People's Republic of China
|People's Republic of China
"March of the Volunteers"
Official area of the People's Republic of China shown in dark red; area claimed but disputed shown in light red.
|Official languages||Standard Chinese
|Recognised regional languages||Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur, Zhuang, and various others|
|Official written language||Chinese|
|Official script||Simplified Chinese|
|Ethnic groups||91.51% Han; 55 recognised minorities
|Government||Unitary socialist one-party state|
|-||President (and CPC General Secretary)||Xi Jinping|
|-||Congress Chairman||Zhang Dejiang|
|-||Conference Chairman||Yu Zhengsheng|
|Legislature||National People's Congress|
|-||Unification of China under the Qin Dynasty||221 BC|
|-||Republic established||1 January 1912|
|-||People's Republic of China proclaimed||21 September 1949|
|-||Total||9,640,821 km2[b] or 9,671,018 km²[b] (3rd/4th)
3,704,427 sq mi
|-||2010 census||1,339,724,852 (1st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|-||Total||$12.382 trillion (2nd)|
|-||Per capita||$9,146 (91st)|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|-||Total||$8.250 trillion (2nd)|
|-||Per capita||$6,094 (90th)|
|HDI (2011)|| 0.699
medium · 101st
|Currency||Renminbi (yuan) (¥) (CNY)|
|Time zone||China Standard Time (UTC+8)|
|Drives on the||right, except for Hong Kong & Macau|
|Internet TLD||.cn[c] .中國 .中国|
|a. ^ Simple descriptions of the political structure since the 1980s are no longer possible.
b. ^ 9,598,086 km2 (3,705,842 sq mi) excludes all disputed territories.
The People's Republic of China (PRC) (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國) is a one-party state in East Asia governed by the Communist Party of China. It was founded on 21 September 1949. It has more than 1.3 billion people, which is more than any other country in the world. It covers an area of 9.6 million square kilometers.
The capital city is Beijing, and Shanghai is the city with the most people living in it. Along with the cities of Tianjin and Chongqing, these four cities are "municipalities" directly controlled by the national government. Two other cities are given the status of "special administrative region" (SAR). They are Hong Kong, which was once a colony of the United Kingdom and given back to China in 1997; and Macau, which Portugal gave back in 1999. These two cities remain highly autonomous, or have much of their own power. Aside from the "municipalities" and the "SAR's", there are 23 provinces and five "autonomous regions", or regions with more law-making rights than the provinces and with a large number of people of a minority group population. They are the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Tibet Autonomous Region or Xizang Autonomous Region, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.
In the SAR's, the central government is responsible for defense and foreign affairs but not the daily operations for 50 years. PRC claims Taiwan as one of its many provinces. However, PRC does not have control of Taiwan which has an entirely different political system and officially known as the Republic of China (Taiwan).
History[change | change source]
China has one of the world's oldest civilizations and has the oldest continuous civilization. It has archaeological evidence over 5,000 years old. It also has one of the world's oldest writing systems (and the oldest in use today), and is viewed as the source of many major inventions.
Ancient (2100 B.C. - 1500 A.D.)[change | change source]
Ancient China was one of the first civilizations and was active since the 2nd millennium BC as a feudal society. Chinese civilization was also one of the few to invent writing, with the others being Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley civilization, the Maya civilization, the Minoan civilization of ancient Greece, and Ancient Egypt. It reached its golden age during the Tang Dynasty (c. A.D. 10th century). Home of Confucianism and Daoism, it had great influence on nearby countries including Japan, Korea, and Vietnam in the areas of political system, philosophy, religion, art, and even writing and literature. China is home to some of the oldest artwork in the world. Statues and pottery, as well as decorations made of jade, are some classic examples.
Before the Qin Dynasty united China, there were hundreds of small states that fought each other for hundreds of years in a war to control China. This is known as the Warring States Period. Although the continuing wars made people suffer, it was at this time when many of the great philosophies of the East were born, including Confucianism and Daoism. Confucianism and Daoism alone have been the foundation of many social values seen in modern eastern-Asian cultures today.
Its geography mostly looked like that of modern China, except with northern and western edges that varied. It was often attacked by northern nomadic people such as the Turkic tribes and the Mongols lead by Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan. During the history of ancient China, the northern nomadic people and the Chinese people had been fighting each other and taking turns to rule the land and the people of China. However, when the northern people beat the Chinese people and came to rule the kingdom, they also Incorporated the Chinese way of living and became like the Chinese. Many of the strongest dynasties of China were ruled by the northern people, including the Qin, Tang, Yuan (Mongolian), and Qing (Manchu). Each time, they also brought new elements into the Chinese culture.
A new age[change | change source]
While China achieved many things in the First millennium and early 2nd millennium, it became an isolationist country in the 15th century C.E. This was because Spain found a lot of silver in the newly explored continents of North and South America. Silver was the main currency (money) in China and Europe at the time, and China did not want to be bought by the foreigners.
By the time of the Renaissance, European powers started to take over other countries in Asia. While China was never actually taken over by Europeans, many European countries, such as Britain and France built spheres of influence in China. Since China had cut itself off from the world over the previous few centuries, by the Qing Dynasty, it had fallen behind other countries in technology, and was helpless to stop this from happening. This had become clear when it lost the Opium Wars to Britain in the 19th century.
In 1912, the Qing dynasty was overthrown by the Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang, a nationalist party, and the Republic of China established. Over time, Marxist ideas grew popular and the Communist party was formed.
The Chinese Civil War later started between the Kuomintang (Nationalists) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Communists of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The Communists wanted to make China like the Soviet Union, whereas the other side wanted to keep China in its current state at the time. The Communists were led by Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi and others. Later Liu lost influence with Mao and his death to this day remains unresolved. The Communists eventually won the war. The Nationalists (led by Chiang Kai-shek) fled to the island of Taiwan and set up their new capital city in Taipei. After the Chinese Civil War, the Communist leader Mao Zedong declared a new country, the People's Republic of China (PRC), in Beijing on September 21, 1949.
In 1927, the Chinese Civil War began as the Kuomintang, led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Communists fought one another. By 1949, the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party had gained control over mainland China and Mao Zedong announced the creation of the People's Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek and the other nationalists fled to Taiwan.
As the leader of the People's Republic of China, Mao began many social and economic reform projects with mixed results. The Great Leap Forward, from 1958 to 1961, tried to industrialize China and increase its food production, but resulted in one of the largest famines in history. It is estimated that 45 million people died as a result of this reform project. In 1966, Mao began the Cultural Revolution to remove capitalist influences from society and government. Major government officials and ordinary citizens were accused of being "revisionists" - people who disagreed with some parts of Marxism - or "counter-revolutionaries" and were persecuted. Many universities and schools were closed, and historical and religious sites were destroyed. Although the program officially ended in 1969, it continued until Mao's death in 1976.
During this time period, the People's Republic of China did not get along with the capitalist countries of the Western world. Beginning in the 1960s, relationships between the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union also became increasingly unfriendly in the Sino-Soviet Split. In 1972, to counter the power of the Soviet Union, Mao and Zhou Enlai met with US President Richard Nixon in Beijing. This began to improve relationships between China and the Western world.
After Mao's death, there was a power struggle between the Gang of Four and Hua Guofeng, the man Mao had chosen to be the next leader of China. Eventually, Deng Xiaoping, one of the veterans of the revolution, took power. He began a "Reform and Opening Up" (simplified Chinese: 改革开放; traditional Chinese: 改革開放) campaign. These reforms tried to make the People's Republic of China a modern, industrial - but still socialist - nation by moving towards a market system. Deng's policies would be known as "socialism with Chinese characteristics."
Although Deng's policy helped loosen restrictions on citizens, the People's Republic of China continues to have problems with the amount of control the government has over citizens' private lives. In 1979, the one-child policy, which limits most couples to one child, was created because of the overpopulation problem in the People's Republic of China. This policy is highly controversial and many Westerners have criticized it. News and Internet sites are also censored by the government.
In 1989, the Chinese government used soldiers and tanks to stop a protest in Beijing's Tiananmen Square organized by students seeking political reform. This action received worldwide criticism and led to economic sanctions being placed on the Chinese government.
Geography[change | change source]
The People's Republic of China is the fourth-largest country in the world by land area after Russia, Canada, and the United States. China has every kind of climate in the northern hemisphere except the polar climate. It is also the largest country without any land north of the Arctic Circle. China borders 14 nations, which is more than any other country in the world. It borders Vietnam, Laos, and Burma in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan in South Asia; Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; a small section of Russian Altai and Mongolia in Inner Asia; and the Russian Far East and North Korea in Northeast Asia.
Biodiversity[change | change source]
China is one of 17 megadiverse countries. It is in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya. In the Palearctic zone, mammals such as the horse, camel, tapir, and jerboa can be found. Among the species in the Indomalaya region are the Leopard Cat, bamboo rat, treeshrew, and various monkey and ape species. Some overlap is between the two regions; deer, antelope, bears, wolves, pigs, and many rodent species can all be found in China's environments. The famous giant panda is found only in a limited area along the Yangtze River. China has a continuing problem with trade in endangered species. There are now laws to stop such activities.
China also has a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests cover most of the north of the country. The forest have animal species such as moose and the Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species. Moist conifer forests can have thickets of bamboo. It is replaced by rhododendrons in higher montane stands of juniper and yew. Subtropical forests, which are mostly in central and southern China. These support as many as 146,000 species of flora. Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, have a quarter of all the plant and animal species found in China.
Military[change | change source]
The PRC Armed Forces, also known as the People's Liberation Army (PLA), is one of the most powerful armies in the world. Nowadays PRC is among the atomic powers in the world. It also has the largest standing army in the world of over 2 million soldiers on active duty.
People and culture[change | change source]
China is the origin of Eastern martial arts, called Kung Fu or its first name Wushu. China is also the home of the well-respected Spa Monastery and Wudang Mountains. Martial art started more for the purpose of survival, defense, and warfare than art. Over time some art forms have branched off, while others have retained their distinct Chinese flavor.
China has had renoned artists including Wong Fei Hung (Huang Fei Hung or Hwang Fei Hung) and many others. Art has also co-existed with a variety of paints including the more standard 18 colors. Legendary and controversial moves like Big Mak are also praised and talked about within the culture.
China has many traditional festivals, such as the Chinese New Year, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival and so on. The most significant is Chinese New Year. Another important holiday is the National Day celebration around October 1. Weekends are moved around to make sure everyone has a week-long holiday for it, just like during the lunar new year.
Festivals[change | change source]
Chinese New Year lasts fifteen days, including one week as a national holiday. It starts with the first day of the Chinese lunar year and ends with the full moon fifteen days later. It is always in the middle of winter, but is called the "Spring Festival" in Chinese because Chinese seasons are a little different from English ones. On the first day of the Chinese New Year, people call on friends and relatives. Because most people watch the special performances on CCTV all the night on New Year's Eve and don't go to bed until 12:00 AM, they usually get up later in the next day. The fifth day of the Chinese New Year is the day to welcome the god of Wealth (Chinese:财神爷), many people make and eat dumplings (Chinese:饺子). They believe that dumplings can hold the god of Wealth and bring luck.The last day of the Chinese New Year is the Lantern Festival. On this day, the moon becomes the full moon. People go out and watch the lantern festivals everywhere. After that, they eat sweet dumpling (Chinese:汤圆,元宵), a kind of dumpling which is round and looks like the full moon.
Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated to commemorate the death of Qu Yuan, a patriotic poet of the State of Chu during the Warring States period. He persuaded his emperor not to accept Qin's diplomats' offers several times but his emperor did not listen to him. He was very sad and ended up jumping into the river to end his life. The people loved him so much that they did not want the fish to eat his corpse. They made and threw rice dumplings into the river. They hope the fish eat these dumplings instead of the poet's corpse. They also rowed dragon boats in the river to get rid of the fish. Such practices, eating rice dumplings and holding dragon boat races, become what Chinese do in this festival nowadays.
Held on the fifteenth day of the eighth lunar month, Mid-Autumn Festival is a festival for families. Now when the festival sets in, people would sit together to eat moon cakes, appreciate the bright full moon cakes, appreciate the bright full moon, celebrate the bumper harvest and enjoy the family love and happiness. To the Chinese people, the full moon symbolizes family reunion, as does the "moon cakes." Hence the Mid-Autumn Festival is also called the Family Reunion Festival.
Transport[change | change source]
Trains are commonly used for moving from one place to another, mainly for long distances. Bullet trains are faster and more common in the cities. China has more high-speed trains than any other country in the world. Buses and air transport are also very common.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Chan, Kam Wing (2007). "Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China's Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications". Eurasian Geography and Economics 48 (4): 383–412. doi:10.2747/1538-7220.127.116.113. http://courses.washington.edu/chinageo/ChanCityDefinitionsEGE2007.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-07. p. 395
- "What are China's largest and richest cities?". University of Southern California.
- "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)". Gov.cn. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters.
- "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "The Chinese people have stood up". UCLA Center for East Asian Studies. Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2006.
- Peaslee, Amos J. (1956), "Data Regarding the 'People's Republic of China'", Constitutions of Nations, Vol. I, 2nd ed., Dordrecht: Springer, p. 533.
- Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2004), "Introduction", History of Modern China, New Delhi: Atlantic, p. 1.
- "World Economic Outlook Database: China". International Monetary Fund. October 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Income inequality: Delta blues". The Economist. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "2013 Human Development Index and its components – Statistics" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "GDP expands 11.4 percent, fastest in 13 years". Chinadaily.net. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Haggett, Peter.  (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 23. Edition 2, illustrated. Marshall Cavendish publishing. ISBN 0-7614-7289-4, 9780761472896. p 37. p 2836.
- Haggett, Peter.  (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 23. Edition 2, illustrated. Marshall Cavendish publishing. ISBN 0-7614-7289-4, 9780761472896. p 37. p 2836.
- Gernet, Jacques.  (1996). A history of Chinese civilization Edition 2, illustrated. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49781-7, 9780521497817. p 40.
- Akbar, Arifa (17 September 2010). "Mao's Great Leap Forward 'killed 45 million in four years'". The Independent (London). https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/news/maos-great-leap-forward-killed-45-million-in-four-years-2081630.html. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- China's border with Pakistan falls in the disputed Kashmir province. The area under Pakistani-administration is claimed by India.
- "Biodiversity Theme Report". Environment.gov.au. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
Other websites[change | change source]
- (English) Information, Links, History and more of China
- (English) China Maps
- Media related to People's Republic of China at Wikimedia Commons
- People's Republic of China travel guide from Wikivoyage