|Etymology: Miami-Illinois: shikaakwa ('wild onion' or 'wild garlic')|
Latin: Urbs in Horto (City in a Garden); I Will
|Counties||Cook and DuPage|
|Incorporated (town)||August 12, 1833|
|Incorporated (city)||March 4, 1837|
|Founded by||Jean Baptiste Point du Sable|
|• Body||Chicago City Council|
|• Mayor||Brandon Johnson (D)|
|• City Clerk||Anna Valencia (D)|
|• City Treasurer||Melissa Conyears-Ervin (D)|
|• City||234.53 sq mi (607.44 km2)|
|• Land||227.73 sq mi (589.82 km2)|
|• Water||6.80 sq mi (17.62 km2)|
|597.18 ft (182.02 m)|
– near Blue Island
|672 ft (205 m)|
– at Lake Michigan
|578 ft (176 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||12,059.84/sq mi (4,656.33/km2)|
|• Urban||8,671,746 (US: 3rd)|
|• Urban density||3,709.2/sq mi (1,432.1/km2)|
|• Metro||9,618,502 (US: 3rd)|
|Time zone||UTC−06:00 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−05:00 (CDT)|
|ZIP Code prefixes|
606xx, 607xx, 608xx
|Area codes||312, 773, 872|
|GNIS feature ID||0428803|
Chicago is a city in the U.S. state of Illinois. It is the third largest city in the United States. As of 2020, the population is 2,746,388. It is the city with the largest population in the Midwestern United States. Chicago is the main city of the Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland. The Chicago metropolitan area has 10 million people, the third largest population in the United States.
Chicago is by Lake Michigan. Chicago became a city in 1837 and is in between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed. It grew quickly in the mid-19th century. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed many square miles and made more than 100,000 people homeless. Major efforts were made to rebuild it. Chicago's population grew when more construction jobs came. By 1900, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the world. Chicago is known for its urban planning and zoning standards, for example, new construction styles from the Chicago School of architecture, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago built the first skyscraper in the world in 1885, the Home Insurance Building.
Chicago is a center for finance, culture, trade, industry, education, technology, telecommunications, and transportation. It is one of the largest markets of the world. The O'Hare International Airport is the fifth or sixth busiest airport in the world and first or second in the United States. The region has the largest number of federal highways. It has many railroads too. Globalization and World Cities Research Network lists Chicago as an alpha global city. The Global Cities Index ranked Chicago seventh in the world in 2017. The Chicago area generated $689 billion in 2018. It has a very diverse and balanced economy. Chicago is home to several Fortune 500 companies, including Allstate, Boeing, Exelon, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Mondelez International, Sears, United Airlines Holdings, and Walgreens.
58 million people visited Chicago in 2018. It was the second most visited city in the United States. New York City had 65 million visitors in 2018. Chicago had first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index. This index was a survey about the quality of life in different areas. 15,000 people in 32 cities did the survey.
Some landmarks in the city are Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis (Sears) Tower, Grant Park, Chicago Riverwalk, the Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. There are many universities and colleges, for example University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. Chicago has professional sports teams in the major professional leagues, and two are Major League Baseball teams.
History[change | change source]
Jean Baptiste Point du Sable founded Chicago in the early 1700s. It was founded to create a canal to let boats on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. Later, the city became a trading center for food, crops, and fur. The city grew very fast because of how the river back then was clean and healthy to drink. In 1837, Chicago became a city. The city grew until the Great Chicago Fire in 1871. The fire lasted for almost a week. Almost half the city and its population were lost in the fire. After the fire, Chicago grew faster than ever.
Then, city's economy grew and more people migrated there from other parts of the world. many of the immigrants were Germans, Jews, Irish, Swedes, Poles, and Czechs. The immigrants were almost two-thirds of the city's population. In 1889, Jane Addams built Hull house in Chicago for children and the poor. In 1893, the city hosted the World's Columbian Exposition. In 1892, they created the University of Chicago.
In 1919, the city became known for its gangsters, for example Al Capone, Dean O’Banion, Bugs Moran, and Tony Accardo. In the 1929 Saint Valentine's Day Massacre, Al Capone ordered gangsters to be shot on St. Valentine's Day. Then, the city became known for John Dillinger, a bank robber. He could rob a bank in under two minutes. Dillinger was shot and killed at the Biograph Theatre in 1934.
Anton Cermak was the 44th mayor of Chicago. He was shot and killed during the Democratic party convention in 1933. A man tried to shoot Franklin D. Roosevelt and Cermak blocked the bullet to save the President. Cermak died hours later. In 1955, Mayor Richard J. Daley was a powerful and well known Democrat. He helped Martin Luther King and other activists share their thoughts without being arrested in Chicago.
The 1968 Democratic National Convention had large protests and riots outside the convention. Richard J. Daley helped create the construction sites for the Willis Tower, O'Hare International Airport, the McCormick Place, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. Jane Byrne helped Chicago to become one of the most popular tourist attractions in the United States. She was the first female mayor of Chicago.
In 1983, Harold Washington became the first African American mayor of Chicago. He helped clean all dangerous and poor neighborhoods in the city. He was later re-elected, but died of a heart attack. He would become the second mayor of Chicago to die from a heart attack while in office. The first was Richard J. Daley. Eugene Sawyer finished Washington's second full term. Sawyer was the second African American Mayor of Chicago.
In 1989, Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley, became the mayor of Chicago. Daley was the longest serving Mayor of Chicago.
In 2012, the NATO Summit was held in Chicago and lasted for three days. The city would also host the 38th G8 summit. The G8 summit was moved to Camp David because Chicago already hosted the NATO summit.
Culture[change | change source]
Chicago has a very well-known culture. Some of the many things Chicago is famous for are: Chicago-style hot dogs, Chicago-style (deep dish) pizza, Maxwell Street Polish Sausage, jazz music, and 1920s gangsters, for example Al Capone. Chicago is also known for architecture, for example the Sears Tower and museums. It is also known for its loyal sports fans.
Chicago was home to the Bijou Theater, the longest-running gay adult theater and sex club in the United States. It opened in 1970, and it permanently closed its doors in September 2015.
For many years, the Sears Tower was the tallest building in the world. It is the second tallest building in the United States.
People[change | change source]
Chicago is a multicultural city with many Italians, Greeks, Gypsies, Serbians and Eastern Europeans living in the city. Chicago has a large Hispanic population with many Puerto Ricans and Mexicans. Other ethnic groups in Chicago are African American, Irish, Chinese, Indians, Arabs, Russians, Bulgarians, Romanians, Armenians, and Japanese.
Economy[change | change source]
Chicago is a major world financial center. It has the second largest central business district in the United States. The city is the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (the Seventh District of the Federal Reserve). The city is also home to major financial and futures exchanges, for example the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which is owned by Chicago's CME Group. The CME Group also owns the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the Commodities Exchange Inc. (COMEX) and the Dow Jones Indexes.
The city also has markets with unusual trade contracts, for example emissions (on the Chicago Climate Exchange), and equity style indexes (on the U.S. Futures Exchange). Chase Bank has its commercial and retail banking headquarters in Chicago's Chase Tower.
Media[change | change source]
Museums[change | change source]
There are many museums in Chicago.
- The Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum was built in 1930. It is the oldest 4planetarium in the world.
- The Art Institute of Chicago has a large collection of American and Impressionist art.
- The Field Museum of Natural History has Sue, the largest and most complete Tyrannosaurus fossil.
- The Museum of Science and Industry has many exhibits, for example a real Boeing 727 jet plane. United Airlines gave it to the museum.
- The Polish Museum of America is said to ne haunted by famous piano player Ignacy Jan Paderewski. It has large collection of Polish art.
- The Shedd Aquarium was, at one time, the world's largest aquarium. It has 19 million liters (5 million gallons) of water and 22,000 fish.
Sports[change | change source]
Sports are a big part of the cultural life in Chicago. Chicago is home to 15 sports teams. Most of the city's major sports teams play within the city limits.
Chicago has two Major League Baseball teams: the Chicago White Sox and the Chicago Cubs. The White Sox play at the Guaranteed Rate Field and the Cubs play at Wrigley Field. The Chicago Cubs are one of the oldest teams in baseball. Chicago Cubs fans are dedicated and loyal to their team. The White Sox won the World Series in 2005. The Cubs won the World Series in 2016.
Chicago's National Basketball Association (NBA) team is the Chicago Bulls. For many years, Michael Jordan played for the Bulls. He helped them win six Championships in the 1990s. In 1999/2000 season Jordan was to return with the Bulls, he would have faced Lakers for the seventh championship and he would have won 11th scoring title.
Travel[change | change source]
Many people and things travel through Chicago to get to other places. Chicago has a complex network of trains and buses that help people who live in Chicago travel across the city. Chicago's commuter train system is called the Metra. It runs within the city and into the suburbs around Chicago. The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) is a system of buses and elevated trains (called the 'L') that run inside the city and towards the outer suburbs.
O'Hare International Airport is a major center for air travel. It is the second-busiest airport in the United States after the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Chicago has another airport called the Midway Airport. Many trains use Chicago as a place to change loads and to change directions. The Chicago River is a canal between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River. It is the only river to travel backwards.
The CTA has eight train lines. They are:
- Red Line running from Rogers Park near the Chicago suburb of Evanston towards Roseland.
- Blue Line running from the O'Hare International Airport towards Forest Park.
- Brown Line running in a loop from Albany Park towards the Loop and back.
- Green Line has two different service trains running from Forest Park or Oak Park towards the South Side running until West Englewood (Ashland/63rd) or Woodlawn (Cottage Grove/63rd).
- Orange Line running in a loop from the Midway International Airport towards the Loop and back.
- Purple Line running from the Chicago suburb of Wilmette towards Evanston. During rush hour, it runs from Wilmette to the Loop and back.
- Pink Line running from the Chicago suburb of Cicero all the way to the Loop and back.
- Yellow Line running only in the Chicago suburbs of Evanston towards Skokie. It is the shortest train line of the CTA only having three stops.
Weather[change | change source]
The English used in this section may not be easy for everybody to understand.
Chicago has four seasons. Summers are hot and humid. The July average is 75.8 °F (24.3 °C). In a normal summer, temperatures are above 90 °F (32 °C) for 21 days. Winters are cold and snowy. There are often sunny days. The January daytime average is 31 °F (−1 °C). Spring and autumn are mild with low humidity. Chicago is in the humid continental climate zone.
Chicago's highest official temperature is 105 °F (41 °C). It was recorded on July 24, 1934, There was a reading of 109 °F (43 °C) recorded at Midway Airport during that month. The lowest temperature of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded on January 20, 1985, at O'Hare Airport. Bad winter cold waves and summer heat waves can last for many days. There are also many mild winter and summer days. Thunderstorms are common in spring and summer. Sometimes they make tornadoes. They are more common in the suburban areas and not in the city. The heaviest snowfall record was in January 1999. It snowed 18.6 inches (47.2 centimeters).
|Climate data for Chicago (Midway Airport), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1928–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||67
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||52.3
|Average high °F (°C)||31.5
|Daily mean °F (°C)||24.8
|Average low °F (°C)||18.2
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−3.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−25
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.06
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||11.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.7||8.8||11.2||11.1||11.4||10.3||9.9||9.0||8.2||10.2||11.2||11.1||123.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||8.1||5.5||3.8||0.7||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||1.8||6.7||26.7|
|Source: NOAA, WRCC|
|Climate data for Chicago (O'Hare Int'l Airport), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1871 – present[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||67
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||51.4
|Average high °F (°C)||31.0
|Daily mean °F (°C)||23.8
|Average low °F (°C)||16.5
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−5.6
|Record low °F (°C)||−27
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.73
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||10.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.5||8.8||11.1||12.0||11.6||10.2||9.8||9.8||8.3||10.2||10.8||11.0||124.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||8.2||5.9||4.2||0.9||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||1.7||6.9||28.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||72.2||71.6||69.7||64.9||64.1||65.6||68.5||70.7||71.1||68.6||72.5||75.5||69.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||135.8||136.2||187.0||215.3||281.9||311.4||318.4||283.0||226.6||193.2||113.3||106.3||2,508.4|
|Percent possible sunshine||46||46||51||54||62||68||69||66||60||56||38||37||56|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)|
Winds[change | change source]
Chicago is known as the Windy City, but it is less windy than many other big American cities. Wind speeds range from 8 miles per hour (13 km/h) in late summer to 12 miles per hour (19 km/h) in spring months. The "Windy City" nickname could be connected to Chicago politicians from the 1800s. When Chicago hosted the World's Fair, citizens of Chicago started to brag about it. They bragged so much that the city of Chicago became known as "The Windy City. The phrase may have also been created by Chicago tourism boosters promoting the city. They suggested that the cool breezes from Lake Michigan make Chicago a good summer destination.
Community areas[change | change source]
The community areas in Chicago, are defined by the Social Science Research Committee at the University of Chicago.The City of Chicago recognizes 77 divisions in the city. These areas are well-defined and stable. Census data helps make urban planning initiatives in the city.
Central[change | change source]
|08||Near North Side|
|33||Near South Side|
North Side[change | change source]
West Side[change | change source]
|26||West Garfield Park|
|27||East Garfield Park|
|28||Near West Side|
|31||Lower West Side|
South Side[change | change source]
|69||Greater Grand Crossing|
Law and government[change | change source]
Chicago is the county seat of Cook County. The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. Civil and criminal law cases are heard in the Cook County Circuit Court of the State of Illinois court system, or in the Northern District of Illinois, in the federal system. In the former, the public prosecutor is the Illinois State's Attorney, in the latter, the United States Attorney.
Mayors of Chicago[change | change source]
The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years, with no term limits. The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments. In addition to the mayor, Chicago's two other citywide elected officials are the clerk and the treasurer. The City Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city. The council enacts local ordinances and approves the city budget. Government priorities and activities are established in a budget ordinance usually adopted each November. The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions.
The current mayor is Brandon Johnson since 2023.
Crimes[change | change source]
Chicago had a murder rate of 14.5 per 100,000 residents in 2012. Some smaller cities have higher rates, for example New Orleans, Newark, and Detroit had 53 murders per 100,000 residents in 2012. The total number of murders in the city was highest in 1974, with 970 murders (murder rate of 29 per 100,000). It was close in 1992 with 943 murders (murder rate of 34 per 100,000). Chicago had less violent crime rates in the 1990s. It had 448 homicides in 2004, the lowest total since 1965 (15.65 per 100,000). Chicago's murder rate was about the same in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with 449, 452, and 435.
Transportation[change | change source]
Chicago is a major transportation spot in the United States. It is an important part of distribution in the world because it is the third largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kong and Singapore.
Expressways[change | change source]
The Kennedy Expressway and Dan Ryan Expressways are the busiest state maintained roads in Illinois.
Transit systems[change | change source]
The English used in this section may not be easy for everybody to understand.
The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) controls how the board of directors work at CTA, Metra, and Pace.
- The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) controls public transportation in the city of Chicago. The CTA controls a large group of buses and a fast transit elevated and subway system known as the 'L' (for "elevated"), with lines shown by colors. Rapid transit lines go to Midway and O'Hare Airports. The CTA's rail lines have the Red Line, Blue Line, Green Line, Orange Line, Brown Line, Purple Line, Pink Line, and Yellow Line. The Red and Blue lines have 24‑hour service.
- Metra, the nation's second-most used passenger regional rail network, operates an 11-line commuter rail service in Chicago and throughout the Chicago suburbs. The Metra Electric Line shares its trackage with Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District's South Shore Line, which provides commuter service between South Bend and Chicago.
- Pace provides bus and community transport services in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well. A 2005 study found that one quarter of commuters used public transit.
Greyhound Lines gives inter-city bus service to and from the city. Chicago is also the spot for the Midwest network of Megabus.
Amtrak long-distance services come from Union Station. Chicago is one of the largest hubs of passenger rail service in the USA.
Famous people from Chicago[change | change source]
- Born in Chicago
- Edgar Rice Burroughs (died in 1950), writer
- Walt Disney († 1966), cartoonist, businessman
- Jack Benny (d. 1974), actor, comedian.
- Vincent du Vigneaud († 1978), biochemist, got a Nobel Prize
- John Belushi († 1982), actor
- Philip K. Dick († 1982), author
- Benny Goodman († 1986), musician
- Bob Fosse († 1987), choreographer
- Gene Siskel (d. 1999), movie critic.
- Mike Douglas († 2006), entertainer
- Bobby Fischer († 2008), chess player
- Tom Bosley (d. 2010), actor who played Mr. C on Happy Days.
- Betty Ford († 2011), First Lady
- Kenneth Mars (d. 2011), actor and comedian.
- Robin Williams († 2014), actor who grew up in Michigan and California
- James Cronin (d. 2016), physicist, got a Nobel Prize
- Hugh Hefner (d. 2017), founder of Playboy Magazines.
- Donald Rumsfeld, politician, Secretary of Defense (d. 2021)
- James Watson (1928-), got a Nobel Prize
- Bob Newhart (1929-), actor, comedian.
- Quincy Jones (1933-), musician
- Mavis Staples (1939-), singer, member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
- Herbie Hancock (1940-), musician, pianist
- John Ashcroft (1942-), politician, former head of Justice Department
- Harrison Ford (1942-), actor
- James Heckman (1944-), economist, got a Nobel Prize
- Adrian Smith (1944-), architect
- Bob Balaban (1945-), actor, writer, director, and producer.
- Pat Sajak (1946-), host on television
- Hillary Clinton (1947-), politician
- Tom Berenger (1949-), actor
- Francis Fukuyama (1952-), political scientist
- Merrick Garland (1952-), politician, head of Justice Department (2021-)
- James Belushi (1954-), actor
- Rahm Emanuel (1959-), was White House Chief of Staff, mayor
- Daryl Hannah (1960-), actress
- Bonnie Hunt (1961-), actress, comedian.
- Richard Marx (1963-), singer
- Michelle Obama (1964-), was First Lady of the United States
- Anastacia (1968-), singer
- Bob Bryar (1979-), musician, was member of My Chemical Romance.
- Emilie Autumn (1979-), singer and musician.
- Jennifer Hudson (1981-), singer, actress.
- Dwyane Wade (1982-), basketball player.
- Derrick Rose (1988-), basketball player.
- Chance the Rapper (1993-), rap artist
- People who moved to Chicago
- George Pullman (d. 1897), engineer.
- Potter Palmer (d. 1902), architect, businessman.
- Daniel Burnham (d. 1912), architect.
- Jane Addams (d. 1935), founder of the Hull House.
- Frank Lloyd Wright (d. 1959), architect (Robie House), and writer.
- Nat «King» Cole (d. 1965), singer, grew up in Chicago
- Carl Sandburg (d. 1967), poet.
- Fazlur Khan (d. 1982), architect (Willis Tower, John Hancock Center)
- Chris Farley (d. 1997), actor, comedian
- Ronald Reagan (d. 2004), was president of the United States
- Bruce Graham (d. 2010), architect (Willis Tower, John Hancock Center)
- Alex Karras (d. 2012), actor, wrestler, and football player
- Roger Ebert (d. 2013), movie critic.
- James M. Buchanan (d. 2013), Nobel Prize-winning economist.
- Mike Gray (d. 2013), screenwriter, activist, cinematographer
- Ernie Banks (d. 2015), baseball player.
- Nancy Reagan (d. 2016), First Lady of the United States.
- Richard Peck (died in 2018), novelist, grew up in Chicago
- Bernie Sanders (1941-), United States senator of Vermont and activist.
- Bill Murray (1950-), actor, comedian.
- Oprah Winfrey (1954-), actress, host on television
- Wendy Schaal (1954-), actor and comedian.
- Kathy Griffin (1960-), actress and comedian.
- Barack Obama (1961-), former President of the United Sates
- Christopher Nolan (1970-), director
- Kanye West (1977-), rapper, musician, actor; grew up in Chicago
Movies[change | change source]
Chicago is in many movies. for example The Blues Brothers; Ferris Bueller's Day Off; Child's Play, Home Alone; The Fugitive; The Untouchables, I, Robot; Wanted; Batman Begins; The Dark Knight; Transformers: Dark of the Moon; Man of Steel; Widows and Rampage.
Sister cities[change | change source]
- Warsaw (Poland) 1960
- Milan (Italy) 1973
- Osaka (Japan) 1973
- Casablanca (Morocco) 1982
- Shanghai (China) 1985
- Shenyang (China) 1985
- Gothenburg (Sweden) 1987
- Accra (Ghana) 1989
- Prague (Czech Republic) 1990
- Kyiv (Ukraine) 1991
- Mexico City (Mexico) 1991
- Toronto (Canada) 1991
- Birmingham (United Kingdom) 1993
- Vilnius (Lithuania) 1993
- Hamburg (Germany) 1994
- Petah Tikva (Israel) 1994
- Athens (Greece) 1997
- Durban (South Africa) 1997
- Galway (Ireland) 1997
- Moscow (Russia) 1997
- Lucerne (Switzerland) 1998
- Delhi (India) 2001
- Amman (Jordan) 2004
- São Paulo (Brazil) 2004
- Belgrade (Serbia) 2005
- Lahore (Pakistan) 2007
- Busan (South Korea) 2007
- Bogotá (Colombia) 2009
- Paris (France) 1996
Notes[change | change source]
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Chicago were kept at various locations in downtown from January 1871 to December 31, 1925, University of Chicago from January 1, 1926 to June 30, 1942, Midway Airport from July 1, 1942 to January 16, 1980, and at O'Hare Airport since January 17, 1980.
References[change | change source]
- "City of Chicago". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 15, 2022. Retrieved March 15, 2022.
- "QuickFacts: Chicago city, Illinois". census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 25, 2023. Retrieved January 21, 2023. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Quickfacts" defined multiple times with different content
- "List of 2020 Census Urban Areas". census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 14, 2023. Retrieved January 8, 2023.
- "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 24, 2021. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
- Janice L. Reiff; Ann Durkin Keating; James R. Grossman, eds. (2005). "Metropolitan Growth". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- "Urban Infernos Throughout History". History. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- "Largest Cities Throughout History". ThoughtCo. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- "Skyscrapers". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- Glancey, Jonathan. "The city that changed architecture forever". BBC. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- "2017 Passenger Summary - Annual Traffic Data - ACI World". Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- Rodriguez, Alex (January 26, 2014). "Chicago takes on the world". Chicago Tribune.
- "The World According to GaWC 2012". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. January 13, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- "2017 Global Cities Index". A.T. Kearney. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- "CAGDP2 Gross domestic product (GDP) by county and metropolitan area". Bureau of Economic Analysis. December 12, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
- "Chicago Economy". World Business Chicago. Archived from the original on February 12, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- Rackl, Lori. "Chicago sets new tourism record with nearly 58 million visitors in 2018 — and the mayor is thrilled". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
- "Chicago's tourism hot streak continues". Crain's Chicago Business. January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
- Gabriel Martin, James (January 31, 2018). "Chicago revealed as the world's number one city for having fun and enjoying life". Lonely Planet. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- Millington, Alison (April 25, 2018). "The 32 most fun, friendly, and affordable cities in the world". Business Insider. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- "Chicago named world's best city by Time Out, ahead of London, New York and Melbourne". News Corp Australia Network. January 31, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- Olsen, Morgan (January 29, 2018). "Chicago named the world's best city for having it all". Time Out. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal
- Facts about Chicago at lifestyle.iloveindia.com
- Chicago elects Lori Lightfoot as first gay and first black female mayor in city’s history
- U.S. v. Toushin, 714 F.Supp. 1452 at 1454 (M.D.Tenn. April 21, 1989)
- Begin (or End?) Route 66 in Chicago at Theroadwanderer.net
- "50 Largest Urban Areas: 2000 Data on Employment & Transit Work Trips" (PDF). demographia. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
- "Futures & Options Trading for Risk Management". CME Group. April 13, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- "JPMorgan History | The History of Our Firm". Jpmorganchase.com. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- Nielsen DMA Rankings
- Chicago's Official Records. National Weather Service. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- Monthly Averages for O'Hare International Airport Archived April 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. The Weather Channel. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- "Station Name: IL CHICAGO MIDWAY AP". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved March 12, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". NWS Romeoville, IL. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
- "Top 20 Weather Events of the Century for Chicago and Northeast Illinois 1900–1999". NWS Romeoville, IL. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". Chicago Weather Forecast Office. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- "CHICAGO MIDWAY AP 3 SW, ILLINOIS". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- History of the Chicago and Rockford weather observation sites
- "Station Name: IL CHICAGO OHARE INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 18, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Chicago/O'Hare, IL Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- "Community Areas Map" (PDF). City of Chicago. June 2010. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- "Community Maps". City of Chicago. Archived from the original on September 14, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Munshi, N. (2013) Chicago toll rises despite gun clampdown. Financial Times, Jan 31 Financial Times
- Heinzmann, David (January 1, 2003). Chicago falls out of 1st in murders Archived October 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Chicago Tribune, found at qrc.depaul.edu/djabon/Articles/ChicagoCrime20030101.htm.
- Madigan 2004, p.52.
- "Illinois Department of Transportation". Dot.il.gov. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
- "New Yorkers are top transit users", by Les Christie,CNNmoney.com, June 29, 2007. Retrieved 2009-9-21.
- "Eksforsvarsminister i USA Donald Rumsfeld er død - 88 år". June 30, 2021.
- "LibGuides: Mavis Staples: The Staple Singers".
Other websites[change | change source]
- City of Chicago Homepage Archived January 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Chicago Hotels Archived July 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine