Bilabial nasal

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Bilabial nasal
m
IPA number 114
Encoding
Entity (decimal) m
Unicode (hex) U+006D
X-SAMPA m
Kirshenbaum m
Sound

 

The bilabial nasal is a type of consonant. It is used in almost all spoken languages. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨m⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is ⟨m⟩. We can find the bilabial nasal in English, and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum.

Nearly all languages contain this sound. A few languages (for example, Mohawk) do not often use this sound.

These are some examples of where the bilabial nasal occurs in various languages:

Language Word IPA Meaning
Arabic Standard[1] مطابخ [mɑˈtˤɑːbiχ] 'kitchens'
Catalan[2] [mare] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [ˈmaɾə] 'mother'
Chinese Cantonese /[maan5] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [maːn˩˧] 'night'
Mandarin 母親/[mǔqīn] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [mu˨˩ tɕʰin˥] 'mother'
Dutch[3] [mond] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [mɔnt] 'mouth'
English [him] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [hɪm] 'him'
Finnish [minä] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [minæ] 'I'
French[4] [manger] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [mɑ̃ʒe] 'to eat'
Georgian[5] სა [ˈsɑmi] 'three'
Greek[6] [μάζα/maza] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [ˈmaza] 'clump'
Hawaiian[7] [maka] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [maka] 'eye'
Indonesian[8] [masuk] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [ˈmasuʔ] 'enter'
Italian[9] [mamma] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [ˈmamma] 'mamma'
Japanese[10] 乾杯/[kampai] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [kampai] 'a toast'
Malay [malam] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [malam] 'night'
Malayalam[7] കമ്മി [kəmmi] 'shortage'
Polish[11] [masa] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [ˈmasa] 'mass'
Portuguese[12] [mato] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [ˈmatu] 'bush'
Russian[13] муж [muʂ] 'husband'
Spanish[14] [grumete] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [ɡɾuˈme̞te̞] 'cabin boy'
Vietnamese[15] [muối] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) [mwoj˧ˀ˥] 'salt'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[16] man [maŋ] 'animal'

References[change | change source]

  1. Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37 
  2. Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  3. Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  4. Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  5. Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  6. Newton, Brian (1972), The generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cabridge Studies in Linguistics, 8, Cambridge University Press, p. 10 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell, pp. 139, 165 
  8. Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Illustrations of the IPA:Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (2): 210 
  9. Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  10. Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94 
  11. Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  12. Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 91, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  13. Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 42, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505 
  14. Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  15. Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 458–461, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232 
  16. Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 108