Norway

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Kingdom of Norway
Kongeriket Norge (Bokmål)
Kongeriket Noreg (Nynorsk)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Royal: Alt for Norge
("Everything for Norway")
1814 Eidsvoll oath: Enig og tro til Dovre faller
("United and loyal until the mountains of Dovre crumble")
Anthem: Ja, vi elsker dette landet
("Yes, we love this country")

Royal anthemKongesangen
("The King's Song")
Location of  Norway  (dark green)on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Norway  (dark green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Oslo
59°56′N 10°41′E / 59.933°N 10.683°E / 59.933; 10.683
Official languages Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk)
Recognised regional languages Northern Sami, Lule Sami, Kven and Southern Sami
Ethnic groups 81% Norwegians,[1] 2% Sami,[2] 17% other[1]
Demonym Norwegian
Government Unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
 -  King King Harald V
 -  Prime Minister Erna Solberg (H)
 -  President of the Storting Olemic Thommessen (H)
 -  Chief Justice Tore Schei
 -  Current coalition Conservative Coalition
Legislature Storting
Establishment
 -  Unification 872 
 -  Constitution 17 May 1814 
 -  Dissolution of union with Sweden 7 June 1905 
 -  Restoration from German occupation 8 May 1945 
Area
 -  Total 385,170 km2 (67th1)
148,721 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 6.03
Population
 -  2014 estimate 5,405,800 (116th)
 -  2001 census 4,858,200
 -  Density 13.26/km2 (213th)
34.35/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $255.285 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $52,012[3]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $414.462 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $84,443[3]
Gini (2000) 25.8
low · 5th
HDI (2013) Increase 0.944[4]
very high · 1st
Currency Norwegian krone (NOK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code 47
Internet TLD .no2
1. Includes Svalbard and Jan Mayen. (Without these two areas, the area of Norway is 323,802 km2, placing it 67th in the world.[5])
2. Two more TLDs have been assigned, but to date not used: .sj for Svalbard and Jan Mayen; .bv for Bouvet Island.
3. This percentage is for the mainland and also includes glaciers[6]

Norway is a country in the north of Europe. It is the western part of the Scandinavian peninsula. The mainland of Norway is surrounded by a coast on the west side and borders Russia, Finland, and Sweden to the east. The coast touches the Oslofjord, Skagerrak, and the North Sea.

The Kingdom of Norway has been independent since 1905. Its head of state is a king - Harald the 5th (as of 2017). The national day is May 17, which celebrates Norway's constitution of 1814. The parliament is called Stortinget and its members are elected by the people every 4 years.

About 5 million people live in Norway. The capital is the city of Oslo.

Norwegian is the national language. There are two official written versions of Norwegian called Bokmål and Nynorsk.

The Northern Sami language is spoken by around 90% of those who speak one of Norway's 3 Sami languages.[7] Northern Sami is also an official language in a number of municipalities.

History[change | change source]

The battle of Hafrsfjord (872 A.D.) resulted in small kingdoms becoming one larger kingdom, ruled by Harald Fairhair. After the king's death, again there were smaller kingdoms, inside Norway.[8]

Stockfish (or fish that has been freeze-dried, outside in cold weather) has been traded and exported; this happened as early as either the 9th century,[9] 10th century, or 11th century until 1066.[10] Other sources say that the exporting was happening as early as the 12th century; stockfish is one of the country's oldest [type of] things to be sold for export.[10]

In 1349 half of the Norwegian people died, getting sick from the bubonic plague (or Black Death).

When a Norwegian king died in 1387, there was no Norwegian king until the 20th century.

In 1397, Denmark, Norway and Sweden began the Kalmar Union. Sweden left the union in 1523.From 1536/1537, Denmark and Norway formed a personal union that by 1660 became the state called Denmark–Norway; Norway was the weaker part of the union with Denmark. That union lasted until 1814,[11][12] when the Treaty of Kiel said that Norway be ceded (or given) to Sweden; Denmark did not cede the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland

The Norwegian constitution was written in 1814 and signed on 17th May that year. However, Denmark, on the losing side of the Napoleon wars, lost Norway to Sweden, on the winning side. Norway could not escape the much greater military force of Sweden, and formally entered into union with Sweden in November 1814.

The union with Sweden: It lasted from 1814 until 7 June 1905 when Norway finally became a separate nation again.

In 1905 Prince Carl of Denmark was elected King of Norway. His name as a king, was King Haakon VII.

In World War I, Norway was neutral and served as a trading nation.

Norway tried to stay neutral in World War II, but was occupied by German forces from 9 April 1940 to 8 May 1945.

Norway became a member of NATO.

Oil was found in Norway's part of the North Sea, during the 1960s; the oil was found under the sea floor.

Royal family since 1905[change | change source]

King Haakon VII was already married, before he came to Norway (in 1905). His wife, Princess Maud, became Queen Maud. Their son, Prince Alexander of Denmark, became Crown Prince Olav and followed after his father as King Olav V in 1957. Olav and his wife, Crown Princess Märtha, had three children; Princess Ragnhild, Princess Astrid and Prince Harald (later Crown Prince Harald and in 1991 he followed his father as King Harald V).

King Harald is the first king born in Norway in over 600 years. He has two children; Princess Märtha Louise and Crown Prince Haakon Magnus.

Government[change | change source]

Ministry of Defence[change | change source]

The Government has Norwegian soldiers working in Syria (as of 2017)[13] and Afghanistan, together with soldiers from other countries that belong to NATO.

Economy[change | change source]

Exports include : natural gas, oil, hydroelectric power, and fish. Other natural resources are agriculture, forests, and minerals.

The government collects much money from various sources, and has policies intended to spread this wealth among Norwegians. This spread of wealth, is done both directly and indirectly.

Ethnicity[change | change source]

Most people in Norway are ethnic Norwegians. They speak a language that is related to German and English. Swedish and Danish are so close to Norwegian that most Norwegians understand them. Across Norway, many different dialects are spoken. Norwegians disagree on how to make one correct written language. Therefore, there are two standard languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Nynorsk is used in writing in most of the western areas and in the central mountains. Bokmål is written by most people in the rest of the country.

A native population of Norway, the Sami people, has its home in the northern parts of the country. Their language is not at all related to Norwegian. In some parishes in the far north, they make up the majority of people. Many Sami now live outside the Sami homeland, mostly in Oslo and other big cities. Earlier, Sami people were forced to speak Norwegian in school. Now Sami is taught as the first language in school for Sami children, and Norwegian is the first foreign language.

Many immigrants have come to Norway in the last 30–40 years. They mostly live in and around Oslo, and in the other big cities. Many immigrants come from nearby countries, like Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland and Russia. There are also many from countries far away, such as Pakistan, Somalia, Iraq and Vietnam.

Traditionally, all Norwegians were Lutherans, a variety of the Protestant faith. Still, more than 80% of Norwegians are Lutherans. Other important faiths include Islam, other Protestant groups and Catholicism.

Tourism[change | change source]

Among tourists to Norway, more come from Germany than from any other country. There are also many Swedes, Danes, British, Dutch and Italians visiting Norway. The Swedes and Danes often come in winter to go skiing. The others mainly come in summer. Many people visit Norway to see the Northern Lights, also known as the 'Aurora Borealis'.

Media[change | change source]

The largest national newspapers in Norway are Verdens Gang (VG), Aftenposten and Dagbladet.

Culture[change | change source]

Norwegian culture can be compared to English culture in the way that it is considered a bad thing to show off, as opposed to the US, where this is more acceptable. This is a big aspect of Norwegian culture, and it is related to the philosophy of egalitarianism. Because of this, people will understate things, for example if a Norwegian says something is good or nice, it can mean that it's really great.

Items from the Viking Age (in Norway), are shown in museums: One item is the Gokstad ship.

Museums in Norway includes The Ibsen Museum - named after Henrik Ibsen.[14]

Politics[change | change source]

In Norway power is shared among three branches: The justice sector, the government and the parliament (Stortinget). Norway also has a king, Harald V, but he does not have any real power and acts as a symbol and ambassador. This form of government is called a constitutional monarchy. Elections are held every four years, and the winner of the election is the party or coalition of parties that gets the most votes and seats in the parliament. After the elections are done, the winners work together to find out who the prime minister should be, as well as who the other ministers should be.

Here is a short summary of the biggest political parties in Norway, from left to right on the political axis:

  • Red (Rødt): A revolutionary socialist party which works for equality of income, labour rights, a controlled economy and feminism. Red is the only party on this list that is not in the Norwegian parliament.
  • Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk venstreparti): The party is not very radical and is concerned with environmental issues as well as education. The party is traditionally regarded as the "teacher's party" because of their focus on learning and school. One might call SV more of a social democratic party than a socialist party, since their socialist views have faded over the years. They were more radical in the 1970s and 80s.
  • Norwegian Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet): The Labour Party is the biggest party in Norway. They work for a strong economy with many regulations on private businesses, and are traditionally the party for workers, securing labour rights and the welfare state.
  • Centre Party (Senterpartiet): The Centre Party used to be known as the farmer's party; they no longer use this name, but still they are mostly popular in the countryside and other rural regions, since they work for the environment and protection of Norwegian farmers. For example, raising tariffs, or putting taxes on imports, to make foreign food cost more so that people will buy from Norwegian farmers. This is called protectionism.
  • Green Party (Miljøpartiet de Grønne): The Green party works for the environment only, and has recently been gaining a lot of popularity for its radical politics. They are mostly a left-side party, but will switch sides if it helps the environment.
  • Liberal Party (Venstre): Even though it is called Left in English, it is actually a social liberal party that belongs to the centre-right side of Norwegian politics. They work for liberal rights like freedom of speech, gender equality and they are also concerned with environment. Because of this they heavily support public transport.
  • Kristelig Folkeparti: The Christian People's Party is at present more active in local than national politics.
  • Conservative Party (Høgre): The flagship of the right side of politics, it is a conservative party and is the second biggest party in Norway. It works for a free market, liberal rights and equality of opportunity. They are friendly towards private businesses and support economic growth by making taxes smaller, so that more people can start businesses.
  • Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet): The Progress Party is a right-side party. It works for stronger immigration laws, a free market and tough penalties for crimes. They also support private schools and flat taxes.

The Conservative Party and the Progress Party are currently working together in a coalition government, after getting elected in the 2013 elections. It's also a minority government, so it has to work together with the other parties in the parliament to make change.

Largest cities[change | change source]

The city with the most people living there (or inhabitants) is Oslo; 942,000 live there. The city of Bergen has 251,000 people living there; the city of Trondheim has 172,000 people in its population.

Some claim that Bergen and Trondheim, each had their time, as Norway's capital during the Middle Ages.[15]

Organisations associated with the Government of Norway[change | change source]

Related pages[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Statistics Norway – Population 1 January 2010 and 2011 and changes in 2010, by immigration category and country background. Absolute numbers" (in (Norwegian)). Ssb.no. 2010-01-01. http://www.ssb.no/innvbef_en/tab-2011-04-28-01-en.html. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
  2. "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/no.html. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Norway". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=142&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=32&pr.y=0. Retrieved 2011-05-06.
  4. "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Summary.pdf#page=23. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  5. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2147.html
  6. "Statistisk sentralbyrå: – temaside" (in (Norwegian)). Ssb.no. http://www.ssb.no/areal/. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
  7. https://snl.no/nordsamisk
  8. Solveig Aareskjold. Klassekampen. 2017-08-12. pages 36-7
  9. https://www.nrk.no/nordland/torrfisk-sensasjon_-_-vikinghistorien-ma-skrives-om-1.13632492 "I den islandske ættesagaen Egilssoga fra 1200-tallet står det om Torulv Kveldulvsson, en høvding i Hålogaland. Kveldulvsson drev, ifølge sagaen, næringsvirksomhet i stor stil, blant annet eksporterte han fisk til England rundt 875. Dette har frem til i dag bare vært ubekreftede fortellinger. Nå har forskerne altså klart å finne bevis som støtter opp for mistankene om at handelen med tørrfisk kan ha startet så tidlig som sagaene forteller om."
  10. 10.0 10.1 https://www.nrk.no/nordland/torrfisk-sensasjon_-_-vikinghistorien-ma-skrives-om-1.13632492
  11. "Denmark". World Statesmen. http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Denmark.html. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  12. "Norway". World Statesmen. http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Norway.htm. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  13. http://www.klassekampen.no/article/20170724/ARTICLE/170729959
  14. http://ibsenmuseet.no/en
  15. dead link"Trondheim - the official website". http://www.trondheim.com/engelsk/touristinfo/. Retrieved 2009-09-04.

Coordinates: 60°23′N 5°20′E / 60.38°N 5.34°E / 60.38; 5.34