pages 57-62, 109-111
  9. Howard Coward (2008), The Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791473368, pages 103-114;
    Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, Macmillan Reference, see Karma, ISBN 978-0028657042
  10. AL Basham (1951), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048, pages 237
  11. Damien Keown (2004), A Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198605607, Entry for Prapañca, Quote: "Term meaning ‘proliferation’, in the sense of the multiplication of erroneous concepts, ideas, and ideologies which obscure the true nature of reality".
  12. Lynn Foulston and Stuart Abbott (2009), Hindu Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1902210438, pages 14-16
  13. Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1986), Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618555, page 119
  14. [a] Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175, page 64; "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anatta, Sanskrit: anatman, the opposed doctrine of atman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";
    [b]KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards;
    [c]John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Atman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism";
    [d]Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist ‘No-Self’ Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now;
    [e]Anatta Encyclopædia Britannica, Quote:"In Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying substance that can be called the soul. (...) The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman (self)."
  15. Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (2011), Studies on the Carvaka/Lokayata, Anthem, ISBN 978-0857284334, page 216
  16. Padmanabh S. Jaini (2001). Collected papers on Buddhist studies. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 9788120817760. 
  17. Anatta Encyclopædia Britannica, Quote:"In Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying substance that can be called the soul. (...) The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman (self)."
  18. 18.0 18.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named johngrimes238. ().
  19. D Sharma (1966), Epistemological negative dialectics of Indian logic — Abhava versus Anupalabdhi, Indo-Iranian Journal, 9(4): 291-300
  20. MM Kamal (1998), The Epistemology of the Carvaka Philosophy, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, 46(2), pages 13-16
  21. Christopher Bartley (2011), An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1847064493, pages 46, 120
  22. Jerald Gort (1992), On Sharing Religious Experience: Possibilities of Interfaith Mutuality, Rodopi, ISBN 978-0802805058, pages 209-210
  23. John Cort (2010), Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195385021, pages 80, 188
  24. Masao Abe and Steven Heine (1995), Buddhism and Interfaith Dialogue, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824817527, pages 105-106
  25. Chad Meister (2009), Introducing Philosophy of Religion, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415403276, page 60; Quote: "In this chapter, we looked at religious metaphysics and saw two different ways of understanding Ultimate Reality. On the one hand, it can be understood as an absolute state of being. Within Hindu absolutism, for example, it is Brahman, the undifferentiated Absolute. Within Buddhist metaphysics, fundamental reality is Sunyata, or the Void."
  26. Christopher Key Chapple (2004), Jainism and Ecology: Nonviolence in the Web of Life, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820456, page 20

Further reading[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]