Carcassonne

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Carcassonne
Carcassona

Carcassonne-vignes.jpg
Carcassonne and vineyards
Coat of arms of Carcassonne
Coat of arms
Carcassonne is located in France
Carcassonne
Administration
Country France
Region Languedoc-Roussillon
Department Aude
Arrondissement Carcassonne
Intercommunality Carcassonne Agglo
Mayor Gérard Larrat
(2014–2020)
Statistics
Elevation 81–250 m (266–820 ft)
(avg. 11 m/36 ft)
Land area1 65.08 km2 (25.13 sq mi)
Population2 47,068  (2012)
 - Density 723 /km2 (1,870 /sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 11069/ 11000
Website www.carcassonne.org
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Coordinates: 43°12′47″N 2°21′07″E / 43.2131°N 2.352°E / 43.2131; 2.352

Carcassonne (Occitan: Carcassona) is a fortified French town, in the Aude département in the Languedoc. It is separated into the fortified Cité de Carcassonne and the more expansive lower city, the ville basse.

This bastide, which was thoroughly restored from 1853 by the theorist and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997.

History[change | change source]

Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209

Romans fortified the hilltop of Carcassonne around 100 BC and eventually made it the colonia of Julia Carsaco, later Carcasum. The main part of the lower courses of the northern ramparts dates from Gallo-Roman times.

In 462 the Romans officially left and the Visigothic king Theodoric II built more fortifications at Carcassonne, some of them still stand. In 760, Pippin was unable to take Carcassonne, although he was able to most of the south of France.

In 1067 Carcassonne became the property of Raimond Bernard Trencavel, viscount of Albi and Nîmes. Carcassonne became famous in its role in the Albigensian Crusades, when the city was a stronghold of occitan cathars. In August 1209 the crusading army of Simon de Montfort forced its citizens to surrender. He added to the fortifications. Carcassonne became a border citadel between France and Aragon.

Geography[change | change source]

The town is 90 km (56 mi) southeast of Toulouse in the gap between the Pyrenees and the Massif Central of France. Carcassonne is at the crossing of two major traffic routes: the route leading from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean and that from the Massif Central to Spain, skirting the Pyrenees. Both routes exist since ancient history.

The commune of Carcassonne has an area of 65.08 km2 (25.13 sq mi) and its average altitude is 111 m (364 ft); at the city hall, the altitude is 110 m (360 ft).[1]

Carcassonne and its neighboring communes
Map of the commune of Carcassonne

The commune of Carcassonne is surrounded by the communes:

The fortified city[change | change source]

The fortifications consist of a double ring of ramparts and 53 towers. 1849 the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc took over restoration works. At his death in 1879 his pupil Paul Boeswillwald, and later the architect Nodet continued the rehabilitation of Carcassonne. The restoration was strongly criticized during Viollet-le-Duc's lifetime because he made the error of using slates and restoring the roofs as pointed cones, where local practice was traditionally of tile roofing and low slopes, as in this region snow was very seldom. But today Viollet-le-Duc's work at Carcassonne is thought to be a work of genius, even if it is not exactly the same as it was.

Population[change | change source]

As of 2012, Carcassonne had 47,068 inhabitants for a density of 723.2 persons/km2.[2]

The inhabitants of this city are known, in French, as Carcassonnais (women: Carcassonnaises ).[3]

Education[change | change source]

A campus of the École nationale de l'aviation civile (French civil aviation academy) is in Carcassonne.

Transports[change | change source]

Related pages[change | change source]

Twinned and partner towns[change | change source]

Carcassonne is twinned with:

Gallery[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "City of Carcassonne". Map-France.com. http://www.map-france.com/Carcassonne-11000/. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  2. "Populations lègales 2012 - 11-Aude" (in French). Populations légales 2012 des départements et des collectivités d'outre-mer. Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques - INSEE. http://www.insee.fr/fr/ppp/bases-de-donnees/recensement/populations-legales/departement.asp?dep=11&annee=2012. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  3. "Aude (11)" (in French). habitants.fr. http://www.habitants.fr/habitants_departement_aude_11.html. Retrieved 16 July 2015.

Other websites[change | change source]