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This timeline is to show the
history of Christianity from the beginning to the present. Question marks on dates mean that dates are not exact.
Western culture and Christian churches use the
Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian calendar has been in use since 1582 when it replaced the Julian Calendar. The Julian calendar did not calculate (work out by mathematics) the length of the year accurately. The Gregorian Calendar added leap years to make this more correct. The Gregorian calendar began in Europe, in the reign of Pope Gregory XIII. The Gregorian calendar is now used almost everywhere in the world (except for calculating the holy days of other religions).
The Gregorian calendar dates years from before or after the birth of Jesus. Years that are before the birth of Jesus have the initials BC (before Christ) and years that are after (traditionally) have the initials AD (
anno Domini – "in the year of our Lord"). Nowadays these are often written BCE ("before the Common Era") and CE (" Common Era").
The "year one" is the first year in "anno Domini" (the Common Era). There is no year zero. When the Gregorian calendar was calculated, the
mathematicians tried to work out exactly when the birth of Jesus happened. The exact date is not certain, but most agree that it was between 6 BC and 4 BC.
This list tells only about the things that happened in the part of the world where Jesus was born. This region is now called
Israel and Palestine. In the time of Jesus, it was under the rule of the Romans.
1 This year is sometimes celebrated as beginning near the time of Jesus' birth. People who study it now say that it was calculated wrongly.
Herod Archelaus was deposed (put off his throne) by Caesar Augustus. The Roman rulers brought together Samaria, Judea and Idumea as "Iudaea Province" with its capital at Caesarea. Quirinius became Governor of Syria. Quininus conducted a census and was opposed by a Jewish group called the Zealots ( JA18, ( Luke 2:1–3, Acts 5:37) 7–26 Brief period of peace, relatively free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea and
Galilee ( John P. Meier's , v. 1, ch. 11) A Marginal Jew 9
Pharisee leader Hillel the Elder dies, temporary rise of Shammai 14–37
Tiberius, Roman Emperor 18–36
Caiaphas, appointed High Priest of Herod's Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus, deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius 19
Jews, Jewish proselytes, astrologers, expelled from Rome (Suetonius, , Tiberius 36, Lives of the Twelve Caesars ) Loeb Classics 26–36
Pontius Pilate, Prefect (governor) of Iudaea, recalled to Rome by Syrian Legate Vitellius on complaints of excess violence ( JA18.4.2) 28 or 29
John the Baptist began his ministry in the "15th year of Tiberius" ( Luke 3:1–2), saying: " Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" ( Matt 3:1–2), a relative of Jesus ( Luke 1:36), a Nazirite ( Luke 1:15), baptized Jesus ( Mark 1:4–11), later arrested and beheaded by Herod Antipas ( Luke 3:19–20), it is possible that, according to Josephus' chronology, John was not killed until 36 (JA18.5.2) 
Jesus began his ministry after his baptism by John and during the rule of Pilate, preaching: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" ( Matt 4:12–17). While the historicity of the gospel accounts is questioned to some extent by most critical scholars and non-Christians, the traditional view states the following chronology for his ministry: Temptation, Sermon on the Mount, Appointment of the Twelve, Miracles, Temple Money Changers, Last Supper, Arrest, Trial, Passion, Crucifixion on Good Friday ( Mark 15:42, John 19:42), Nisan 14th ( John 19:14, Mark 14:2, Gospel of Peter) or Nisan 15th ( Synoptic Gospels), (7 Apr 30, 3 Apr 33, 30 Mar 36, possible Fri-14-Nisan dates – Meier), entombment by Pharisees Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus of the Sanhedrin, Resurrection by God on Easter Sunday, appearances to Paul of Tarsus ( 1Cor 15:3–9), Simon Peter ( Luke 24:34), Mary Magdalene ( Mark 16:9, John 20:10–18), and others, Great Commission, Ascension, Second Coming Prophecy to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment, and establishment of the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age. See also Chronology of Jesus.
See also: Acts of the Apostles and Paul of Tarsus
Shortly after the
Crucifixion of Jesus ( Nisan 14 or 15), the Jerusalem church was founded as the first Christian church with about 120 Jews and Jewish proselytes ( Acts 1:15), followed by Pentecost, the Ananias and Sapphira incident, Pharisee Gamaliel's defense of the Apostles ( 5:34–39), the stoning of Saint Stephen (see also Persecution of Christians) and the subsequent dispersal of the church ( 7:54–8:8) which led to the baptism of Simon Magus in Samaria ( 8:9–24), and also an Ethiopian eunuch ( 8:26–40). Paul's conversion to "Apostle to the Gentiles" is first recorded in ( 9:13–16, cf. Gal 1:11–24). Peter baptized the Centurion Cornelius, who is traditionally considered the first Gentile convert to Christianity ( 10). The Antioch church was founded. It was there that the term Christian was first used ( 11:26). Saint James was executed by Agrippa I (ruled 39–44) during a Passover (Nisan 15) ( 12:1–3).
44 Death of
Agrippa I ( JA19.8.2, Acts 12:20–23) 44–46?
Theudas beheaded by Procurator Cuspius Fadus for saying he would part the Jordan river (like Moses and the Red Sea) ( JA20.5.1, Acts 5:36–37 places it before the Census of Quirinius) 45–49? Paul's first mission (
Acts 13:1–14:28), with Barnabas, to Cyprus, Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe (there they were called "gods ... in human form"), then return to Syrian Antioch 47? The
Church of the East is created by Saint Thomas 48–100
Herod Agrippa II appointed King of the Jews by Claudius, seventh and last of the Herodians 49 "Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus,
he <  Claudius> expelled them from Rome." (Suetonius, , Claudius XXV.4, Lives of the Twelve Caesars ) (referenced in Loeb Classics Acts 18:2) 50
Passover riot in Jerusalem, 20–30,000 killed (JA20.5.3, JW2.12.1) 50?
Council of Jerusalem and the "Apostolic Decree", Acts 15:1–35, same as Galatians 2:1–10?, which is followed by the "Incident at Antioch" at which Paul publicly accused Peter of "  Judaizing" ( 2:11–21) 50–53? Paul's second mission (
Acts 15:36–18:22), split with Barnabas, to Phrygia, Galatia, Macedonia, Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens, Corinth, "he had his hair cut off at Cenchrea because of a vow he had taken", then return to Antioch; 1 Thessalonians, Galatians written? 52?
Saint Thomas Christians of India 53–57? Paul's third mission (
Acts 18:23–22:30), to Galatia, Phrygia, Corinth, Ephesus, Macedonia, Greece, and Jerusalem where James the Just challenged him about a rumor of teaching antinomianism ( 21:21). He addressed a crowd in their language (most likely Aramaic), Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Philippians written? 55? "Egyptian Prophet" (allusion to Moses) and 30,000 unarmed Jews doing the
Exodus reenactment massacred by Procurator Antonius Felix (JW2.13.5, JA20.8.6, Acts 21:38) 58? Paul arrested, accused of being a
revolutionary, "ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes", teaching resurrection of the dead, imprisoned in Caesarea ( Acts 23–26) 59? Paul shipwrecked on
Malta. There he was called a god. ( Acts 28:6) 60? Paul in Rome: greeted by many "brothers" (
NRSV: "believers"), three days later called together the Jewish leaders, who had not received any word from Judea about him, but were curious about "this sect", which everywhere is spoken against; he tried to convince them from the " Law and Prophets", with partial success, said the Gentiles would listen and spent two years proclaiming the Kingdom of God and teaching the "Lord Jesus Christ" ( Acts 28:15–31); Epistle to Philemon written? 62 James the Just stoned to death for law transgression by
High Priest Ananus ben Artanus. Popular opinion against act results in Ananus being deposed by new procurator Clodius Albinus. (JA20.9.1) 63–107?
Simeon, second Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified under Trajan 63?
Glastonbury Abbey founded according to tradition, but date disputed 64–68 after July 18
Great Fire of Rome, Nero blamed and persecuted the Christians, earliest mention of Christians, by that name, in Rome, see also Tacitus on Jesus, Paul beheaded? ( Col 1:24, Eph 3:13, 2 Tim 4:6–8, 1Clem 5:5–7), Peter crucified upside down? ( Jn 21:18, 1 Pet 5:13, Tertullian's chapter XXXVI, Prescription Against Heretics Eusebius' chapter I), "...a vast multitude, were convicted, not so much of the crime of incendiarism as of hatred of the human race. And in their deaths they were made the subjects of sport; for they were wrapped in the hides of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs, or nailed to crosses, or set on fire, and when day declined, were burned to serve for nocturnal lights." ( Church History Book III Annals (Tacitus) XV.44)
See also: Early Christianity
Q document, a hypothetical Greek text thought by many critical scholars to have been used in writing of Matthew and Luke 66–73
Great Jewish Revolt: destruction of Herod's Temple, Qumran community destroyed, site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1947 68–107?
Ignatius, third Bishop of Antioch, fed to the lions in the Roman Colosseum, advocated the Bishop (Eph 6:1, Mag 2:1,6:1,7:1,13:2, Tr 3:1, Smy 8:1,9:1), rejected Jewish Sabbath on Saturday in favor of The Lord's Day (Sunday). (Mag 9.1), rejected Judaizing (Mag 10.3), first use of term Christianity (Mag 10). 70(±10)?
Gospel of Mark, written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter (1 Peter 5:13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c. 400, see Mark 16 70?
Signs Gospel written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is the Messiah 70–100? additional
Pauline Epistles 70–200?
Didache; Other Gospels: Unknown Berlin Gospel, Gospel of Peter, Gospel of Thomas, Oxyrhynchus Gospels, Egerton Gospel, Fayyum Fragment, Dialogue of the Saviour; Jewish Christian Gospels: Gospel of the Ebionites, Gospel of the Hebrews, Gospel of the Nazarenes 80(±20)?
Gospel of Matthew, based on Mark and Q, most popular in Early Christianity 80(±20)?
Gospel of Luke, based on Mark and Q, also Acts of the Apostles by same author 88–101?
Clement, fourth Bishop of Rome, wrote Letter of the Romans to the Corinthians (Apostolic Fathers) 90?
Council of Jamnia of Judaism (disputed) 90(±10)?
1 Peter 94
Testimonium Flavianum, disputed section of by Jewish Antiquities Josephus in Aramaic, translated to Koine Greek 95(±30)?
Gospel of John and Epistles of John 95(±10)?
Book of Revelation written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his 100(±30)?
Epistle of Barnabas (Apostolic Fathers) 100(±25)?
Epistle of James 100(±10)?
Epistle of Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6:3), rejected by some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch (v14). Epistle to the Hebrews written. 100–150?
Apocryphon of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Gospel of James, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Secret Gospel of Mark ( Complete Gospels, published by Jesus Seminar) 110–130?
Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted (Apostolic Fathers) 110–160?
Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, Letter to the Philippians, (Apostolic Fathers) 125(±5)?
2 Peter written, not accepted into canon until early 400s, drew upon Epistle of Jude, "catholic" epistle, Pastoral Epistles written 125?
Rylands Library Papyrus P52, oldest extant NT fragment, p. 1935, parts of Jn18:31–33,37–38 130–250? "Christian Apologists" writings against
Roman religion: Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Apology of Aristides, Theophilus of Antioch, Tatian, Quadratus, Melito of Sardis, Apollinaris Claudius, Felix Marcus Minucius, Arnobius, Epistle to Diognetus 132–135
Bar Kokhba's revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, region renamed Syria Palæstina (the term Palestine was originally coined by Herodotus), Jerusalem renamed Aelia Capitolina 142–144?
Marcion of Sinope, bishop according to , went to Rome, possibly to Catholic Encyclopedia buy the bishopric of Rome, upon rejection formed his own church in Rome, later called Marcionism, rejected Old Testament, decreed canon of one Gospel, one Apostolicon (10 Letters of Paul) and one Antithesis  which contrasted the Old Testament with the New Testament, cited Western text-type, see also Expounding of the Law#Antithesis of the Law 150? "Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce
Western version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 and Codex Bezae (D) 150?
Valentinius, most famous Christian Gnostic, according to Tertullian narrowly lost election for Bishop of Rome 150(±10)?
Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (Apostolic Fathers) 155?
Montanus, claimed to be the Paraclete ("Counselor") of John 14:16 160?
Martyrdom of Polycarp (Apostolic Fathers) 170? Dionysius
, bishop of Corinth, claimed Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels ( Eusebius' EH 4 c.23 v.12; Ante-Nicene Fathers, v.8) 170?
Tatian produces " Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending four "Western" text-type Gospels into one 170?
Symmachus the Ebionite, new Greek translation of Hebrew Bible 180?
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon, combated heresies, cited "Western" Gospel text-type (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 185–350?
Muratorian fragment, 1st extant canon for New Testament after Marcion?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?, excludes Hebrews, James, 1–2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter 186?
Saint Apollonius, used the term catholic in reference to 1 John 188–231
Saint Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, condemned Origen 189–198
Pope Victor I, 1st Latin Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 Quartodeciman 196?
Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 199–217? Caius
 , presbyter of Rome, wrote "Dialogue against Proclus" in Ante-Nicene Fathers, rejected Revelation, said to be by Gnostic Cerinthus 200?
Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, Alexandrian text-type; Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types; Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14–15, Luke and John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus; 200? Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11–15;2:3–8; Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15; 5:20–22,25–28; 26:7–8,10,14–15,22–23,31–33 200?
Sextus Julius Africanus 200?
Antipope Natalius , rival bishop of Rome, according to Eusebius's EH5.28.8–12, quoting the Little Labyrinth of Hippolytus, after being " scourged all night by the holy angels", covered in ash, dressed in sackcloth, and "after some difficulty", tearfully submitted to Pope Zephyrinus 217–236
Antipope Hippolytus, Logos sect? 218–258
Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cited "Western" NT text-type, claimed Christians were freely forging his letters to discredit him (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 220?
Clement of Alexandria, cited "Alexandrian" NT text-type and Secret Gospel of Mark and Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the Greeks"; "Rich Man's Salutation"; "To the Newly Baptized"; (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 220?–340?
Codex Tchacos, manuscript containing a copy of the Gospel of Judas, has been written. 223?
Tertullian, sometimes called "father of the Latin Church" because he coined trinitas, tres Personae, una Substantia, Vetus Testamentum, Novum Testamentum, convert to Montanism, cited "Western" Gospel text-type (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 225? Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (
Caesarean text-type), Acts (Alexandrian text-type) 235–238
Maximinus Thrax, emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope Pontian and Antipope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die 248–264
Dionysius, Patriarch of Alexandria see also List of Patriarchs of Alexandria 250?
Apostolic Constitutions, Liturgy of St James, Old Roman Symbol, Clementine literature 250? Letters of
Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius, Commodianus (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 250? Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5–11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1–25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1–5:14; 2Pt1:1–3:18
Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at First Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled Hexapla; cites Alexandrian, Caesarean text-type; Eusebius claimed Origen castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 (EH6.8.1–3) 251–424?
Synods of Carthage 251–258
Antipope Novatian, decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism 254–257
Pope Stephen I; major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates 258 "
Valerian's Massacre": Roman emperor issued edict to execute immediately all Christian bishops, presbyters, and deacons, including Pope Sixtus II, Antipope Novatian, Cyprian of Carthage ( CE: Valerian, Schaff's History Vol 2 Chap 2 § 22) 264–269
Synods of Antioch, condemned Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism), also condemned term homoousios adopted at Nicaea 265
Gregory Thaumaturgus (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 270?
Anthony begins monastic movement 275? Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rev9:10–11:3,5–16:15,17–17:2
Mani (prophet), crucified, founder of the dualistic Manichaean sect in Persia 282–300?
Theonas, bishop of Alexandria (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 290–345?
St Pachomius, founder of Christian monasticism 296–304
Pope Marcellinus, offered pagan sacrifices for Diocletian 301
Armenia, first to adopt Christianity as state religion 303–312
Diocletian's Massacre of Christians 303
Saint George, patron saint of England, and other states 304?
Victorinus, bishop of Pettau 306
Synod of Elvira, prohibited relations between Christians and Jews 310
Maxentius deports Pope Eusebius and Heraclius   to Sicily (relapse controversy) 312
Lucian of Antioch, founded School of Antioch, martyred 312
Vision of Constantine: while gazing into the sun he saw a cross with the words by this sign conquer. See also Labarum. He was later called the 13th Apostle and Equal-to-apostles. 313
Edict of Milan, Constantine and Licinius end persecution, establish toleration of Christianity 313?
Lateran Palace given to Pope Miltiades for residence by Constantine 314 Council of Arles
, called by Constantine against Donatist schism 314–340?
Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, church historian, cited Caesarean text-type, wrote Ecclesiastical History in 325  317?
Lactantius 321 Constantine decreed Sunday as state "day of rest" (
CJ3.12.2), see also Sol Invictus
Era of the Seven Ecumenical Councils [ change | change source ]
Constantine called the
First Council of Nicaea in 325 to unify Christology, also called the first great Christian council by Jerome, the first ecumenical, decreed the Original Nicene Creed, but rejected by Nontrinitarianism such as Arius, Theonas, Secundus, Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Theognis who were excommunicated, also addressed Easter controversy and passed 20 Canon laws.
Kingdom of Aksum (Modern Ethiopia) declares Christianity as the official state Religion becoming the second country to do so 325
Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, ordered by Constantine 326, November 18
Pope Sylvester consecrates the Basilica of St. Peter built by Constantine the Great over the tomb of the Apostle. 328–373
Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27 book New Testament canon 330 Old
Church of the Holy Apostles, dedicated by Constantine 330, May 11
Constantinople solemnly inaugurated. Constantine moves the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium, renaming it New Rome. 335 Council in Jerusalem, reversed Nicaea's condemnation of
Arius, consecrated Jerusalem Church of the Holy Sepulchre 337
Mirian III of Georgia, second to adopt Christianity as state religion
May 22, 337: Constantine the Great dies. Baptized shortly before his death. 343?
Council of Sardica 350?
Julius Firmicus Maternus 350?
Codex Sinaiticus(א), Codex Vaticanus(B): earliest Christian Bibles, Alexandrian text-type 350?
Ulfilas, Arian, apostle to the Goths, translated Greek NT to Gothic 350?
Comma Johanneum 1Jn5:7b–8a( KJV) 350?
Aëtius, Arian, "Syntagmation": "God is agennetos (unbegotten)", ( Anomoean) 350?
School of Nisibis founded 351 2nd
Council of Sirmium, Anomoean, condemned Council of Nicaea 353–367
Hilary, bishop of Poitiers 355–365
Antipope Felix II, Arian, supported by Constantius II, consecrated by Acacius of Caesarea 359
Council of Rimini, Dated Creed ( Acacians)
360: Julian the Apostate becomes the last non-Christian Roman Emperor. 363–364
Council of Laodicea, canon 29 decreed anathema for Christians who rest on the Sabbath, disputed canon 60 named 26 NT books (excluded Revelation) 366–367
Antipope Ursicinus, rival to Pope Damasus I 367–403
Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, wrote Panarion against heresies 370–379
Basil the Great, Bishop of Caesarea 370?
Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron (instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians) Syriac Orthodox Church 372–394
Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa 373
Ephrem the Syrian, cited Western Acts 374–397
Ambrose, bishop and governor of Milan 375–395
Ausonius, Christian governor of Gaul 379–381
Gregory Nazianzus, Bishop of Constantinople 380, February 27 Emperor
Theodosius issues the edict De Fide Catolica declaring Catholic Christianity as the official state religion of the Roman Empire 
November 24, 380: Emperor Theodosius I is baptised. 381
First Council of Constantinople, second ecumenical, Jesus had true human soul, Nicene Creed of 381 382
Council of Rome under Pope Damasus I sets the Biblical Canon, listing the inspired books of the Old Testament and the New Testament (disputed) 383?
Frumentius, Apostle of Ethiopia 385
Priscillian, first heretic to be executed? 390?
Apollinaris, bishop of Laodicea, believed Jesus had human body but divine spirit
391: The Theodosian decrees outlaw most pagan rituals still practiced in Rome. 396–430
Augustine, bishop of Hippo, considered the founder of formalized Christian theology ( Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers) 397?
Saint Ninian evangelizes Picts in Scotland 398–404
John Chrysostom Patriarch of Constantinople, see also List of Patriarchs of Constantinople, (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers)
400: Jerome's Vulgate Latin edition and translation of the Bible is published. 400? Ethiopic Bible: in Ge'ez, 81 books, standard
Ethiopian Orthodox Bible 400?
Peshitta Bible in Syriac (Aramaic), Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes: 2Pt, 2–3Jn, Jude, Rev; standard Syriac Orthodox Church Bible 406 Armenian Bible, translated by
Saint Mesrob, standard Armenian Orthodox Bible 24 August
410: Sack of Rome by Alaric and the Visigoths. 412–444
Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, expelled Jews, killed Hypatia with oyster shells, coined Hypostatic union 418–419
Antipope Eulalius rival to Pope Boniface I 420 St.
Jerome, Vulgate translations, Latin scholar, cited expanded ending in Mark after Mark 16:8, Pericope of the Adultress addition to John (John 7:53–8:11) (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers) 423–457
Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, noted Tatian's Diatesseron in heavy use, wrote a Church History 431
Council of Ephesus, third ecumenical, repudiated Nestorianism, decreed Mary the Mother of God, forbid any changes to Nicene Creed of 381, rejected by Assyrian Church of the East 432
St Patrick begins mission in Ireland. Almost the entire nation is Christian by the time of his death in a conversion that is both incredibly successful and largely bloodless. 440–461
Pope Leo the Great, sometimes considered the first pope, stopped Attila the Hun at Rome, issued Tome in support of Hypostatic Union, approved Council of Chalcedon but rejected canons in 453 447
Council of Toledo added Filioque clause to Nicene Creed of 381 449
Second Council of Ephesus, Monophysite: Jesus was divine but not human 450?
Codex Alexandrinus(A): Alexandrian text-type; Codex Bezae(D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus(W): Greek Gospels; both of Western text-type 450? std. Aramaic
Targums, Old Testament in Aramaic 450?
Socrates Scholasticus Church History of 305–438; Sozomen Church History of 323–425 451
Council of Chalcedon, fourth ecumenical, declared Jesus is a Hypostatic Union: both human and divine in one, Chalcedonian Creed, rejected by Oriental Orthodoxy
455: Sack of Rome by the Vandals. The spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem previously taken by Titus are allegedly among the treasures taken to Carthage. 456?
Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysite
452: Pope Leo I (the Great) dissuades Attila the Hun, the Scourge of God, from sacking Rome. 465?
Prosper of Aquitaine 476, September 4 Emperor
Romulus Augustus is deposed in Rome, marked by many as the fall of the Western Roman Empire 484–519
Acacian Schism, over Henoticon divides Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) churches 491
Armenian Orthodox split from East (Greek) and West (Latin) churches 495 May13
Vicar of Christ decreed a title of Bishop of Rome by Pope Gelasius I 496
Clovis I, King of the Franks, baptized 498–499,501–506
Antipope Laurentius, rival of Pope Symmachus, Laurentian schism 500?
Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican 524
Boethius, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: Theological Tractates, Consolation of Philosophy; (Loeb Classics) (Latin) 525
Dionysius Exiguus defines Christian calendar (AD) 527
Fabius Planciades Fulgentius 530
Antipope Dioscorus, possibly a legitimate Pope 530
Rule of St Benedict, St. Benedict founds the Benedictines 535–536 Unusual
climate changes recorded 537–555
Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian and Theodora, on April 11, 548, issued Judicatum supporting Justinian's anti- Hypostatic Union, excommunicated by bishops of Carthage in 550 541–542
Plague of Justinian 543 Justinian condemns
Origen, disastrous earthquakes hit the world 544 Justinian
condemns the Three Chapters of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and other writings of Hypostatic Union Christology of Council of Chalcedon 550
St. David converts Wales, crucifix introduced 553
Second Council of Constantinople, fifth ecumenical, called by Justinian 556–561
Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed Judicatum 563
Columba goes to Scotland to evangelize Picts, establishes monastery at Iona 567
Third Council of Toledo, Reccared and the Visigoths convert from Arianism to Catholicism 590–604
Pope Gregory the Great, whom many consider the greatest pope ever, reforms church structure and administration and establishes Gregorian chant, seven deadly sins ... 591–628
Theodelinda, Queen of the Lombards, began gradual conversion from Arianism to Catholicism 596
St. Augustine of Canterbury sent by Pope Gregory to evangelise the Jutes 600?
Evagrius Scholasticus, Church History of AD 431–594  604
St Paul's Cathedral in London 607
Pope Boniface III, first Bishop of Rome to be called "Pope" and "Universal Bishop" by decree of Emperor Phocas 609
Pantheon, Rome renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda 612?
Bobbio monastery in northern Italy 613
Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland 614
Khosrau II of Persia conquered Damascus, Jerusalem, took Holy Cross of Christ 624
Battle of Badr, considered beginning of Islamic Empire 625
Paulinus of York comes to convert Northumbria 628
Babai the Great, pillar of Assyrian Church of the East, died 628–629
Battle of Mut'ah, Heraclius recovered Cross of Christ and Jerusalem from Islam till 638 632 Eorpwald of
East Anglia baptized under influence of Edwin of Northumbria 634–644
Umar, second Sunni Islam Caliph, capital at Damascus, conquered Syria in 635, defeated Heraclius at Battle of Yarmuk in 636, conquered Egypt and Armenia in 639, Persia in 642 635
Cynegils of Wessex baptized by Bishop Birinus 640
Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely destroyed. 664
Synod of Whitby unites Celtic Christianity of British Isles with Roman Catholicism 680–681
Third Council of Constantinople, 6th ecumenical, against Monothelites, condemned Pope Honorius I, Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople, Heraclius' Ecthesis 681–686
Wilfrid converts Sussex 687–691
Dome of the Rock built 690?
Old English Bible translations 692 Orthodox
Quinisext Council, convoked by Justinian II, approved Canons of the Apostles of Apostolic Constitutions, Clerical celibacy, rejected by Pope Constantine 698 Fall of
Umayyad conquest of Hispania 717–718
Second Arab siege of Constantinople 718–1492
Reconquista, Iberian Peninsula retaken by Christendom 718
Saint Boniface, an Englishman, given commission by Pope Gregory II to evangelize the Germans 720?
Disentis Abbey of Switzerland 730–787
First Iconoclasm, Byzantine Emperor Leo III bans Christian icons, Pope Gregory II excommunicates him 731
English Church History written by Bede 750? Tower added to St Peter's Basilica at the front of the atrium
Donation of Constantine, granted Western Roman Empire to the Pope, later proved a forgery 756
Donation of Pepin recognizes Papal States 781
Nestorian Stele, Daqin Pagoda, Jesus Sutras, Christianity in China 787
Second Council of Nicaea, seventh ecumenical, ends first Iconoclasm 793 Sacking of the monastery of
Lindisfarne marks the beginning of Viking raids on Christendom.
See also: Middle Ages
Charlemagne of the Franks is crowned first Holy Roman Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III. 849–865
Ansgar, Archbishop of Bremen, "Apostle of the North", began evangelisation of North Germany, Denmark, Sweden 855
Antipope Anastasius, Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor appointed him over Pope Benedict III but popular pressure caused withdrawal 863
Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius sent by the Patriarch of Constantinople to evangelise the Slavic peoples. They translate the Bible into Slavonic. 869–870 Catholic
Fourth Council of Constantinople, condemned Patriarch Photius, rejected by Orthodox 879–880 Orthodox
Fourth Council of Constantinople, restored Photius, condemned Pope Nicholas I and Filioque, rejected by Catholics 897, January
Cadaver Synod, Pope Stephen VI conducts trial against dead Pope Formosus. Public uprising against Stephen led to his imprisonment and strangulation. 909
Abbey of Cluny, Benedictine monastery in France 948?
Einsiedeln Abbey of Switzerland 966
Mieszko I duke of Poland baptised. Poland becomes a Christian country. 984
Antipope Boniface VII, murdered Pope John XIV, alleged to have murdered Pope Benedict VI in 974 988
Baptism of Kievan Rus' 997–998
Antipope John XVI, deposed by Pope Gregory V and his cousin Holy Roman Emperor Otto III 999 Much speculation and fear regarding the approach of the
Antipope Gregory VI, removed by Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor 1030
Battle of Stiklestad, considered victory of Christianity over Norwegian paganism 1045
Sigfrid of Sweden, Benedictine evangelist 1046
Council of Sutri, Pope Silvester III exiled, Pope Gregory VI admitted to buying the papacy and resigned, Pope Benedict IX resigned, council appointed Pope Clement II 1054
East-West Schism split between Eastern ( Orthodox Christianity) and Western ( Roman Catholic) churches formalized 1058–1059
Antipope Benedict X, defeated in war with Pope Nicholas II and Normans 1061–1064
Antipope Honorius II rival of Pope Alexander II 1065
Westminster Abbey consecrated 1073–1085
Pope Gregory VII, Investiture Controversy with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, proponent of clerical celibacy, opponent of simony, concubinage, Antipope Clement III 1079
Stanislaus of Szczepanów, patron saint of Poland 1082
Engelberg Abbey of Switzerland 1093–1109
Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote Cur Deus Homo ( Why God Became Man), a landmark exploration of the Atonement 1095–1291 Ten
Crusades, first called by Pope Urban II at Council of Clermont against Islamic empire to reconquer the Holy Land for Christendom 1098 Foundation of the reforming monastery of
Citeaux. Leads to the growth of the Cistercian order. 1101
Antipope Theodoric and Antipope Adalbert deposed by Pope Paschal II 1118
Knights Templar founded, to defend Holy Land 1123 Catholic
First Lateran Council 1128
Holyrood Abbey in Scotland 1130
Peter of Bruys, burned at the stake 1131
Tintern Abbey in Wales 1131–1138
Antipope Anacletus II 1139 Catholic
Second Lateran Council 1140?
, Catholic Decretum Gratiani Canon law 1142
Peter Abélard, Letters of Abelard and Heloise 1144 The
Saint Denis Basilica of Abbot Suger is the first major building in the style of Gothic architecture. 1154–1159
Pope Adrian IV, first (and to date only) English pope 1155
Theotokos of Vladimir arrives to Bogolyubovo 1155
Carmelites founded 1163
Notre Dame de Paris, construction begun 1173
Waldensians founded 1179 Catholic
Third Lateran Council 1191
Teutonic Knights founded 1204–1261
Latin Empire of Constantinople 1205
Saint Francis of Assisi becomes a hermit, founding the Franciscan order of friars, renounces wealth and begins his ministry; the Rosary is reportedly given to St. Dominic (who founded Dominican Order) by an apparition of Mary 1215 Catholic
Fourth Lateran Council, decreed special dress for Jews and Muslims 1220–1263 St
Alexander Nevsky, holy patron of Russia 1231 Charter of the
University of Paris granted by Pope Gregory IX. 1245 Catholic
First Council of Lyon 1252 May 15,
, Ad exstirpanda Pope Innocent IV authorized use of torture in Inquisitions 1260 Date which a 1988 Vatican-sponsored scientific study places the origin of the
Shroud of Turin 1274
, written by Summa Theologiae Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher, landmark systematic theology which later became official Catholic doctrine 1274 Catholic
Second Council of Lyon
See also: Renaissance
Avignon Papacy, Popes reside in Avignon, France 1311
, by Divine Comedy Dante Alighieri 1311–1312 Catholic
Council of Vienne, disbanded Knights Templar 1314
Jacques de Molay, last Grandmaster of Knights Templar, burned at the stake 1326
Metropolitan Peter moves his see from Kiev to Moscow 1341–1351 Orthodox
Fifth Council of Constantinople 1342
Marsilius of Padua 1345
Sergii Radonezhskii founds a hermitage in the woods, which would grow into the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra 1378–1418
Western Schism in Roman Catholicism 1380–1382
Wyclif's Bible, by John Wycliffe, eminent theologian at Oxford, NT in 1380, OT (with help of Nicholas of Hereford) in 1382, translations into Middle English, first complete translation to English, included deuterocanonical books, preached against abuses, expressed anti-catholic views of the sacraments ( Penance and Eucharist), the use of relics, and Clerical celibacy 1408 Council of Oxford forbids translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular unless and until they were fully approved by Church authority
Council of Pisa, declared Roman Pope Gregory XII and Avignon Pope Benedict XIII deposed, elected Pope Alexander V (called the Pisan Pope) 1414–1418 Catholic
Council of Constance, asked Gregory XII, Benedict XIII, Pisan Pope John XXIII to resign their papal claims, then elected Pope Martin V; condemned John Wycliffe and Jan Hus who was burned at the stake 1423–1424
Council of Siena 1425
Catholic University of Leuven 1430?
Andrei Rublev, the greatest of medieval icon-painters 1431 St.
Joan of Arc, French national heroine, burned at the stake 1431–1445 Catholic
Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence 1439
Notre-Dame de Strasbourg, highest building in the world till 1874 1453
Fall of Constantinople, overrun by Ottoman Empire 1455
Gutenberg Bible, first printed Bible, by Johann Gutenberg 1473–1481
Sistine Chapel built 1478
Spanish Inquisition established by Pope Sixtus IV 1484 December 5,
against Summis desiderantes witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII 1498
Girolamo Savonarola, Dominican priest, Bonfire of the Vanities 1506
Pope Julius II orders the Old St. Peter's Basilica torn down and authorizes Donato Bramante to plan a new structure. Demolition completed in 1606. Vatican Swiss Guard founded. 1508–1512
Michelangelo frescoes the Sistine Chapel's vaulted ceiling 1512–1517 Catholic
Fifth Council of the Lateran, condemned Conciliarism
See also: Reformation
95 Theses of Martin Luther begins German Protestant Reformation 1521
Diet of Worms condemns Luther 1521
Ferdinand Magellan claims the Philippines for Spain. First mass and subsequent conversion to Catholicism, first in East Asia. 1522
Luther's NT, German NT translation 1525
Anabaptist movement begins 1526
Tyndale's NT, English NT translation from 1516 Greek text of Erasmus, first printed edition, used as a vehicle by Tyndale for bitter attacks on Catholicism, reflects influence of Luther's NT in rejecting priest for elder, church for congregation, banned in 1546 by Henry VIII 1530
Augsburg Confession, Luther founds the Lutheran Church 1531
Huldrych Zwingli, Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, independent of Luther 1531
Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico 1534
Henry VIII established independent Church of England, see also English Reformation 1534
Jesuit order founded by Ignatius of Loyola, helped reconvert large areas of Poland, Hungary, and S. Germany and sent missionaries to the New World, India, and China 1535–1537
Myles Coverdale's Bible, used Tyndale's NT along with Latin and German versions, included Apocrypha at the end of the OT (like Luther's Bible of 1534) as was done in later English versions. 1537 edition received royal license, but banned in 1546 by Henry VIII. 1535
Thomas More refused to accept King Henry VIII's claim to be the supreme head of the Church in England, and was executed. 1536
Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch scholar, Greek NT used in many 16th century translations 1536
Tyndale put to death, left his OT translation in manuscript. English ecclesiastical authorities ordered his Bible burned because it was thought to be part of Lutheran reform. 1536
written by Institutes of the Christian Religion John Calvin ( Calvinism) 1536
John of Leiden, fanatic Dutch Anabaptist 1536
Jacob Hutter founder of Hutterites 1536
Helvetic Confessions of the Reformed Churches of Switzerland 1536–1540
Dissolution of the Monasteries in England, Wales and Ireland 1537
Christian III of Denmark decreed Lutheranism state religion of Norway and Denmark 1537–1551
Matthew Bible, by John Rogers, based on Tyndale and Coverdale, received royal license but not authorized for use in public worship, numerous editions, 1551 edition contained offensive notes (based on Tyndale) 1536–1541
Michelangelo paints the Last Judgement 1539–1569
Great Bible, by Thomas Cromwell, first English Bible to be authorized for public use in English churches, defective in many places, based on last Tyndale's NT of 1534–1535, corrected by a Latin version of the Hebrew OT, Latin Bible of Erasmus, and Complutensian Polyglot, last edition 1569, never denounced by England 1541
John Calvin returns to Geneva to establish a theocracy 1542
Roman Inquisition established by Pope Paul III 1543
Parliament of England bans Tyndale's translation as a "crafty, false and untrue translation" 1545–1563 Catholic
Council of Trent, counter-reformation against Protestantism, clearly defined an official theology and biblical canon 1549 original
Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England by Thomas Cranmer 1551 The
Stoglav Church Council (One Hundred Chapters) Moscow, Russia 1552
Francis Xavier, Jesuit missionary, "Apostle of the Indies" 1553
Pontifical Gregorian University founded at Vatican City 1553
Michael Servetus founder of Unitarianism, burned at the stake in Geneva under Calvin 1553–1558 Queen
Mary I of England, Bloody Mary, persecuted reformers: John Rogers, Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Cranmer; of 238 burned at the stake 1559 Military
Order of the Golden Spur founded by Pope Paul IV 1560
Geneva Bible, NT a revision of Matthew's version of Tyndale with use of Theodore Beza's NT (1556), OT a thorough revision of Great Bible, appointed to be read in Scotland (but not England), at least 140 editions, first Bible with chapter and verse numbers 1560
Scots Confession, Church of Scotland, Scottish Reformation 1560–1598
French Wars of Religion 1560–1812
Goa Inquisition, persecution of Hindus and Jews in India, see also Christianity in India 1561
Menno Simons founder of Mennonites 1563
Thirty-Nine Articles of Church of England, also decreed biblical canon 1563
Heidelberg Catechism of Reformed churches 1566
Roman Catechism 1569
Metropolitan Philip of Moscow strangled by Malyuta Skuratov 1571
Dutch Reformed Church 1572
John Knox, founded Scotch Presbyterian Church, due to disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and church government 1572–1606
Bishops' Bible, a revision of the Great Bible checked against the Hebrew text, first to be published in England by episcopal authority 1579 Discovery of the holiest Russian icon,
Our Lady of Kazan 1580
of Lutheranism Book of Concord 1582
St Terese of Avila 1582
Gregorian calendar adopted at different times in different regions of the world 1587
Toyotomi Hideyoshi expelled Jesuits from Kyūshū 1587? Mission Nombre de Dios in St. Augustine, Florida, considered first mission to North America
Metropolitan Jove is elected the first Patriarch of Moscow 1590 Michelangelo's dome in St Peter's Basilica completed
Clementine Vulgate of Pope Clement VIII, replaced Sistine Vulgate of 1590, standard Latin Catholic Bible till reforms of the Second Vatican Council 1596
Ukrainian Catholic Church forms when Ukrainian subjects of the king of Poland are reunited with Rome, largest Byzantine Catholic Church
Giordano Bruno, Dominican priest, burned at the stake 1604
Fausto Paolo Sozzini Socinianism 1606 Carlo Maderno redesigns St Peter's Basilica into a Latin cross
Jamestown, Virginia founded 1608
Quebec founded by Samuel de Champlain 1609
Baptist Church founded by John Smyth, due to objections to infant baptism and demands for church-state separation 1609–1610
Douay-Rheims Bible, first Catholic English translation. OT published in two volumes, based on an unofficial Louvain text corrected by Sistine Vulgate. NT is Rheims text of 1582. 1611–1800
King James Version (Authorised Version) is released, based primarily on Wycliffe's work and Bishop's Bible of 1572. Translators are accused of being "damnable corrupters of God's word". Original included Apocrypha. 1614
Fama Fraternitatis, Rosicrucian manifesto 1618–1648
Thirty Years' War 1620
Plymouth Colony founded 1621
Robert Bellarmine 1622–1642
Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu 1630
City upon a Hill, sermon by John Winthrop 1636 Founding of what was later known as
Harvard University as a training school for ministers – the first of thousands of institutions of Christian higher education founded in the USA 1636–1638
Cornelius Jansen, bishop of Ypres, founder of Jansenism 1637–1638
Shimabara Rebellion 1638
Anne Hutchinson banished as a heretic from Massachusetts 1641
John Cotton, advocate of theonomy, helps to establish the social constitution of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 1643
Acta Sanctorum 1644
Long Parliament directed that only Hebrew canon be read in the Church of England (effectively removed the Apocrypha) 1646
Westminster Standards produced by the Assembly, one of the first and undoubtedly the most important and lasting religious document drafted after the reconvention of the Parliament, also decreed biblical canon 1648
George Fox founds the Quaker movement 1650
James Ussher, calculates date of creation as October 23, 4004 BC 1653–56
Raskol of the Russian Orthodox Church 1660–1685 King
Charles II of England, restoration of monarchy, continuing through James II, reversed decision of Long Parliament of 1644, reinstating the Apocrypha, reversal not heeded by non-conformists 1672
Greek Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem, decreed biblical canon 1675
Philipp Jakob Spener publishes Pia Desideria, which becomes a manifesto for Pietism 1678
John Bunyan publishes Pilgrim's Progress 1682
Avvakum, leader of the Old Believers, burned at the stake in the Far North of Russia 1684
Roger Williams (theologian), advocate of separation of church and state, founder of Providence, Rhode Island 1685
Edict of Fontainebleau outlaws Protestantism in France 1685 Orthodoxy introduced to
Beijing by Russian Orthodox Church 1692
Salem witch trials in Colonial America 1692–1721
Chinese Rites controversy 1693
Jacob Amman founder of Amish
Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands splits with Roman Catholicism 1721
Peter the Great substituted Moscow Patriarchate with the Holy Synod 1728
The Vicar of Bray (song) 1730–1749
First Great Awakening in U.S. 1735
Welsh Methodist revival 1738
Methodist movement, led by John Wesley and his hymn-writing brother Charles, begins 1741
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, famous fire and brimstone sermon 1754
An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture, by Isaac Newton, published 1767–1815
Suppression of the Jesuits 1768
New Smyrna, Florida, Greek Orthodox colony founded 1768
Reimarus dies without publishing his radical critic work distinguishing Historical Jesus versus Christ of Faith 1769
Mission San Diego de Alcala, first California mission 1772
Emanuel Swedenborg, founded Swedenborgianism 1774
Ann Lee leader of American Shakers 1774
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing starts publishing Reimarus works on historical Jesus as Anonymous Fragments, starting Liberal Theology Era (in Christology) 1776–1788
Gibbon's , critical of Christianity The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 1776
Mission Delores, San Francisco 1779
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, "Jesus never coerced anyone to follow him, and the imposition of a religion by government officials is impious" 1780
Robert Raikes begins Sunday schools to reach poor and uneducated children in England 1784 American Methodists form
Methodist Episcopal Church at so-called "Christmas Conference", led by bishops Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury 1789–1815
John Carroll, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore, first Roman Catholic US bishop 1789–1801
Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution 1791
First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1793
Herman of Alaska brings Orthodoxy to Alaska 1795
written by Thomas Paine, advocated Deism The Age of Reason 1796
Treaty with Tripoli (1796), article 11: "the Government of the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion"
See also: Industrial Revolution
Friedrich Schleiermacher publishes his first book, beginning Liberal Christianity movement 1801
Cane Ridge, Kentucky 1811 The Campbells begin
Restoration Movement 1815
Peter the Aleut, orthodox Christian, tortured and martyred in Catholic San Francisco, California 1816 Bishop
Richard Allen, a former slave, founds the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first African-American denomination 1819
Thomas Jefferson produced the Jefferson Bible 1824 English translation of
Wilhelm Gesenius' ...Handwörterbuch...: Hebrew-English Lexicon, Hendrickson Publishers 1828
Plymouth Brethren founded, Dispensationalism 1830
Charles Finney's revivals lead to Second Great Awakening in America 1830,
April 6 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints ( Mormonism) founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. as a result of reported visitations and commandment by God the Father, Jesus Christ, and later the Angel Moroni. Book of Mormon also published in 1830. 1832
Church of Christ (Disciples) organized, made up of Presbyterians in distress over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor 1833 John Keble's sermon "National Apostasy" initiates the
Oxford Movement in England 1838–1839 Saxon Lutherans objecting to the Prussian Union emigrate from Germany to the United States; settle in Perry County, Missouri. Leads to formation of the
Disruption of: schism within the established Church of Scotland 1844,
October 22 Great Disappointment, false prediction of Second Coming of Christ by Millerites 1845
Southern Baptist Convention formed in Augusta, Georgia 1848
Epistle to the Easterns and Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs response 1848
Perfectionist movement in western New York state 1854 Missionary
Hudson Taylor arrives in China 1854
Immaculate Conception, defined as Catholic dogma 1855
Søren Kierkegaard, founder of Christian existentialism 1863
Seventh-day Adventist Church officially formed twenty 20 years after the Great Disappointment 1865 Methodist preacher
William Booth founds the Salvation Army, vowing to bring the gospel into the streets to the most desperate and needy 1869–1870 Catholic
First Vatican Council, asserted doctrine of Papal Infallibility, rejected by Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland 1870 Italy declared war on the
Papal States. The Italian Army enters Rome. Papal States ceased to exist. 1871–1878 German
Kulturkampf against Roman Catholicism 1879
Church of Christ, Scientist founded in Boston by Mary Baker Eddy 1881–1894
Revised Version, called for by Church of England, used Greek based on Septuagint (B) and (S), Hebrew Masoretic Text used in OT, follows Greek order of words, greater accuracy than AV, includes Apocrypha, scholarship never disputed 1884
Charles Taze Russell founded Bible Student movement known today as Jehovah's Witnesses 1885
Baltimore Catechism 1886
Moody Bible Institute 1894
, by The Kingdom of God is Within You Leo Tolstoy, start of Christian anarchism 1897
Christian flag, conceived in Brooklyn, New York 1899
Gideons International founded
1905 French law on the separation of Church and State 1906
Albert Schweitzer publishes The Quest of the Historical Jesus (English translation 1910) 1906
Biblia Hebraica 1906–1909
Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles, California, begins modern Pentecostal movement 1907–1912
Nicholas of Japan, Archbishop of Japanese Orthodox Church 1909
Scofield Reference Bible 1909–1911
The Rosicrucian Fellowship, an international association of Christian mystics, founded at Mount Ecclesia 1910
Edinburgh Missionary Conference launches modern missions movement and modern ecumenical movement; five-point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly, also used by Fundamentalists 1910–1915 The
Fundamentals, a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and American scholars and preachers, a foundation of Fundamentalism 1913
Our Lady of Fatima appears to three young people, in Portugal. They were Jacinta Marto, Tiago Veloso and Lúcia (Sister Lucia). 1913
Catholic Encyclopedia 1914
Welsh Church Act 1914 1914
Iglesia ni Cristo incorporated in the Philippines 1915–1917
Armenian Genocide 1916
Father Divine founded International Peace Mission movement 1916
And did those feet in ancient time 1917 Restitution of the
Moscow Patriarchy with Tikhon as patriarch 1917
True Jesus Church founded in Beijing 1918 Execution of Holy Martyrs of Russia, including the last tsar,
Nicholas II, and his wife, Alexandra Feodorovna 1919
Karl Barth's Commentary on Romans is published, critiquing Liberal Christianity and beginning the neo-orthodox movement 1921
Oxford Group founded at Oxford 1923
Aimee Semple McPherson built Angelus Temple 1925
Scopes Trial, caused division among Fundamentalists 1925
United Church of Canada formed 1926 Father
Charles Coughlin's first radio broadcast 1927
Pope Pius XI decrees Comma Johanneum open to dispute 1929
Lateran Treaty signed containing three agreements between kingdom of Italy and the papacy. 1930
Rastafari movement founded 1931 Majority of Bible Students adopt name
Jehovah's Witnesses, see 1884 for more information. 1931
Christ the Redeemer (statue) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1933
Catholic Worker Movement founded 1934
Herbert W. Armstrong founded Radio Church of God 1935 Dr.
Frank C. Laubach, known as "The Apostle to the Illiterates", working in the Philippines, developed a literacy program that continues to teach millions of people to read. 1935 Rahlf's critical edition of the
Koine Greek Septuagint 1935
Billy Sunday, early U.S. radio evangelist 1939 Southern and Northern US branches of the Methodist Episcopal Church, along with the Methodist Protestant Church reunite to form the
Methodist Church. Slavery had divided the church in the 1800s. 1940
Monumento Nacional de Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos, world's largest cross, 152.4 meters high 1942
National Association of Evangelicals founded 1945
Roman Catholic sex abuse cases begin 1945
Dietrich Bonhoeffer is executed by the Nazis 1945
Ludwig Müller 1945 The
Nag Hammadi library is discovered. 1946–1952
Revised Standard Version, revision of AV "based on consonantal Hebrew text" for OT and best available texts for NT, done in response to changes in English usage 1947
Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism by Carl F. H. Henry, a landmark of Evangelicalism versus Fundamentalism in US 1947
Oral Roberts founded Evangelistic Association 1947
Dead Sea scrolls discovered 1948
World Council of Churches is founded 1948
Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, see also Christian Zionism 1949 Evangelist
Billy Graham preaches his first Los Angeles crusade 1950
New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures released 1950
Assumption of Mary decreed by Pope Pius XII 1950
Missionaries of Charity founded by Mother Teresa 1951
The Last Temptation, a fictional account of the life of Jesus, written by Nikos Kazantzakis, wherein Christ's divinity is juxtaposed with his humanity, is published, and promptly banned in many countries. 1951
Campus Crusade for Christ founded at UCLA 1952
Novum Testamentum Graece, critical edition of Greek NT, basis of modern translations 1952
C. S. Lewis' Mere Christianity 1954
Unification Church founded 1954 U.S.
Pledge of Allegiance modified by act of Congress from "one nation, indivisible" to "one nation under God, indivisible" 1956
In God We Trust designated U.S. national motto 1956
Anchor Bible Series 1956
The Ten Commandments (1956 film) 1957
United Church of Christ founded by ecumenical union of Congregationalists and Evangelical and Reformed, representing Calvinists and Lutherans 1957 English translation of
Walter Bauer's Wörterbuch ...: A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, University of Chicago Press 1958
Family Radio founded 1961
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures released 1962–1965 Catholic
Second Vatican Council, announced by Pope John XXIII in 1959, produced 16 documents which became official Roman Catholic teaching after approval by the Pope, purpose to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us" 1963
Martin Luther King leads a civil rights march in Washington, D.C. 1963 campaign by
Madalyn Murray O'Hair results in U.S. Supreme Court ruling prohibiting reading of Bible in public schools 1965 Reginald H. Fuller's
The Foundations of New Testament Christology
Rousas John Rushdoony founds Chalcedon Foundation
Raymond E. Brown's Commentary on the Gospel of John 1968
United Methodist Church formed with union of Methodist Church and Evangelical United Brethren Church, becoming the largest Methodist/Wesleyan church in the world 1970s The
Jesus movement takes hold in the U.S. One-way.org 1970
Mass of Paul VI replaces Tridentine Mass 1970
futurist book by Hal Lindsey The Late, Great Planet Earth 1970?
Chick Publications 1971
New American Standard Bible 1971
, a novel of The Exorcist demonic possession and the mysteries of the Catholic faith, is published. 1973
Trinity Broadcasting Network founded 1974
Jim Bakker founds PTL television ministry 1975
Bruce Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament 1976
Anneliese Michel, Bavarian woman, underwent exorcism against demon possession 1977
New Perspective on Paul 1977
Focus on the Family founded by James Dobson 1978
New International Version of the Bible is first published (revised in 1984), using a variety of Greek texts, Masoretic Hebrew texts, and current English style 1978–2005
Pope John Paul II, reaffirmed moral traditions ( The Splendor of Truth) 1979
Moral Majority founded by Jerry Falwell 1979
, most watched movie of all time according to Jesus New York Times 1979–1982?
New King James Version, complete revision of 1611 AV, updates archaisms while retaining style 1985
Jesus Seminar founded 1985
E. P. Sanders' Jesus and Judaism 1988
Christian Coalition 1988
, directed by The Last Temptation of Christ Martin Scorsese, is released by Universal Pictures, and promptly attacked as heretical by organized Christian and Catholic groups. 1989
New Revised Standard Version 1991 John P. Meier's series
, v. 1 A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus 1992
Catechism of the Catholic Church 1994 "Evangelicals & Catholics Together"
Porvoo Communion 1994
Answers In Genesis founded by Ken Ham 1997, Mar 5–10
World Council of Churches: Towards a Common Date for Easter, see also Reform of the date of Easter 1998, April 6
PBS Frontline: From Jesus to Christ 1999
International House of Prayer in Kansas City begins non-stop 24/7 continual prayer 1999, Oct 31 signing of the
Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification between the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church
↑ G. J. Goldberg. "John the Baptist and Josephus" . http://members.aol.com/FLJOSEPHUS/JohnTBaptist.htm . Retrieved 2006-08-16.
↑ A. J. MAAS (2003). Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ. Retrieved January 23, 2006. Walter Bauer's et al. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 1979, under Christos notes: "as a personal name; the Gentiles must have understood Christos in this way (to them it seemed very much like Chrestos [even in pronunciation ...], a name that is found in lit."
↑ see section titled: "THE INCIDENT AT ANTIOCH" Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers
↑ Theodosian Code XVI.1.2 Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved September 25, 2006; IMPERATORIS THEODOSIANI CODEX Liber Decimus Sextus, Emperor Theodosius, George Mason University retrieved September 25, 2006; Theodosian Code XVI.1.2; : "In February, 380, he and Catholic Encyclopedia: Theodosius I Gratian published the famous edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the Bishops of Rome and Alexandria ( Cod. Theod., XVI, I, 2; Sozomen, VII, 4)."