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Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Jamhuriyar Tarayyar Najeriya  (Hausa)
  • Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìniira Àpapọ̀ Nàìjíríà  (Yoruba)
  • Ọ̀hàńjíkọ̀ Ọ̀hànézè Naìjíríyà  (Igbo)
Coat of arms of Nigeria
Coat of arms
Motto: "Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress"
Anthem: "Arise, O Compatriots"
9°4′N 7°29′E / 9.067°N 7.483°E / 9.067; 7.483
Largest cityLagos
Official languagesEnglish
National languages
Other languages[2]Over 525 languages[1] including:
Ethnic groups
GovernmentFederal presidential republic
• President
Bola Tinubu
Kashim Shettima
Ahmed Lawan
Femi Gbajabiamila
Olukayode Ariwoola
LegislatureNational Assembly
House of Representatives
1 October 1960
1 October 1963
29 May 1999
• Total
923,769 km2 (356,669 sq mi) (31st)
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
211,400,708[4] (7th)
• 2006 census
• Density
218/km2 (564.6/sq mi) (42nd)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
$1.116 trillion[5] (25th)
• Per capita
$5,280 (129th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
$514.079 billion[5] (29th)
• Per capita
$2,432 (137th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 35.1[6]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.539[7]
low · 161st
CurrencyNaira (₦) (NGN)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (WAT)
Driving sideright[8]
Calling code+234
ISO 3166 codeNG
Internet TLD.ng

Nigeria, officially Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. With a population of more 216 million people,[9] it is the most populous country in Africa. Its administrative capital is Abuja while its economic nerve center is Lagos. Nigeria is a large country, and is the fourth biggest economy in Africa.[10][11]

History[change | change source]

From the 1500s to the 1800s, many people from the land now called Nigeria (and other parts of West Africa) were taken away and turned into slaves by Europeans, and they were sent to work in the Americas. These slaves were bought and sold in the Americas by Europeans who lived there. Today, many people related to those slaves still live in America, though they are no longer slaves. They are called African Americans.

From 1901 to 1960, the United Kingdom ruled Nigeria. However, by 1960 the people wanted independence, and Britain finally let them have it. For some time after this, Nigeria was a dictatorship, where the leaders stayed in control even if the majority of people disliked them. At this time, the Nigerian Civil War was by separatist Christian Igbo people in the Southeast against the Nigerian government. They did not want to be a part of Nigeria, which was ruled by The Muslim north and mixed west. The war ended with a reunification of Nigeria.

In 1999, Nigeria became a democracy, where people choose their leaders. After that, Olusegun Obasanjo, a Yoruba Christian from the south, became President. In 2007, Umaru Yar'Adua, a Hausa Muslim, was elected to be the next President. Yar'Adua died in May, 2009. Goodluck Jonathan, the vice president, then became president.

Goodluck Jonathan was re-elected as the president after wining the 2011 general elections under the political party, PDP.

He served as the country's president until 2015.

In the early 21st century, there have been several armed conflicts. These include the insurgency by the Islamist group Boko Haram. The Boko Haram insurgency happens mostly in the northeastern part of the country. The group wants Sharia law for the country.[12] Another is the Nigerian bandit conflict, in which gangs carry out attacks, mostly in the northwest. There is also a separatist insurgency in the southeast where the armed group, IPOB, is seeking the restoration of the short-lived secessionist Biafra country that was defeated by federal forces in 1970[13]. [14]

Geography[change | change source]

Nigeria has a total area of 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi).[15] It is the world's 32nd-largest country. It shares a border with Benin (773 km), Niger (1497 km), Chad (87 km) and Cameroon (1690 km). It has a coastline of at least 853 km.[16]

The Zuma Rock near Suleja

The highest point in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m (7,936 ft). The main rivers are the Niger and the Benue River. They come together and empty into the Niger Delta, one of the world's largest river deltas. It is the location of a large area of Central African mangroves.

Cities[change | change source]

These are the cities in Nigeria with over 1 million people as of 2012.

City Population
Lagos 11,547,000
Kano 3,466,000
Ibadan 3,028,000
Abuja 2,245,000
Port Harcourt 1,947,000
Kaduna 1,566,000
Benin City 1,398,000
Zaria 1,075,000

National anthem[change | change source]

In Nigeria, there are two national anthems. The first one is called "Nigeria We Hail Thee". The second and current national anthem is called "Arise O' Compatriots. The first one was written by Lilian Jean William and composed by Frances Berda. The second one was written by 5 people and was composed by the Police band. Arise O' Compatriots was first heard during Nigeria's independence.[source?]

Religion[change | change source]

In Nigeria, there are almost equal numbers of Muslims and Christians. Most of the Christians live in the south, and most of the Muslims live in the north. Contrary to some beliefs, the Nigerian civil war was not only attributed to religious intolerance. The war which took place between 6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970, was a political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the southeastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed Republic of Biafra. The conflict was the result of economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria.

Natural resources[change | change source]

Nigeria produces a large amount of oil, and some fighting has been going on because many people want a share of the oil profits. This fighting has been happening in the area called the Niger Delta, where the Niger River flows into the Atlantic Ocean.

The largest city in Nigeria is Lagos. Nigeria has both grasslands and rainforests, and can get very hot, because it is close to the Equator. Petroleum and agriculture make up the Nigerian economy.

Cuisine[change | change source]

Afang Soup

Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs and flavourings are used along with palm oil or groundnut oil. These make deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish. Good smelling market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.[17]

Sport[change | change source]

Association football is Nigeria's national sport. The country has its own Premier League of football. Nigeria's Men's national football team, known as the Super Eagles, has made the World Cup five times. These were in 1994, 1998, 2002, 2010, 2014, 2018 and most recently in 2022. They won the African Cup of Nations in 1980, 1994 and 2013. They also hosted the Junior World Cup. They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics.

Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket, sprints and track and field.[18] Boxing is also an important sport in Nigeria; Dick Tiger and Samuel Peter are both former World Champions.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Blench, Roger (2014). An Atlas Of Nigerian Languages. Oxford: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  2. "Languages of Nigeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  3. "Africa: Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  4. "Nigeria Population Growth Rate 1950-2021". macrotrends. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020 – Nigeria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  6. "Poverty and Inequality Index". National Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  7. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  8. Akinbode, Ayomide (2 April 2019). "Why Nigeria changed from Right-Hand Drive to Left-Hand Drive in 1972". www.thehistoryville.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021. The terms 'right- and left-hand drive' refer to the position of the driver in the vehicle and are the reverse of the terms 'right- and left-hand traffic'.
  9. Population Total,
  10. "Nigeria becomes Africa's largest economy". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  11. Vanek, Monique (18 April 2024). "Nigeria's Economy, Once Africa's Biggest, Slips to Fourth Place". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 July 2024.
  12. From Cultural Justice to Inter-Ethnic Mediation, Basil Ugorji - 2012
  13. Asadu, Chinedu (30 May 2020). "FLASHBACK: The Biafra declaration by Ojukwu — and how the civil war ended". TheCable. Retrieved 2 July 2024.
  14. "Separatist militants kill 11 in southeast Nigeria". Voice of America. 2 June 2024. Retrieved 2 July 2024.
  15. "Rank Order – Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  16. "Africa :: Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 17 May 2011. Archived from the original on 31 August 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  17. H.O. Anthonio & M. Isoun: "Nigerian Cookbook". Macmillan, Lagos, 1982.
  18. "Nigerian Basketball". Africabasket.com. 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011.