Voiceless velar stop

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Voiceless velar plosive
k
IPA number109
Encoding
Entity (decimal)k
Unicode (hex)U+006B
X-SAMPAk
Kirshenbaumk
Sound

 

The voiceless velar stop is a type of consonant. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨k⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is ⟨k⟩. The English language has this sound, and it is the sound represented by the "c" in care and the "k" in kiss.

Feeatures[change | change source]

  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic. This means that this sound is produced by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
  • The phonation is voiceless. This means that this sound is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • The place of articulation (where the sound is produced) is velar. This means that this sound is produced with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • The manner of articulation (how the sound is produced) is stop, or plosive. This means that this sound is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

Examples[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning
Abkhaz ақалақь/ak̇halak̇h’ [ˈakalakʲ] 'the city'
Adyghe Shapsug кьэт/k′ėt audio speaker icon[kʲat]  'chicken'
Temirgoy пскэн/pskėn [pskan]
Ahtna gistaann [kɪstʰɐːn] 'six'
Aleut[1] kiikax̂ [kiːkaχ] 'cranberry bush'
Arabic Modern Standard[2] كتب/kutib [ˈkatabɐ] 'he wrote'
Armenian Eastern[3] քաղաք/ k'aġak'/k'aghak [kʰɑˈʁɑkʰ] 'town'
Assamese /kom [kɔm] 'less'
Assyrian ܟܬܒ̣ܐ ctava [ktava] 'book'
Basque katu [kat̪u] 'cat'
Bengali /kom [kɔm] 'less'
Bulgarian как/kak [kak] 'how'
Catalan[4] cors [ˈkɔ(ɾ)s] 'hearts'
Chinese Cantonese / gā audio speaker icon[kaː˥] 'home'
Hokkien koa [kua] 'song'
Mandarin / gāo audio speaker icon[kɑʊ˥] 'high'
Chuvash кукка [ku'kːɑ] 'mother's brother'
Czech kost [kost] 'bone'
Danish Standard[5] gås [ˈkɔ̽ːs] 'goose'
Dutch[6] koning [ˈkoːnɪŋ] 'king'
English kiss audio speaker icon[kʰɪs] 'kiss'
Esperanto rakonto [raˈkonto] 'tale'
Estonian kõik [kɤik] 'all'
Filipino kuto [ˈkuto] 'lice'
Finnish kakku [kɑkːu] 'cake'
French[7] cabinet [kabinɛ] 'office'
Georgian[8] ვა/kva [kʰva] 'stone'
German Käfig [ˈkʰɛːfɪç] 'cage'
Greek καλόγερος / kalógeros [kaˈlo̞ʝe̞ro̞s̠] 'monk'
Gujarati કાંદો/kaṃde [kɑːnd̪oː] 'onion'
Hebrew כסף / kesef [ˈkesef] 'money'
Hiligaynon kadlaw [kad̪law] 'laugh'
Hindustani काम / کام [kɑːm] 'work'
Hungarian akkor [ɒkkor] 'then'
Italian[9] casa [ˈkäːzä] 'house'
Japanese[10] / kaban [kabaɴ] 'handbag'
Kagayanen[11] kalag [kað̞aɡ] 'spirit'
Khmer កម្ពុជា / kâmpŭchéa [kampuciːə] 'Cambodia'
Korean 감자 / kamja [kamdʑa] 'potato'
Lakota kimímela [kɪˈmɪmela] 'butterfly'
Luxembourgish[12] geess [ˈkeːs] 'goat'
Macedonian кој [kɔj] 'who'
Marathi वच [kəʋət͡s] 'armour'
Malay kaki [käki] 'leg'
Nepali केरा [keɾä] 'banana'
Norwegian kake [kɑːkɛ] 'cake'
Odia କା/kāma [kämɔ] 'work'
Pashto كال/kal [kɑl] 'year'
Persian کارد/kārd [kɑrd] 'knife'
Polish[13] buk audio speaker icon[ˈbuk]  'beech tree'
Portuguese[14] corpo [ˈkoɾpu] 'body'
Punjabi ਕਰ/کر/kar [kəɾ] 'do'
Romanian[15] când [ˈkɨnd] 'when'
Russian[16] короткий/korotkiy audio speaker icon[kɐˈrotkʲɪj]  'short'
Serbo-Croatian[17] кост / kost [kȏːs̪t̪] 'bone'
Slovak kosť [kɔ̝stɕ] 'bone'
Spanish[18] casa [ˈkäsä] 'house'
Swedish ko [ˈkʰuː] 'cow'
Sylheti ꠇꠤꠔꠣ/kita [kɪt̪à] 'what'
Tamil கை/kai [kəɪ̯] 'hand'
Telugu కాకి/kāki [kāki] 'crow'
Thai ก่/kị̀ [kaj˨˩] 'chicken'
Turkish kulak [kʰuɫäk] 'ear'
Ubykh кауар/kawar [kawar] 'slat'
Ukrainian[19] колесо/koleso [ˈkɔɫɛsɔ] 'wheel'
Vietnamese[20] cam [kam] 'orange'
Welsh calon [kalɔn] 'heart'
West Frisian keal [kɪəl] 'calf'
Yi / ge [kɤ˧] 'foolish'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[21] canza [kanza] 'walking'

Notes[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505, S2CID 13470826
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0