List of national rulers

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This page lists the national rulers in the world, i.e. heads of state and heads of government (and, in certain cases, de facto leaders not occupying either of those formal positions or prime ministers who are not heads of government ...) of the 195 states usually recognized like that (193 UN members + Vatican City + Taiwan), of 10 other national entities (quasi and unrecognized states), and of 7 in exile and/or alternative governments (only in exile governments that exercised power or succeeded governments that exercised power).

For local rulers, i.e. rulers of dependencies and of the main administrative divisions (autonomous regions, insular or peninsular regions, successors of historical regions or regions with strong identity, regions in the news, etc.) see:

States – A[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Afghanistan Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani 29 Sep 2014

Albania Albania President Bujar Nishani 24 Jul 2012
Prime minister Edi Rama 15 Sep 2013

Algeria Algeria President Abdelaziz Bouteflika 27 Apr 1999
Prime minister Abdelmalek Sellal[1] 29 Apr 2014

Andorra Andorra Coprince (French head of state) François Hollande 15 May 2012
Coprinces (bishop of Urgel) Joan Enric Vives Sicília 12 May 2003
Personal representative of the French coprince Sylvie Hubac 21 May 2012
Personal representative of the episcopal coprince Josep Maria Mauri 20 Jul 2012
General syndic Vicenç Mateu Zamora 28 Apr 2011
Head of government Antoni Martí 12 May 2011

Angola Angola President José Eduardo dos Santos[2] 10 Sep 1979
Vice President Manuel Vicente 26 Sep 2012

Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Queen Elizabeth II 1 Nov 1981
Governor-general Rodney Williams 14 Aug 2014
Prime minister Gaston Browne 13 Jun 2014

Argentina Argentina President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner 10 Dec 2007
Cabinet chief Jorge Capitanich 20 Nov 2013

Armenia Armenia President Serzh Sargsyan[3] 9 Apr 2008
Prime minister Hovik Abrahamyan 13 Apr 2014

Australia Australia Queen Elizabeth II 6 Feb 1952
Governor-general Sir Peter Cosgrovee 26 Mar 2014
Prime minister Tony Abbott 18 Sep 2013

Austria Austria President Heinz Fischer 8 Jul 2004
Chancellor Werner Faymann 2 Dec 2008

Azerbaijan Azerbaijan President Ilham Aliyev [4] 31 Oct 2003
Prime minister Artur Rasizade[5] 6 Aug 2003

States – B[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
The Bahamas The Bahamas Queen Elizabeth II 10 Jul 1973
Governor-general Dame Marguerite Pindling 8 Jul 2014
Prime minister Perry Christie[6] 8 May 2012

Bahrain Bahrain King Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah[7] 14 Feb 2002
Prime minister Sheikh Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah[8] 19 Jan 1970

Bangladesh Bangladesh President Abdul Hamid 24 Apr 2013
Prime minister Sheikh Hasina 6 Jan 2009

Barbados Barbados Queen Elizabeth II 30 Nov 1966
Governor-general Sir Elliott Belgrave 1 Jun 2012
Prime minister Freundel Stuart 23 Oct 2010

Belarus Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko 20 Jul 1994
Prime Minister Mikhail Myasnikovich 28 Dec 2010

Belgium Belgium King Philippe 21 Jul 2013
Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo 6 Dec 2011

Belize Belize Queen Elizabeth II 21 Sep 1981
Governor-General Sir Colville Young 17 Nov 1993
Prime minister Dean Barrow 8 Feb 2008

Benin Benin President Yayi Boni 6 Apr 2006

Bhutan Bhutan King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck 14 Dec 2006
Prime minister Tshering Tobgay 30 Jul 2013

Bolivia Bolivia President Evo Morales 22 Jan 2006

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Hercegovina Chairman of the Presidency of the Republic Željko Komšić[9] (Chairman)
Bakir Izetbegović[10] (Member)
Nebojša Radmanović[11] (Member)
10 Jul 2013 (President), 6 Nov 2006 (Member)
10 Nov 2010
6 Nov 2006
Prime minister Vjekoslav Bevanda 12 Jan 2012
International High Representative Valentin Inzko (Austria) 26 Mar 2009

Botswana Botswana President Ian Khama 1 Apr 2008

Brazil Brazil President Dilma Rousseff 1 Jan 2011

Brunei Brunei Sultan Sir Hassanal Bolkiah Mu´izzadin Waddaulah 4 Oct 1967
Prime minister Sir Hassanal Bolkiah Mu´izzadin Waddaulah 1 Jan 1984

Bulgaria Bulgaria President Rosen Plevneliev 22 Jan 2012
Acting Prime minister Georgi Bliznashki 6 Aug 2014

Burkina Faso Burkina Faso President Blaise Compaoré [12] 15 Oct 1987
Prime minister Luc-Adolphe Tiao 18 Apr 2011

Burundi Burundi President Pierre Nkurunziza 26 Aug 2005

Myanmar Burma President Thein Sein [13] 30 March 2011

States – C[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Cambodia Cambodia King Norodom Sihamoni 14 Oct 2004
Prime minister Samdech Hun Sen[14] 14 Jan 1985

Cameroon Cameroon President Paul Biya 6 Nov 1982
Prime minister Philémon Yang 30 Jun 2009

Canada Canada Queen Elizabeth II 6 Feb 1952
Governor-general David Lloyd Johnston 1 Oct 2010
Prime minister Stephen Harper 6 Feb 2006

Cape Verde Cape Verde President Jorge Carlos Fonseca 22 Sep 2011
Prime minister José Maria Neves 1 Feb 2001

Central African Republic Central African Republic Interim President Catherine Samba-Panza 23 Jan 2014
Acting Prime minister Mahamat Kamoun 10 Aug 2014

Chad Chad President Idriss Déby 2 Dec 1990
Prime minister Kalzeubet Pahimi Deubet 21 Nov 2013

Chile Chile President Michelle Bachelet[15] 11 Mar 2014

People's Republic of China China General secretary of the Communist Party of China Xi Jinping 15 Nov 2012
President Xi Jinping 14 Mar 2013
Premier Li Keqiang 15 Mar 2013

Colombia Colombia President Juan Manuel Santos 7 Aug 2010

Comoros Comoros President Ikililou Dhoinine 26 May 2011

Republic of the Congo Congo (Brazzaville) President Denis Sassou Nguesso 25 Oct 1997

Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo (Kinshasa) President Joseph Kabila [16] 17 Jan 2001
Prime minister Augustin Matata Ponyo 18 Apr 2012

Costa Rica Costa Rica President Luis Guillermo Solís 8 May 2014

Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire President Alassane Ouattara[17] 11 Apr 2011
Prime minister Guillaume Soro 4 Apr 2007

Croatia Croatia President Ivo Josipović 19 Feb 2010
Prime minister Zoran Milanović 23 December 2011

Cuba Cuba First secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba Raúl Castro 19 Apr 2011
President of the Council of State Raúl Castro 24 Feb 2008

Republic of Cyprus Cyprus President Nicos Anastasiades 28 Feb 2013

Czech Republic Czech Republic President Miloš Zeman 8 Mar 2013
Prime minister Jiří Rusnok 10 Jul 2013

States – D–F[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Denmark Denmark Queen Margrethe II 14 Jan 1972
Prime minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt 3 Oct 2011

Djibouti Djibouti President Ismail Omar Guelleh 8 May 1999
Prime minister Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed 1 Apr 2013

Dominica Dominica President Eliud Williams 17 Sep 2012
Prime minister Roosevelt Skerrit 8 Jan 2004

Dominican Republic Dominican Republic President Danilo Medina 16 Aug 2012

East Timor East Timor President Taur Matan Ruak 20 May 2012
Prime minister Xanana Gusmão[18] 8 Aug 2007

Ecuador Ecuador President Rafael Correa 15 Jan 2007

Egypt Egypt President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi 8 Jun 2014
Interim Prime minister Hazem Al Beblawi 16 Jul 2013

El Salvador El Salvador President Salvador Sánchez Cerén 1 Jun 2014

Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo[19] 3 Aug 1979
Prime minister Vicente Ehate Tomi 21 May 2012

Eritrea Eritrea President Isaias Afewerki[20] 29 May 1993

Estonia Estonia President Toomas Hendrik Ilves 9 Oct 2006
Prime minister Taavi Rõivas 26 Mar 2014

Ethiopia Ethiopia President Mulatu Teshome 7 Oct 2013
Prime minister Hailemariam Desalegn‎ 20 Aug 2012

Fiji Fiji President Epeli Nailatikau 30 Jul 2009
Acting Prime minister Frank Bainimarama 5 Jan 2007

Finland Finland President Sauli Niinistö 1 Mar 2012
Prime minister Alexander Stubb 24 June 2014

France France President François Hollande 15 May 2012
Prime minister Manuel Valls 31 Mar 2014

States – G–H[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Gabon Gabon President Ali Bongo Ondimba 16 Oct 2009
Prime minister Daniel Ona Ondo 27 Jan 2014

The Gambia The Gambia President Yahya Jammeh[21] 22 Jul 1994

Georgia (country) Georgia President Giorgi Margvelashvili 17 Nov 2013
Prime minister Irakli Garibashvili 20 Nov 2013

Germany Germany Federal President Joachim Gauck 18 Mar 2012
Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel 22 Nov 2005

Ghana Ghana President John Dramani Mahama 24 Jul 2012

Greece Greece President Karolos Papoulias 12 Mar 2005
Prime minister Antonis Samaras 20 Jun 2012

Grenada Grenada Queen Elizabeth II 7 Feb 1974
Governor-general Cécile La Grenade 7 May 2013
Prime minister Keith Mitchell 20 Feb 2013

Guatemala Guatemala President Otto Pérez Molina 14 Jan 2012

Guinea Guinea President Alpha Condé 21 Dec 2010
Prime minister Mohamed Said Fofana 24 Dec 2010

Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau President José Mário Vaz 23 Jun 2014
Prime Minister Domingos Simoes Pereira 3 July 2014

Guyana Guyana President Donald Ramotar 3 Dec 2011
Prime minister Sam Hinds[22] 13 Apr 2007

Haiti Haiti President Michel Martelly 14 May 2011
Prime minister Laurent Lamothe 16 May 2012

Honduras Honduras President Juan Orlando Hernández 27 Jan 2014

Hungary Hungary President János Áder 10 May 2012
Prime minister Viktor Orban[23] 29 May 2010

States – I–K[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Iceland Iceland President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson 1 Aug 1996
Prime minister Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson 23 May 2013

India India President Pranab Mukherjee 25 Jul 2012
Prime minister Narenda Modi 26 May 2014

Indonesia Indonesia President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 20 Oct 2004

Iran Iran Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei 4 Jun 1989
President Hassan Rouhani 3 Aug 2013

Iraq Iraq President Fuad Masum 24 July 2014
Prime minister Haider Al-Abadi 12 Aug 2014

Republic of Ireland Ireland President Michael D. Higgins 11 Nov 2011
Prime minister Enda Kenny 9 Mar 2011

Israel Israel President Reuven Rivlin 24 July 2014
Prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu[24] 31 Mar 2009

Italy Italy President Giorgio Napolitano 15 May 2006
President of the Council of Ministers Matteo Renzi 22 Feb 2014

Jamaica Jamaica Queen Elizabeth II 6 Aug 1962
Governor-general Sir Patrick Allen 26 Feb 2009
Prime minister Portia Simpson-Miller 5 Jan 2012

Japan Japan Emperor Akihito 7 Jan 1989
Prime minister Shinzo Abe 26 Dec 2012

Jordan Jordan King Abdullah II 7 Feb 1999
Prime minister Fayez al-Tarawneh 2 May 2012

Kazakhstan Kazakhstan President Karim Massimov 2 Apr 2014
Prime minister Serik Akhmetov 24 Sep 2012

Kenya Kenya President Uhuru Kenyatta 9 Apr 2013

Kiribati Kiribati President Anote Tong 10 Jul 2003

North Korea North Korea Chairman of the National Defense Commission[25] Kim Jong-un 17 Dec 2011
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly Kim Yong-nam 5 Sep 1998
Premier Choe Yong-rim 7 Jun 2010

South Korea South Korea President Park Geunhye 25 Feb 2013
Prime minister Jung Hong-won 26 Feb 2013

Kuwait Kuwait Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah[26] 29 Jan 2006
Prime minister Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah 4 Dec 2011

Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan President Almazbek Atambayev 1 Dec 2011
Prime minister Djoomart Otorbaev[27] 3 Apr 2014

States – L[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Laos Laos General secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party Choummaly Sayasone 21 Mar 2006
President Choummaly Sayasone 8 Jun 2006
Prime Minister Thongsing Thammavong 23 Dec 2010

Latvia Latvia President Andris Bērziņš 8 Jul 2011
Prime minister Laimdota Straujuma 22 Jan 2014

Lebanon Lebanon Acting President Tammam Salam 25 May 2014
Prime minister Tammam Salam 15 Feb 2014

Lesotho Lesotho King Letsie III[28] 7 Feb 1996
Prime minister Tom Thabane 8 Jun 2012

Liberia Liberia President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf 16 Jan 2006

Libya Libya President of the House of Representatives Aguila Salah Issa 5 Aug 2014
Prime minister Ahmeed Maiteeq 4 May 2014

Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Sovereign prince Hans-Adam II [29] 13 Nov 1989
Alois (regent) 15 Aug 2004
Prime Minister Adrian Hasler 27 Mar 2013

Lithuania Lithuania President Dalia Grybauskaite 12 Jul 2009
Prime minister Andrius Kubilius 9 Dec 2008

Luxembourg Luxembourg Grand Duke Henri[30] 7 Oct 2000
Prime minister Xavier Bettel 4 Dec 2013

States – M[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia President Gjorge Ivanov 12 May 2009
Prime minister Nikola Gruevski 27 Aug 2006

Madagascar Madagascar President Hery Rajaonarimampianina 25 Jan 2014
Prime minister Roger Kolo 16 Apr 2014

Malawi Malawi President Peter Mutharika 31 May 2014

Malaysia Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdul Halim 13 Dec 2011
Prime minister Najib Razak 3 April 2009

Maldives Maldives President Abdulla Yameen 17 Nov 2013

Mali Mali President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta 4 Sep 2013
Prime minister Moussa Mara 5 Apr 2014

Malta Malta President Marie Louise Coleiro Preca 4 Apr 2014
Prime minister Joseph Muscat 11 Mar 2013

Marshall Islands Marshall Islands President Christopher Loeak 10 Jan 2012

Mauritania Mauritania President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz 5 Aug 2009
Prime minister Yahya Ould Hademine 20 Aug 2014

Mauritius Mauritius President Rajkeswur Purryag 21 Jul 2012
Prime minister Navin Ramgoolam [31] 5 Jul 2005

Mexico Mexico President Enrique Peña Nieto 1 Dec 2012

Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia President Manny Mori 11 May 2007

Moldova Moldova President Nicolae Timofti 23 Mar 2012
Prime minister Vlad Filat 25 Sep 2009

Monaco Monaco Prince Albert II[32] 6 Apr 2005
Minister of state Michel Roger 29 Mar 2010

Mongolia Mongolia President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj 18 Jun 2009
Prime minister Norovyn Altankhuyag 10 Aug 2012

Montenegro Montenegro President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj 18 Jun 2009
Prime minister Milo Đukanović 4 Dec 2012

Morocco Morocco King Mohammed VI 23 Jul 1999
Prime minister Abdelilah Benkirane 29 Nov 2011

Mozambique Mozambique President Armando Guebuza 2 Feb 2005
Prime minister Aires Ali 16 Jan 2010

States – N–R[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Namibia Namibia President Hifikepunye Pohamba 21 Mar 2005
Prime minister Hage Geingob 4 Dec 2012

Nauru Nauru President Baron Waqa 11 Jun 2013

Nepal Nepal President Ram Baram Yadav 21 Jul 2008
Prime minister Sushil Koirala 11 Feb 2014

Netherlands The Netherlands King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands 30 Apr 2013
Prime minister Mark Rutte 14 Oct 2010

New Zealand New Zealand Queen Elizabeth II 6 Feb 1952
Governor-general Sir Jerry Mateparae 31 Aug 2011
Prime minister John Key 19 Nov 2008

Nicaragua Nicaragua President Daniel Ortega[33] 10 Jan 2007

Niger Niger President Mahamadou Issoufou 7 Apr 2011
Prime minister Brigi Rafini 7 Apr 2011

Nigeria Nigeria President Goodluck Jonathan 6 May 2010

Norway Norway King Harald V[34] 17 Jan 1991
Prime minister Erna Solberg 14 Oct 2013

Oman Oman Sultan Qabus ibn Sa`id 23 Jul 1970
Prime minister Qabus ibn Sa`id 2 Jan 1972

Pakistan Pakistan President Mamnoon Hussain 9 Sep 2013
Prime minister Nawaz Sharif 5 Jun 2013

Palau Palau President Tommy Remengesau 17 Jan 2013
Panama Panama President Juan Carlos Varela 1 Jul 2014

Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Queen Elizabeth II 16 Sep 1975
Governor-general Sir Michael Ogio 25 Feb 2011
Prime minister Sir Peter O'Neill [35] 2 Aug 2011

Paraguay Paraguay President Horacio Cartes 15 Aug 2013

Peru Peru President Ollanta Humala 28 Jul 2011
Prime minister Juan Jiménez Mayor 23 Jul 2012

 Philippines President Benigno Aquino III 30 Jun 2010

Poland Poland President Bronislaw Komorowski 7 Aug 2010
Prime minister Ewa Kopacz 22 Sep 2014

Portugal Portugal President Aníbal Cavaco Silva 9 Mar 2006
Prime minister Pedro Passos Coelho 21 June 2011

Qatar Qatar Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani 25 Jun 2013
Prime minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani 26 Jun 2013

Romania Romania President Traian Basescu[36] 27 Aug 2012
Prime minister Victor Ponta 7 May 2012

Russia Russia President Vladimir Putin 7 May 2012
Prime minister Dmitry Medvedev 7 May 2012

Rwanda Rwanda President Paul Kagame[37] 24 Mar 2000
Prime minister Anastase Murekezi 24 July 2014

States – S[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Queen Elizabeth II 19 Sep 1983
Governor-general Sir Edmund Lawrence 2 Jan 2013
Prime minister Denzil Douglas 7 Jul 1995

Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Queen Elizabeth II 22 Feb 1979
Governor-general Dame Pearlette Louisy 17 Sep 1997
Prime minister Kenny Anthony 30 Nov 2011

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Queen Elizabeth II 27 Oct 1979
Governor-general Sir Frederick Ballantyne 2 Sep 2002
Prime minister Ralph Gonsalves 29 Mar 2001

Samoa Samoa Head of state Tufuga Efi 11 May 2007
Prime minister Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi 23 Nov 1998

San Marino San Marino Captains-regent Valeria Ciavatta[38] 1 Apr 2014
Luca Beccari 1 Apr 2014

São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe President Manuel Pinto da Costa 3 Sep 2011
Prime minister Patrice Trovoada 14 Aug 2010

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia King Abdullah[39] 1 Aug 2005

Senegal Senegal President Macky Sall 2 Apr 2012
Prime minister Mohamed Dionne 6 Jul 2014

Serbia Serbia President Tomislav Nikolić 31 May 2012
Prime minister Aleksandar Vučić 27 Apr 2014

Seychelles Seychelles President James Michel 14 Apr 2004

Sierra Leone Sierra Leone President Ernest Bai Koroma 17 Sep 2007

Singapore Singapore President Tony Tan 1 Sep 2011
Prime minister Lee Hsien Loong 12 Aug 2004

Slovakia Slovakia President Andrej Kiska 15 Jun 2014
Prime minister Robert Fico 4 Apr 2012

Slovenia Slovenia President Borut Pahor 22 Dec 2012
Prime minister Miro Cerar 18 Sep 2014

Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Queen Elizabeth II 7 Jul 1978
Governor-general Sir Frank Kabui 7 Jul 2009
Prime minister Gordon Darcy Lilo 16 Nov 2011

Somalia Somalia President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud 16 Sep 2012
Prime minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali 19 Jun 2011

South Africa South Africa President Jacob Zuma 9 May 2009

South Sudan South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit 9 July 2011

Spain Spain King Felipe VI 19 Jun 2014
Prime minister Mariano Rajoy 21 Dec 2011

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka President Mahinda Rajapaksa[40] 19 Nov 2005
Prime minister D. M. Jayaratne 21 Apr 2010

Sudan The Sudan President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir[41] 30 Jun 1989

Suriname Suriname President Desi Bouterse 12 Aug 2010

Swaziland Swaziland King Mswati III 25 Apr 1986
Prime minister Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini 23 Oct 2008

Sweden Sweden King Carl XVI Gustaf 15 Sep 1973
Prime minister Fredrik Reinfeldt 6 Oct 2006

Switzerland Switzerland President Didier Burkalter 1 Jan 2014

Syria Syria President Bashar al-Assad 17 Jul 2000
Prime minister Wael Nader Al-Halqi 11 Aug 2012

States – T[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Republic of China Taiwan President Ma Ying-jeou 20 May 2008
President of the Executive Yuan Jiang Yi-huah 18 Feb 2013

Tajikistan Tajikistan President Emomalii Rahmon [43] 19 Nov 1992
Prime minister Oqil Oqilov 20 Dec 1999

Tanzania Tanzania President Jakaya Kikwete 21 Dec 2005
Prime minister Mizengo Pinda 9 Feb 2008

Thailand Thailand King Bhumibol Adulyadej 9 Jun 1946
Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha 25 Aug 2014

Togo Togo President Faure Gnassingbé[44] 4 May 2005
Prime minister Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu 23 Jul 2012

Tonga Tonga King Tupou VI 18 Mar 2012
Prime minister Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō[45] 22 Dec 2010

Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago President George Maxwell Richards 17 Mar 2003
Prime minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar 26 May 2010

Tunisia Tunisia Interim President Moncef Marzouki 13 Dec 2011
Acting Prime minister Mehdi Jomaa 10 Jan 2014

Turkey Turkey President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 28 Aug 2014
Prime minister Ahmet Davutoğlu 28 Aug 2014

Turkmenistan Turkmenistan President Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov[46] 21 Dec 2006

Tuvalu Tuvalu Queen Elizabeth II 1 Oct 1978
Governor-general Sir Iakoba Italeli 16 Apr 2010
Prime minister Enele Sopoaga 1 Aug 2013

States – U–Z[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Uganda Uganda President Yoweri Museveni[47] 26 Jan 1986
Prime minister Ruhakana Rugunda 18 Sep 2014

Ukraine Ukraine President Petro Poroshenko 7 Jun 2014
Acting Prime minister Volodymyr Groysman 24 July 2014

United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates President Sheikh Khalifa ibn Zayed Al Nahyan 3 Nov 2004
Prime minister Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum 5 Jan 2006

United Kingdom United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II 6 Feb 1952
Prime minister David Cameron 11 May 2010

United States United States President Barack Obama 20 Jan 2009

Uruguay Uruguay President José Mujica 1 Mar 2010

Uzbekistan Uzbekistan President Islam Karimov[48] 24 Mar 1990
Prime minister Shavkat Mirziyayev 11 Dec 2003

Vanuatu Vanuatu President Baldwin Lonesdale 22 Sep 2014
Prime minister Joe Natuman 15 May 2014

Vatican City Vatican City (Holy See) Sovereign Francis 13 Mar 2013
Secretary of state Pietro Parolin 15 Oct 2013

Venezuela Venezuela President Nicolás Maduro[49] 19 Apr 2013
Vice President Jorge Arreaza[50] 19 Apr 2013

Vietnam Vietnam General secretary of the Communist Party Nguyen Phu Trong 10 Jan 2011
President Trương Tấn Sang 25 July 2011
Prime minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng 27 Jun 2006

Yemen Yemen President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi 27 Feb 2012
Prime minister Mohammed Basindawa 10 Dec 2011

Zambia Zambia President Michael Sata 23 Sep 2011

Zimbabwe Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe[51] 31 Dec 1987

Quasi states[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Kosovo Kosovo Prefect of Kosovo district Srdjan Vasic 28 Sep 2004
Administrator [52] Joachim Rücker (Germany) 1 Sep 2006
President Atifete Jahjaga 7 Apr 2011
Prime minister Hashim Thaçi 9 Jan 2008

Sovereign Military Order of Malta Sovereign Military Order of Malta[53] Grand master Fra' Giacomo Dalla Torre (acting) 7 Feb 2008
Grand chancellor Jean-Pierre Mazery[54] 3 Nov 2004

Palestinian National Authority Palestine [55] President Mahmoud Abbas 15 Jan 2005
Prime minister Rami Hamdallah 6 Jun 2013

Western Sahara Western Sahara [56] President Mohamed Abdelaziz[57] 30 Aug 1976
Prime minister Abdelkader Taleb Omar 29 Oct 2003

De facto independent states[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Abkhazia Abkhazia President Alexander Ankvab[58] 29 May 2011
Prime minister Leonid Lakerbia 27 Sep 2011

Transnistria Transnistria President Yevgeny Shevchuk 30 Dec 2011

Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh President Bako Sahakyan 7 Sep 2007
Prime minister Araik Arutyunyan 14 Sep 2007

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus North Cyprus President Derviş Eroğlu[59] 23 Apr 2010
Prime minister Özkan Yorgancıoğlu 2 Sep 2013

Somaliland Somaliland President Ahmed Mohamed Mohamoud 27 Jul 2010

South Ossetia South Ossetia President Leonid Tibilov 19 Apr 2012
Acting Prime minister Domenty Kulumbegov 20 Jan 2014

Govenments in exile/alternative governments[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Abkhazia Abkhazia[60] President Raul Khadjimba 25 Sep 2014
Prime minister Malkhaz Akishbaya 21 Mar 2006

Belarus Belarus Chairman of the Rada Ivonka Survilla 1997

Estonia Republic of Estonia in exile Prime minister acting as president Kalev Ots[61] 28 Nov 2003
Acting prime minister Ahti Mänd 7 Dec 2003

Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Chechnya Emir Doku Umarov[62] 7 Oct 2007

South Moluccas South Moluccas President Frans L.J. Tutuhatunewa[63] 10 Apr 1993

South Ossetia South Ossetia[64] President Dmitry Sanakoyev 1 Dec 2006
Prime minister Uruzmag Karkusov 7 Dec 2006

Tibet Tibet Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso[65] 25 Aug 1939
Chairman of the Cabinet Samdhong Rinpoche 5 Sep 2001

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Previously served as Prime Minister from 3 Sep 2012 to 13 Mar 2014.
  2. Acting to 21 Sep 1979.
  3. Acting to 9 Apr 1998.
  4. In Azeri, "İlham Əliyev".
  5. In Azeri, "Artur Rasizadə". Acting for Aliyev to 4 Nov 2003. Previously prime minister from 20 Jul 1996 to 4 Aug 2003 (acting to 26 Nov 1996)
  6. Previously from 21 Aug 1992 to 3 May 2002.
  7. Emir from 6 Mar 1999 to 14 Feb 2002.
  8. President of the State Council to 16 Aug 1971.
  9. President from 10 July 2011 to 10 Mar 2012.
  10. President from 10 Mar 2012 to 10 Nov 2012.
  11. President from 10 Nov 2010 to 10 July 2011. President from 10 Nov 2012 to 10 July 2013. President from 10 Nov 2008 to 6 July 2009. President from 10 Nov 2006 to July 2007.
  12. President of Popular Front (from 31 Oct 1987 also Head of State) to 24 Dec 1991.
  13. President to 15 Nov 1997.
  14. Prime minister to 2 Jul 1993, coequal prime minister from 2 Jul 1993 to 21 Sep 1993, second prime minister from 21 Sep 1993 to 30 Nov 1998.
  15. Previously president from 11 March 2006 to 11 March 2010
  16. Interim to 26 Jan 2001.
  17. The presidency was disputed between Ouattara and Laurent Gbagbo from 4 Dec 2010 to 11 Apr 2011.
  18. Previously president from 20 May 2002 to 20 May 2007.
  19. Chairman Revolutionary Military Council to 25 Aug 1979, chairman Supreme Military Council 25 Aug 1979 – 12 Oct 1982.
  20. Secretary-general of the Provisional Government to 24 May 1993.
  21. Chairman Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council to 28 Sep 1996; Head of State to 18 Oct 1996.
  22. Previously president from 6 Mar 1997 to 19 Dec 1997, and prime minister from 9 Oct 1992 to 17 Mar 1997 and from 22 Dec 1997 to 9 Aug 1999.
  23. Previously prime minister from 8 July 1998 to 27 May 2002
  24. Previously prime minister, 18 June 1996 – 6 July 1999
  25. Declared "the highest post of the state" 5 Sep 1998.
  26. Prime minister from 13 Jul 2003 to 7 Feb 2006.
  27. Acting Prime minister from 25 Mar 2014 to 3 April 2014. Prime Minister from 3 April 2014.
  28. Previously from 12 Nov 1990 to 25 Jan 1995.
  29. Regent from 26 Aug 1984 to 13 Nov 1989.
  30. Regent from 3 Mar 1998 to 7 Oct 2000.
  31. Previously from 22 Dec 1995 – 17 Sep 2000.
  32. Regent from 31 Mar 2005 to 6 Apr 2005.
  33. Previously member of the Government Junta of National Reconstruction (18 Jul 1979 – 10 Jan 1985 ; coordinator from 4 Mar 1981) and president from 10 Jan 1985 to 25 Apr 1990.
  34. Crown Prince Haakon regent from 25 Nov 2003 to 13 Apr 2004 and from 29 Mar 2005 to 7 Jun 2005.
  35. Previously prime minister from 27 Apr 1972 to 11 Mar 1980 (chief minister to 16 sep 1975) and from 2 Aug 1982 to 21 Nov 1985.
  36. From 20 Apr to 23 May 2007, Nicolae Vacaroiu is acting for suspended Basescu. Previously president from 23 May 2007 to 10 Aug 2012 and 20 Dec 2004 to 20 Apr 2007.
  37. Acting to 22 Apr 2000.
  38. Previously captains-regent from 1 Oct 2003 to 31 Mar 2004.
  39. Previously regent (1 Jan – 21 Feb 1996).
  40. Previously prime minister from 6 Apr 2004 to 21 Nov 2005.
  41. President of Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation to 16 Oct 1993.
  42. The seven member Swiss Federal Council is the collective Head of State and the government of the Swiss Confederation. Within the Council, the President of the Swiss Confederation serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
  43. Acting to 27 Nov 1992; chairman Supreme Council 27 Nov 1992 – 16 Nov 1994.
  44. Previously from 5 to 25 Feb 2005 (acting to 21)
  45. Acting to 22 Dec 2010.
  46. Acting to 14 Feb 2007.
  47. Commander National Resistance Army to 29 Jan 1986.
  48. Previously first secretary of the Communist Party of the Uzbek S.S.R. (23 Jun 1989 – 3 Nov 1991).
  49. Acting President from 5 Mar 2013 to 19 Apr 2013
  50. Interim from 9 Mar 2013 to 19 Apr 2013
  51. Previously prime minister (18 Apr 1980 – 31 Dec 1987).
  52. Head of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.
  53. Though without a territory since 1798, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta still regards itself, and is regarded by several states that give it diplomatic recognition, as a sovereign state.
  54. Acting to 16 Apr 2005.
  55. Palestinian Authority created to administer most of Gaza Strip and parts of West Bank (Jericho area handed over 13 May 1994, Gaza Strip 18 May 1994, Jenin 13 Nov 1995, Tulkarem 10 Dec 1995, Nablus 11 Dec 1995, Qalqilya 16 Dec 1995, Bethlehem 21 Dec 1995, Ramallah 27 Dec 1995, 80% of Hebron 17 Jan 1997).
  56. The Saharan Arab Democratic Republic is currently recognized by about 60 countries. Morocco retains de facto control.
  57. Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council to 16 Oct 1982).
  58. Acting from 29 May 2011 to 26 September 2011.
  59. Previously prime minister from 13 Jan 2004 to 26 Apr 2005.
  60. Pro-Georgian government (in Tbilisi).
  61. Previously acting prime minister from 15 Sep 1992 to 28 Nov 2003.
  62. Previously president from 17 Jun 2006 to 7 Oct 2007.
  63. In Netherlands exile.
  64. Alternative government.
  65. 14th Dalai Lama. From 31 Mar 1959 in exile (from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India).

References[change | change source]