Kazakhstan

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Republic of Kazakhstan

  • Қазақстан Республикасы  (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy
  • Республика Казахстан  (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
{{{coat_alt}}}
Emblem
Anthem: Менің Қазақстаным
Meniń Qazaqstanym
"My Kazakhstan"
Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
CapitalNursultan
51°10′N 71°26′E / 51.167°N 71.433°E / 51.167; 71.433
Largest cityAlmaty
Official languages
Official scriptsKazakh Latin alphabet, Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet (until 2025)
Ethnic groups
(2016[2])
Demonym(s)Kazakhstani[a][4]
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Askar Mamin
Dariga Nazarbayeva
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Mazhilis
Formation
1465
13 December 1917
26 August 1920
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
• Declared Sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Declared Independence from the USSR
16 December 1991
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
30 August 1995
Area
• Total
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
1.7
Population
• 2018 estimate
Steady 18,311,700 [5] (62nd)
• Density
7/km2 (18.1/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$535 billion[6] (42nd)
• Per capita
$28,536[6] (53rd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$195 billion[6] (50th)
• Per capita
$10,447[6] (54th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 26.9[7]
low
HDI (2017)Increase 0.800[8]
very high · 58th
CurrencyTenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zoneUTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
Driving sideright
Calling code+7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 codeKZ
Internet TLD
Map of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is a country in the middle of Eurasia. Its official name is the Republic of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is the ninth biggest country in the world, and it is also the biggest landlocked country in the world. Before the end of the Soviet Union, it was called "Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic". The president of the country from 1991 through March 2019 was Nursultan Nazarbayev. Nur-Sultan is the capital city of Kazakhstan. Almaty was the capital until 1998, when it moved to Nur-Sultan, which was called Astana at that time.

The Kazakh language is the native language, but Russian has equal official status for all administrative and institutional purposes.[9] Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practiced by 26%;[10] Russia leases (rents) the land for the Baikonur Cosmodrome (site of Russian spacecraft launches) from Kazakhstan.

Geography[change | change source]

Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country mostly in Asia with a small western part across the Ural River in Europe. It has borders with the Russian Federation in the north and west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the southwest, and China in the far east. The northern border is mostly with Siberia, Russia, so Russia has the longest border with Kazakhstan.[11] Basically, Kazakhstan runs from the Caspian Sea in the west to the mainly Muslim Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang.

Kazakhstan has no ocean shoreline, but borders the Caspian Sea, which boats use to get to neighboring countries. The Caspian Sea is an Endorheic basin without connections to any ocean.

Natural resources[change | change source]

Kazakhstan has plenty of petroleum, natural gas, and mining. It attracted over $40 billion in foreign investment since 1993 and accounts for some 57% of the nation's industrial output. According to some estimates,[12] Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal, iron, and gold. It is also an exporter of diamonds. Kazakhstan has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas.[13]

Provinces[change | change source]

Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces. The provinces are divided into districts.

Almaty and Astana cities have the status of State importance and are not in any province.[14] Baikonur city has a special status because it is leased to Russia for Baikonur cosmodrome until 2050.[14]

Each province is headed by an Akim (provincial governor) appointed by the president. Municipal Akims are appointed by province Akims. The Government of Kazakhstan moved its capital from Almaty to Astana on December 10, 1997.

Province Status Full Kazakh name Full Russian name standard time Population
Akmola province Ақмола облысы Акмолинская область UTC+06 735 232
Aktobe province Ақтөбе облысы Актюбинская область UTC+05 805 117
Almaty city(1) Алматы қаласы город Алматы UTC+06 1 494 590
Almaty Province province Алматы облысы Алматинская область UTC+06 1 977 324
Astana city(1) Астана қаласы город Астана UTC+06 804 474
Atyrau province Атырау облысы Атырауская область UTC+05 564 936
Baikonur city(2) Байқоңыр қаласы город Байконур UTC+06 38 970
East Kazakhstan province Шығыс Қазақстан облысы Восточно-Казахстанская область UTC+06 1 394 382
Karagandy province Қарағанды облысы Карагандинская область UTC+06 1 367 512
Kostanay province Қостанай облысы Костанайская область UTC+06 880 775
Kyzylorda province Қызылорда облысы Кызылординская область UTC+06 737 122
Mangystau province Маңғыстау облысы Мангыстауская область UTC+05 582 361
North Kazakhstan province Солтүстік Қазақстан облысы Северо-Казахстанская область UTC+06 576 748
Pavlodar province Павлодар облысы Павлодарская область UTC+06 752 057
South Kazakhstan province Оңтүстік Қазақстан облысы Южно-Казахстанская область UTC+06 2 721 676
West Kazakhstan province Батыс Қазақстан облысы Западно-Казахстанская область UTC+05 622 333
Zhambyl province Жамбыл облысы Жамбылская область UTC+06 1 081 907

Population[change | change source]

The population of Kazakhstan is 17,165,000. It takes the 62th place in the List of countries by population. Average density is one of the lowest on earth with almost 6 people/km2 ( List of countries by population density).

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan". zan.kz.
  2. "Численность населения Республики Казахстан по отдельным этносам на начало 2016 года". Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  3. Schneider, Johann F.; Larsen, Knud S.; Krumov, Krum; Vazow, Grigorii (2013). Advances in International Psychology: Research Approaches and Personal Dispositions, Socialization Processes and Organizational Behavior. Kassel university press GmbH. p. 164. ISBN 978-3-86219-454-4. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018.
  4. Kazakhstan Archived 30 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. CIA World Factbook.
  5. "Population". Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Kazakhstan". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018.
  7. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". databank.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  8. "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  9. The constitution of Kazakhstan, CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN: 1. The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be the Kazakh language. 2. In state institutions and local self-administrative bodies the Russian language shall be officially used on equal grounds along with the Kazakh language.
  10. "The results of the national population census in 2009". Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 12 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
  11. "Afghanistan". CIA - The World Factbook. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  12. Mineral Wealth. homestead.com
  13. International Crisis Group, 2007. Central Asia's Energy Risks, Asia Report No. 133 Archive copy at the Internet Archive.

Notes

  1. Kazakhstani includes all citizens, in contrast to Kazakh, which is the demonym for ethnic Kazakhs.[3]

Other websites[change | change source]