From Ashes to Immortality
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||February 20, 1858|
|Named for||Amos Adams Lawrence|
|• Mayor||Lisa Larsen|
|• Vice Mayor||Jennifer Ananda|
|• City Manager||Craig Owens|
|• Total||34.26 sq mi (88.7 km2)|
|• Land||33.56 sq mi (86.9 km2)|
|• Water||0.70 sq mi (1.8 km2)|
|Elevation||866 ft (264 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2,600/sq mi (990/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
Lawrence is a city in Douglas County in the state of Kansas in the United States. It is in the northeastern part of the state, near the Kansas City area. It is the county seat of Douglas County. In 2010, 87,643 people lived there; though in 2017, there were 96,892 people. This makes it the sixth-biggest city in Kansas. The University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University are in Lawrence.
The New England Emigrant Aid Company (NEEAC) created Lawrence. It is named after Amos Adams Lawrence, who gave financial support to the city. During Bleeding Kansas, Lawrence was where the Wakarusa War (1855) and the Sack of Lawrence (1856) happened. Lawrence was also where the Lawrence Massacre (1863) happened during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Lawrence started as an important place for free-state politics. After that, Lawrence's economy grew to be in many industries. These industries include agriculture, manufacturing, and education. Lawrence is called a "college town" because the University of Kansas is a big part of the city. There are many places in town where students like to go.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 City design
- 4 People
- 5 Economy
- 6 Historic places and museums
- 7 Arts and culture
- 8 Sports
- 9 Government
- 10 Education
- 11 Media
- 12 Infrastructure
- 13 Sister cities
- 14 Notable people
- 15 In popular culture
- 16 Related pages
- 17 Notes
- 18 References
- 19 More reading
- 20 Other websites
History[change | change source]
Early history[change | change source]
Before the Kansas Territory was created, the area was part of the Shawnee Reservation. The Shawnee reservation was created in 1830. It was in most of eastern Kansas. In 1854, it became part of the Kansas Territory. The Oregon Trail went through the area. People on the Oregon Trail used a hill called "Hogback Ridge" to help guide them. Today, Hogback Ridge is called "Mount Oread."
In the first half of the 1800s, there were many arguments about slavery in the United States. During this time, every time a free state (a state where slavery was illegal) was added into the country, a slave state (a state where slavery was allowed) had to be added too. The Missouri Compromise continued to let this happen. As a compromise to people arguing about new states being free or slave, Senator Lewis Cass and Senator Stephen A. Douglas promoted the idea of "popular sovereignty." That meant the people in the area would decide to have slavery or not (instead of politicians in Washington deciding). Popular sovereignty was a big part of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act. That law basically undid the Missouri Compromise. The Kansas-Nebraska Act also created the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska Territory.
After the law passed, anti-slavery people were worried that the Kansas Territory would become a slave state. This is because the state next to Kansas is Missouri, which was a slave state. People believed that the first people in Kansas would be from Missouri. To stop Missouri from influencing Kansas, anti-slavery people from around the United States came to Kansas. These people wanted to make Kansas a free state. These people were called "free-staters." The New England Emigrant Aid Company (NEEAC) helped anti-slavery people move to Kansas. They sent two men named Charles L. Robinson and Charles H. Branscomb to explore the land. Then they would decide a good place to send people. They saw Hogback Ridge, and they liked it. They liked it because it was close to the Oregon Trail. They told the NEEAC to send people to this place.
While Robinson and Branscomb were exploring, the NEEAC was getting people to move to Kansas. The NEEAC wanted to send a big group of people to claim the land. However, a cholera outbreak in the Missouri Valley stopped this from happening. The NEEAC was able to get a small group of only twenty-nine men to go. The group of people left Boston, Massachusetts on July 17, 1854. Many people in Boston were happy to see them do this, and they hoped they would do well. In late July, the group came to St. Louis. They met Charles Robinson there. Robinson gave them transportation, and he told them what to do. They came to the Kansas Territory in late July. They ate their first meal on Hogback Ridge on August 1, 1854. After they were done eating, half of them left to claim the land around them. The other half stayed on Hogback Ridge. They started building a city between Mount Oread and the Kansas River (close to where Massachusetts Street is).
While this was happening, Robinson and Samuel C. Pomeroy led a second group of sixty-seven people from Worcester, Massachusetts on August 31. While they were going to Kansas, other anti-slavery people joined them. When they came to Lawrence on September 9–11, their group had 114 people. This group had about ten women, some children, and some musicians. A third group came on October 8-9. However, many of them "became disgusted" by the settlement, and went back to New England. Many felt they had been tricked by the NEEAC. A fourth group came on October 30. A fifth group came on November 20. A sixth group came on December 1.
On September 18, 1854, the early people of Lawrence made a government. On September 20, they wrote a constitution for Lawrence. This constitution did not allow slavery. Lawrence made this constitution even though other people near them wanted slavery. On September 30, the people of Lawrence came together to protect Thomas J. Ferril. Ferril was an anti-slavery clergy from Missouri. Pro-slavery people went to Ferril's house, and they threatened violence. The pro-slavery people left when they saw free-state people come with guns. On October 1, a woman destroyed a free-state man's tent. Pro-slavery people came to stop people from building the tent again, but the tent was built again without violence.
Before Lawrence was called Lawrence, people called it "Wakarusa". Some people called it different names like "New Boston" or "Yankee Town." Some people wanted the city to be called "Lawrence" because of a man named Amos Adams Lawrence. Amos Lawrence was a Republican businessman who did not like slavery. People believed that if they named the city "Lawrence," he would give financial support to the city. He did. On October 1, the people voted to make the name of the city be Lawrence. On October 17, people started building houses and businesses. Pro-slavery people tried to build houses close to Lawrence, and people from Lawrence hated this. They had a very angry argument. The pro-slavery people threatened violence, but they left. No violence happened.
In early October 1854, Andrew Horatio Reeder, the first governor of the Kansas Territory, came to Lawrence. He had a party. He asked everyone to get along. He did not say anything about slavery. The first winter in Lawrence was difficult because it was very cold, and people did not have good houses. Two miles south of Lawrence on November 3, 1854, the first elections happened. At the elections, a man named "Davis" attacked a pro-slavery man named "Keebs" with a Bowie knife. Then Kibbee shot Davis. This was the first murder in Kansas.
Two newspapers were started in 1854. They were the Kansas Pioneer and the Herald of Freedom. The writers of the newspapers wrote about their beliefs that slavery was wrong. The Plymouth Congregational Church was built in September 1854 in Lawrence; it was the first church in Kansas. In January 1855, Lawrence's first post office was built. The first postmaster was E. D. Ladd. On January 10, 1855, Lawrence's first free school was built. The teacher was Edward Fitch.
"Bleeding Kansas"[change | change source]
At the start of 1855, the free-staters and the pro-slavery people around Lawrence started fighting for political power. At the Kansas elections on March 30, 1865, 700 pro-slavery people from Missouri with guns voted at the election. No one argued with them because there were a lot of them. They went back to Missouri the next day. At the election, a man named Silas Bond was shot at, and he ran away. He was shot at because he was "an obnoxious free-state man."
On August 27, 1855, the pro-slavery people became happy when the Governor Daniel Woodson chose a pro-slavery man, Samuel J. Jones, to be the county sheriff. In October 1855, the anti-slavery man John Brown came to Kansas. He brought many guns to give to other anti-slavery people.
In June 1855, Lawrence had a meeting. They decided to resist any laws the Kansas legislature passed. They did this because they believed the legislature was elected by armed Missouri people instead of Kansas people.
On November 21, 1855, the pro-slavery man Franklin N. Coleman shot anti-slavery man Charles Dow nine times in the back. This happened after many angry arguments between them about land claims. When Sheriff Samuel Jones investigated the crime, Franklin Coleman said he shot Charles Dow in self-defense. Jones believed Coleman because they both were pro-slavery men. Jones decided to arrest Jacob Branson, a friend of Charles Dow and an anti-slavery man. A group of anti-slavery people saved Branson.
Wilson Shannon, the governor of the Kansas Territory, saw that the people were becoming very angry and violent. He asked the Kansas militia to come and keep the peace. Shannon wanted the people in the militia to be from Kansas, but Samuel Jones brought 1,200-1,500 men from Missouri. When the people of Lawrence learned this, they made a militia of 600-800 men. Robinson was chosen to lead the militia. James H. Lane was chosen as his second-in-command. John Brown and his four sons also joined to fight. Both groups were ready to fight, but they could not because the winter was very cold. Wilson Shannon decided to prevent a fight. He demanded that the leaders of both sides agree to a peace treaty. They did, and the men from Missouri went back to Missouri. This war is known as the Wakarusa War.
In spring 1856, pro-slavery people wanted to make the free-staters weak. The pro-slavery people said that the Herald of Freedom newspaper, the Kansas Free State newspaper, and the Eldridge Hotel were very bad. On April 23, 1856, Samuel Jones came to Lawrence. He tried to arrest some anti-slavery people who resisted laws. A sniper shot Samuel Jones, but he did not die. The people of Lawrence made Jones leave. On May 11, Federal Marshall (like a police officer but for the entire country) Israel B. Donaldson said that people interfered with Samuel Jones, and that is illegal. A Kansas grand jury agreed. They said that Lawrence built the Free State Hotel (the Eldridge Hotel) for military purposes. Because of this, Donaldson, Jones, and others made an army of 800 men. They said the purpose of the army was to enforce the law, but they also wanted to stop the anti-slavery men in Lawrence.
On May 21, Donaldson and Jones came to Lawrence with a group of men. They arrested more anti-slavery people. The people of Lawrence hoped that Donaldson and Jones would leave after the arrests. This did not happen. Jones and his men started sacking Lawrence. They took over Charles Robinson's house. They used it as a headquarters. Next, they attacked free-state newspapers offices. They hit the presses, and they threw the sort into the Kansas River. Next, they shot the Free State Hotel (the Eldridge Hotel) with a cannon, then they burned it down. They took $30,000 worth of things. They burned Charles Robinson's house, then they left. This was called the "Sacking of Lawrence." Surprisingly, only one person died; a man died when he was hit by falling masonry. In late September 1856, another sack seemed like it was about to happen. 2,700 pro-slavery men came to Lawrence, and the city was defended by anti-slavery men. Governor John W. Geary saw what was happening. He asked for federal reinforcements to defend the city. No violence happened.
In 1855 and 1857, Lawrence got a charter (a document that officially creates a town) from the pro-slavery Kansas government. The people of Lawrence resisted the Kansas government because they believed they were too pro-slavery. They did not accept it because it would force Lawrence to follow pro-slavery laws. In July 1857, the people of Lawrence tried to get an "official" (only the people of Lawrence saw it as official) charter from the extralegal (having no real authority) anti-slavery government. If they could not get one, Lawrence would simply make one themselves. Governor Robert J. Walker believed this was a revolt. On July 15, 1857, he sent an army to Lawrence, and he declared martial law. The army stayed close to Lawrence until October 1857. They stayed until October because there were elections. They wanted to make sure that there would be no violence at the elections. Anti-slavery people won the elections. The Kansas government became controlled by anti-slavery people. In early 1858, Samuel Jones quit his job, and he left Kansas. On January 16, 1858, Lawrence became the county seat of Douglas County. In February 1858, the Kansas government approved an anti-slavery charter for Lawrence. James Blood became the first mayor of Lawrence. The anti-slavery Kansas government met in Lawrence many times. Lawrence basically became the capital of Kansas from 1858 until 1861.
American Civil War and Kansas becoming a state[change | change source]
On October 4, 1859, the people of Kansas voted to approve the Wyandotte Constitution. There were 10,421 "yes" votes and 5,530 "no" votes. The United States Congress approved the Wyandotte Constitution, and Kansas became a free state on January 29, 1861. Pro-slavery people in Kansas knew they lost. Kansas becoming a free state ended Bleeding Kansas. However, the American Civil War began around the same time.
During the war, many Jayhawkers stayed in Lawrence. These Jayhawkers went to Missouri, where they stole items and burned farms. Many people in the Confederacy believed that the stolen items were in Lawrence. On August 21, 1863, a pro-slavery man named William Quantrill rode into Lawrence with some men. They destroyed much of the town. They killed every adult man they saw. More than 150 men and boys died. There was 2,000,000 dollars worth of property destroyed. The Plymouth Congregational Church was not destroyed, but many of its people died.
After Quantrill's Raid, the people and Union soldiers rebuilt the city. It was hard because the winter was very cold. After winter, they continued rebuilding. They finished in 1864. While they were rebuilding, the people were afraid of another attack. The military built some camps in Lawrence to guard the city. No more attacks happened. After the Civil War, people got rid of the camps.
After the Civil War[change | change source]
There was a plan to build a university in Kansas in 1855, but it did not happen until Kansas became a state in 1861. The Kansas government needed to decide where to build the university. Their choices were Manhattan, Emporia, or Lawrence. On January 13, 1863, Kansas State University was built in Manhattan. The only cities left were Emporia and Lawrence. Amos A. Lawrence gave $10,000 and more than 40 acres (160,000 m2) of land for a university in Lawrence. The Kansas government liked that, so the government chose Lawrence. The University of Kansas opened in 1866.
In 1864, Lawrence got its first railroad. It connected Lawrence to Kansas City. The first train to go to Lawrence went on November 28, 1864. The first train to cross the Kansas River crossed it in Lawrence on November 1, 1867.
In the early 1870s, Lawrence needed to make more electricity. The city asked a man named Orlando Darling to build a dam on the Kansas River. Darling became angry because it took a long time to build a dam, so he stopped. The Lawrence Land & Water Company finished building the dam in 1873. The dam made Lawrence special because few cities had a dam. The dam closed in 1968, but it opened again in 1977. The city helped open it. This is because they wanted to build a new city hall next to the dam. Today, the dam helps prevent flooding.
In 1863, the first windmill in Kansas was built in Lawrence. It burned during Quantrill's Raid. In 1864, people rebuilt it; it costed them $9,700. People used it until July 1895. On April 30, 1905, the windmill burned, and it was not rebuilt.
In 1884, a school for Native Americans was built in Lawrence. The name was the United States Industrial Training School. Boys learned farming, blacksmithing, and more. Girls learned cooking and homemaking. In 1887, the name changed to the Haskell Institute. It was named after Dudley Haskell, a state legislator who helped make sure the school was built in Lawrence. In 1993, the name changed to the Haskell Indian Nations University.
20th century[change | change source]
In 1888, the Watkins National Bank opened at 11th Street and Massachusetts Street. Jabez B. Watkins created it. It would stay until 1929. The building was given to the city to become the city hall. In 1970, Lawrence built a new city hall, so the building became a museum. The Watkins Community Museum opened in 1975.
In 1903, the Kansas River flooded, which hurt Lawrence. The water was 27 feet (8.2 metres) high. The damage in North Lawrence was very bad. Lawrence was hit by other floods in 1951, where the water was 30 feet high. It was hit again in 1993. However, the damage was not very bad. This is because it had a reservoir and a levee.
In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt came to Lawrence. He gave a short speech, and he dedicated a fountain at 9th & New Hampshire Street. In 1910, Roosevelt came to Lawrence again after visiting Osawatomie.
In 1871, the Lawrence Street Railway Company was created. It made it easy for people to go to hotels and businesses on Massachusetts Street. They had the first streetcar in Lawrence. Horses and mules would pull the streetcar. They could be used only on Massachusetts Street. After the 1903 flood, the Kansas River Bridge had to be rebuilt. It was not safe for streetcars to go on the bridge. The Lawrence Street Railway Company closed in 1903. In 1902, a man named C. L. Rutter tried making a bus system. He failed. In 1907, he tried again. In 1909, someone made a new streetcar system. This made Rutter fail again. The streetcar system stayed until 1935. In 1909, the streetcar company made a roller coaster. It was called "Casey's Coaster." Some people called it "Daisy's Dozer." It was made out of wood. It stayed until the 1920s.
In 1929, Lawrence had its 75th birthday. Lawrence placed a big rock. They called it "Founder's Rock." They wanted to remember the early people who came to Lawrence. They wanted to remember the New England Emigrant Aid Company. On October 14, 1929, they dedicated the Lawrence Municipal Airport.
In 1943, the United States government brought prisoners to Lawrence. These prisoners were war prisoners from World War II. The prisoners were mostly German people and Italian people. The government brought them because farmers needed more people. They were forced to live in camps. These camps were like prisons. Lawrence's camp was near 11th Street and Haskell Avenue. The camp closed in 1945.
Geography[change | change source]
Lawrence is in northeastern Kansas. It is about 25 miles (40 kilometres) east of Topeka. It is about 35 miles (56 kilometres) west of Kansas City, Kansas. The tallest place in Lawrence is Mount Oread at the University of Kansas, which is 1,020 feet (310 metres) tall.
Lawrence is on the southern part of the Dissected Till Plains. To the south of Lawrence, there are the Osage Plains. The United States Census Bureau says that the city has a total area of 34.26 square miles (88.73 square kilometres). Of that, 33.56 square miles (86.92 square kilometres) is land and 0.70 square miles (1.81 square kilometres) is water.
Lawrence is between the Kansas River and the Wakarusa River. Many creeks flow through Lawrence. The Wakarusa River was blocked to create Clinton Lake. The University of Kansas has a small lake called Potter's Lake. The Haskell-Baker Wetlands is a big area that has wetlands, plants, trails, and more. They are maintained by Haskell University and Baker University. It is southeast of Lawrence.
Lawrence has 54 parks, cemeteries, and community parks. The community parks are South Park, Buford Watson Park, Broken Arrow Park, Riverfront Park, Holcomb Park, "Dad" Perry Park, Centennial Park and Prairie Park. Cemeteries include Oak Hill, Maple Grove and Memorial Park. Pioneer Cemetery is a cemetery that has some of the earliest people from Lawrence; it was created in 1854. It is at the University of Kansas.
Climate[change | change source]
Lawrence has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), so it has hot and humid summers, and cold and dry winters. The highest temperature ever was 111 °F (44 °C) on July 13 and 14, 1954. The lowest temperature ever was −21 °F (−29 °C) on December 22, 1989.
|Climate data for Lawrence, Kansas (1981–2010 normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||72
|Average high °F (°C)||38.5
|Average low °F (°C)||18.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−18
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||0.98
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||3.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||5.2||5.9||7.9||9.7||11.3||10.4||8.7||8.6||8.4||8.1||6.6||5.6||96.4|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||2.2||2.1||0.5||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.8||2.2||8.0|
|Source: NOAA The Weather Channel|
City design[change | change source]
Streets[change | change source]
The main street in Lawrence is called Massachusetts Street. This is because many early residents of Lawrence came because of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The New England Emigrant Aid Company was from Massachusetts. Streets that went north and south were named after states. It was from the order the states became part of the country. Streets that go east and west were name after famous Revolutionary War heroes. Over time, people broke the rule. Some states were never used, and some states were put in the wrong order. In 1913, the east and west streets became numbered streets.
Neighborhoods[change | change source]
Lawrence is organized into neighborhoods. Some neighborhoods are close to downtown Lawrence like Old West Lawrence, North Lawrence, East Lawrence, Oread, Hancock and Pinckney. There are a few neighborhoods west of Iowa Street like Sunset Hills, Prairie Meadows, Deerfield, and Alvamar. Some neighborhoods are on the National Register of Historic Places like Old West Lawrence, Oread, Hancock, Breezedale, and most of Rhode Island Street in East Lawrence.
North Lawrence[change | change source]
North Lawrence is a neighborhood north of the Kansas River. It used to be its own place called Grant Township. It renamed itself North Lawrence in 1869. Lawrence claimed it in 1870.
Northeast of North Lawrence, there was a popular park called Bismarck Grove. In the late 1800s, the park had picnics, fairs, and temperance meetings (meetings about getting rid of alcohol). The first meeting was in 1878. The park had its last fair in 1899. In 1900, the park closed and was sold.
Architecture[change | change source]
People[change | change source]
|U.S. Decennial Census|
2010 census[change | change source]
In 2010, there were 87,643 people, 34,970 households, and 16,939 families living in Lawrence. The people were 82.0% White, 4.7% African American, 3.1% Native American, 4.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, and 4.1% from two or more races. 5.7% of the people were Hispanic or Latino.
There were 34,970 households. 24.4% of them had children under 18 years old; 35.6% of them had married people; 8.8% had only a woman as the main person (with no man); 4% had only a man as the main person (with no woman); 51.6% were not families. 32% were people living alone, and 6.5% were people over 65 years old living alone.
17.5% of the people were under 18 years old; 28.7% of the people were between 18 and 24 years old; 27.4% of the people were between 25 and 44 years old; 18.5% of the people were between 45 and 64 years old; 8% were 65 years old or older. 50.2% of the people were women, and 49.8% of the people were men.
The median income for a household was $41,290. The median income for a family was $65,673. Men had a median income of $42,362. Women had a median income of $34,124. The per capita income was $23,666. About 10.7% of families and 23.4% of all people in Lawrence lived below the poverty line. This included 16.2% of children under 18 years old and 7.1% of people over 65 years old.
2000 census[change | change source]
In 2000, there were 80,098 people, 31,388 households, and 15,725 families living in Lawrence. The people were 83.80% White, 5.09% African American, 2.93% Native American, 3.78% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, and 2.97% from two or more races. 3.65% of the people were Hispanic or Latino. 91% of the people spoke English as their first language, 2.9% spoke Spanish as their first language, and 1% spoke Chinese as their first language.
There were 31,388 households. Of these, 25.1% had children under 18 years old; 38% had married people; 8.7% had only a woman as the main person (with no man); and 49.9% were not families. People living alone made up 30.6% of households, and 5.6% were people over 65 years old living alone. The average household size was 2.30. The average family size was 2.93.
By age, 18.6% of the people were under 18 years old; 30.7% of the people were between 18 and 24 years old; 28.5% of the people were between 25 and 44 years old; 15.1% of the people were between 45 and 64 years old; 7.2% were 65 years old or older. By gender, 50.6% of the people were women, and 49.4% of the people were men.
The median income for a household was $34,669. The median income for a family was $51,545. Men had a median income of $33,481. Women had a median income of $27,436. The per capita income was $19,378. About 7.3% of families and 18.9% of all people in Lawrence lived below the poverty line. This included 10.6% of children under 18 years old and 7.7% of people over 65 years old. However, Lawrence has a lot of students, and students are usually poor. Therefore, the number of people living in poverty is misleading.
Economy[change | change source]
Much of Lawrence's economy is from the University of Kansas. The biggest private employer is General Dynamics.[a] Other big employers are Lawrence Public Schools, Hallmark Cards, the City of Lawrence, and Lawrence Memorial Hospital.
In the 1980s, Lawrence's economy got bigger. This is because the city created the East Hills Business Park in 1986. This is an industrial park. Some businesses moved to this place. Many of these businesses were from Kansas City, such as PROSOCO.
Historic places and museums[change | change source]
South Park is a big park in Downtown Lawrence. The park was made of four different parks, but they became just one big park. South Park was created in 1854. A gazebo was built in 1910. Bands play music at the park in the summer.
The Watkins Museum of History is one block north of South Park. It has exhibits about Lawrence and Douglas County. Next to the museum is a Japanese garden made by sister city Hiratsuka, Japan. The University of Kansas has the Natural History Museum in Dyche Hall, the Spencer Museum of Art and the Dole Institute of Politics among others.
The Bowersock Opera House burned in 1911, so people built a new one. It is called "Liberty Hall." Liberty Hall is a small theater which often shows Independent movies, but sometimes it shows live acts. Liberty Hall also has a video rental store. The Granada Theater was built in 1928 as a vaudeville theater. In 1934, it became a movie theater. It closed in 1989, but it was reopened in 1993. Today, it shows comedy acts and concerts.
The Eldridge Hotel is a historic hotel. It is one of the oldest buildings in Lawrence. It was built in 1854, but it was burned in 1855. It was built again, but it was burned in Quantrill's Raid. It was built again. In 1925, the hotel was changed to look better. In 1970, the hotel became apartments. In 1985, people worked to make it a hotel again. In 2004, the building was sold. It was changed to make it look like it was from 1925 again. It is a popular rumor that the ghost of Eldridge haunts the hotel. The Eldridge Hotel is on the National Register of Historic Places.
The University of Kansas (KU) has the Memorial Stadium and the Allen Fieldhouse. They built Memorial Stadium in 1920. They use it for football games. It is named to remember KU students who died in World War I. They built Allen Fieldhouse in 1955. It is used for basketball games. On November 4, 2010, ESPN's magazine said that Allen Fieldhouse was the loudest basketball stadium in the United States. Mark Whicker is a famous writer about sports, and he said Allen Fieldhouse "is the best place in America to watch college basketball."
Oak Hill Cemetery is a cemetery in Lawrence for famous people from Lawrence. It was built in 1866. Memorial Park Cemetery is across the street. It has a memorial for James Naismith, the creator of basketball.
Lawrence has many historic houses. The Robert Miller House did not burn in Quantrill's Raid, and it was part of the Underground Railroad. Ferdinand Fuller was one of the first people to move to Lawrence. He built his house in the Hillcrest Neighborhood. The John Roberts House is used for many formal events. John G. Haskell, a famous architect (someone who designs buildings), designed the John Roberts House. Lawrence has many historic houses, and some of them are on the National Register of Historic Places.
Arts and culture[change | change source]
Lawrence is known for a thriving music and art culture. Rolling Stone said Lawrence is one of the best small college towns in the United States on August 11, 2005. In 2005, The New York Times said Lawrence had one of the best music cultures in any city between Chicago and Denver. Esquire magazine said The Replay Lounge, a bar and music venue in Lawrence, was one of the best in the United States in 2007.
In December 2005, the city said it would have "International Dadaism Month" in 2006. This was about the early 20th century art movement. In the spirit of Dada, Mayor Dennis “Boog” Highberger did not choose a calendar month for it. Instead, he chose the dates for the "Month" as February 4, March 28, April 1, July 15, August 2, August 7, August 16, August 26, September 18, September 22, October 1, October 17, and October 26. He chose these dates by rolling dice and pulling numbers out of a hat.
The Wakarusa Music and Camping Festival was an annual four-day music festival which began in 2004. It was held at Clinton Lake. Thousands of people showed up at the festival every year. They had many different kinds of bands play, including The Flaming Lips, STS9, Wilco, Matisyahu, North Mississippi Allstars, and others. Because of an agreement with the state government, the event was smaller than other festivals. As well as listening to music, people could also play disc golf, yoga, hiking, and swimming. The festival moved to Mulberry Mountain, Arkansas due to a disagreement between the organizers and the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks about the limits on the number of people, and the rent.
Every year since 1959, on the third Thursday in July, Lawrence has the "Massachusetts Street sidewalk sale." It is a big sale on Massachusetts Street, and many stores take part. Often, radio stations and live music are played during this event.
Sports[change | change source]
The University of Kansas (KU) athletics teams are in Lawrence. They are called the Jayhawks. The most famous team is the men's basketball team. Many people watch the men's basketball team. Many fans came together on Massachusetts Street in 2002, 2003, 2008, and 2012. This was when the Jayhawks won or lost the last games in the NCAA tournament. The Jayhawks won the 1952, 1988, and 2008 NCAA tournaments. KU's football team had their best year in 2007–2008. They won 12 games, and they lost only one game. That year, they won the Orange Bowl. The city honored the mascot in 2003. The Lawrence Convention and Visitors Bureau created 30 statues of the Jayhawk. They placed them around town. They called this event "Jayhawks on Parade." The Jayhawks also have a soccer team, a baseball team, a softball team, track and field teams, a cross country team, and a men's club hockey team. KU also has a club rugby team. It is run by the KU Rugby Football Club. They often meet at North Johnny's Tavern. They also run high school rugby teams.
Government[change | change source]
Lawrence is run by a city commission and city manager. The commission is made of five people who are elected. Every year, three people can be elected. The two people who get the most votes are elected for four years. The person who gets 3rd place is elected for two years. Every April, the commission chooses a mayor and a vice mayor, and they hire a city manager.
Even though Kansas is a Republican state, Lawrence is very Democratic. Lawrence often chooses the Democrat for president. Lawrence has been Democratic since the late 1980s. Douglas County, where Lawrence is in, chose Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election. It was one of only two Kansas counties to choose Hillary Clinton. In the 2008 presidential election, Douglas County was one of three Kansas counties to choose Barack Obama. In the 2004 presidential election, Douglas County was one of two Kansas counties to choose John Kerry. Douglas County chose the Democratic candidate in the last seven presidential elections.
As of July 2019, Lawrence has four state representatives: Mike Amyx, Eileen Horn, Barbara Ballard, and Dennis "Boog" Highberger. All of them are Democrats. Lawrence has two state senators: Marci Francisco and Tom Holland. Republican Steve Watkins represents Lawrence in the House of Representatives. Pat Roberts and Jerry Moran represent Lawrence in the Senate. Both of them are Republicans. Before 2002, Lawrence was part of the 3rd district. This changed when Lawrence was split in both the 3rd and 2nd districts. Since 2012, all of Lawrence is in the 2nd district.
In 1995, Lawrence was the first city in Kansas that made discrimination against gay people illegal. On October 4, 2011, Lawrence made discrimination against transgender people illegal. Lawrence was the first city in Kansas to do this. In April 2005, there was a change to the Kansas Constitution which made same-sex marriage and civil unions for gay people illegal. Douglas County was the only county to vote against the change. Lawrence created a domestic partner registry on May 22, 2007. The registry gave unmarried couples —both same-sex and other-sex— some recognition by the city for legal reasons.
Education[change | change source]
Primary and secondary education[change | change source]
Lawrence has 14 elementary schools, four middle schools, and two high schools. The high schools are Lawrence High School and Lawrence Free State High School. The middle schools are Liberty Memorial Central Middle School, West Middle School, Billy Mills Middle School and Southwest Middle School. The elementary schools are Langston Hughes Elementary, Quail Run Elementary, Broken Arrow Elementary, Cordley Elementary, Hillcrest Elementary, Kennedy, Pinckney Elementary, Prairie Park Elementary, New York Elementary, Schwegler Elementary, Sunflower Elementary, Sunset Hill Elementary, Woodlawn Elementary, and Deerfield Elementary.
Colleges and Universities[change | change source]
The University of Kansas is in Lawrence. It is the biggest university in Kansas and has over 30,000 students. It has more than 170 fields of study. It is a part of the Big 12 Conference, a famous college sports organization. The Haskell Indian Nations University is also in Lawrence. It has more than 1,000 students. They give free tuition to all Native American students. It also has the American Indian Athletic Hall of Fame, and the Haskell Cultural Center.
In 2011, Parents & Colleges said Lawrence is one of the 10 best college towns in the United States. In 2010, MSN, MSNBC, and the American Institute for Economic Research said Lawrence was one of the best college towns in the United States.
Libraries[change | change source]
The first library in Lawrence was built in 1854. After it was burned in Quantrill's Raid, a new library was built in 1865. In 1902, Andrew Carnegie gave a lot of money to build a new library. Built it in 1904, and it was called the "Lawrence Public Library." A new library was built in 1972, and it was improved in July 2014.
In 2016, the library won an award because the building is beautiful.
Media[change | change source]
One of the first businesses started in Lawrence was a newspaper called the Herald of Freedom. It started in October 1854 and ended in 1859. In August 1885, the newspaper the Lawrence Daily Journal started. In June 1895, the newspaper the Lawrence Daily World started. In 1911, the Daily Journal and the Daily World joined together, and they became the Lawrence Journal-World. There is also a student newspaper published by the University of Kansas, the University Daily Kansan. Change of Heart is a street newspaper sold by homeless people in Lawrence.
From 1947 to 1981, the Centron Corporation was in Lawrence. The Centron Corporation was a big movie company which made many big industrial and educational movies. The company was started by two students from the University of Kansas. Some residents of Lawrence were able to get into the movie industry through Centron. One resident, Herk Harvey, worked at Centron for over 30 years as a director. He created a full-length theatrical movie, Carnival of Souls, a horror cult movie shot mostly in Lawrence. It was released in 1962.
Newspaper[change | change source]
Radio[change | change source]
These radio stations are in Lawrence, Kansas:
|90.7||KJHK||Student radio, Sports, News, Alternative|
|91.5||KANU||Kansas Public Radio (NPR)|
Television[change | change source]
These television stations are in Lawrence, Kansas:
|Digital Channel||Analog Channel||Callsign||Network||Notes|
|31||31||KUJH-LP||Student-run television for the University of Kansas|
|32||N/A||Midco Sports Network||Local sports network. It shows high school sports and college news meetings.|
Infrastructure[change | change source]
Transportation[change | change source]
Interstate 70, U.S. Route 40, U.S. Route 59, and U.S. Route 24 go through Lawrence. Interstate 70 goes east-west in the northern part of Lawrence and connects with U.S. Route 59. Route 59 goes north-south along North 2nd Street, Iowa Street, and 6th Street. U.S. Route 40 is about two miles south of Interstate 70. It also goes east-west through northern Lawrence along 6th Street. K-10 is a state highway that goes east-west. It enters Lawrence on 23rd Street, then it goes south. It goes to west Lawrence, and it stops northwest of Lawrence.
Two bus systems are in Lawrence. One is called the Lawrence Transit, and the city runs it. The other is called KU on Wheels, and the University of Kansas runs it. There are 18 bus routes. KU students and teachers can use them for free. Greyhound Lines has a bus stop in Lawrence. It can take people to other cities. Also, the Johnson County, Kansas bus system can take students to and from the colleges in Lawrence and Overland Park. This bus is known as the "K-10 Connector."
The Lawrence Municipal Airport is northeast of Lawrence. It is very close to U.S. Route 40. It is used for people who have airplanes. No airplane companies have planes there. Kansas City International Airport is the closest airport that airplane companies use. It is about 50 miles northeast of downtown Lawrence.
Two Class I railroads go through Lawrence. One railroad is owned by Union Pacific Railroad. The other is owned by BNSF Railway. The BNSF Railroad track starts in the eastern part of Lawrence, and it goes west. It follows the path of the Kansas River. The Union Pacific track also starts in eastern Lawrence and goes west. It also follows the path of the Kansas River. It is north of the Kansas River. The BNSF railroad track is south of the Kansas River. There is an Amtrak station in Lawrence, very close to downtown. Lawrence is a stop on Amtrak's "Southwest Chief" route from Chicago to Los Angeles.
Health and Utilities[change | change source]
The biggest electric company in Lawrence is Westar Electric. The biggest gas company is Black Hills Energy. Lawrence has television providers including Midco and DirecTV. Lawrence has Internet service providers including Midco, Wicked Broadband, CenturyLink, HughesNet, Allconnect, ViaSat Satellite, Exede, Wild Blue Internet, and others. Lawrence has telephone providers including Verizon, AT&T, Sprint, Midco, and others.
Sister cities[change | change source]
- Eutin, Germany – October 27, 1989
- Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan – September 21, 1990
- Oiniades, Greece – October 20, 2009
Notable people[change | change source]
Langston Hughes was poet, and he grew up in Lawrence while his grandmother took care of him. Alan Mulally, former CEO of Ford, grew up in Lawrence; he was a member of the Plymouth Congregational Church. George Docking, former Governor of Kansas, went to school in Lawrence and at the University of Kansas. Danny Manning, NBA player and college basketball coach, went to school in Lawrence and at the University of Kansas. Federal judge Sri Srinivasan also went to school in Lawrence.
Some very famous people studied at the University of Kansas, but are not from Lawrence. Wilt Chamberlain played for the Jayhawks basketball team before he joined the Harlem Globetrotters. James Naismith, the inventor of basketball, was the Jayhawks's first basketball coach. Many politicians studied at the University of Kansas. Bob Dole, former U.S. Senate Majority Leader and 1996 Republican Presidential nominee, studied at the University of Kansas. Many different governors studied there including Kathleen Sebelius, Sam Brownback, and Alf Landon. The Dole Institute is in Lawrence because of him. Jane Dee Hull, the first woman elected as Governor of Arizona, graduated from the University of Kansas. Juan Manuel Santos, former President of Colombia and 2016 Nobel Peace Prize winner, graduated from the University of Kansas. Brian McClendon, the creator of Google Earth, went to the University of Kansas. Clyde Tombaugh, the man who discovered Pluto, graduated from the University of Kansas. Ronald Evans, a NASA astronaut who went to the Moon, graduated from the University of Kansas. Vernon L. Smith, the winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, graduated from the University of Kansas.
In popular culture[change | change source]
Lawrence was the setting for many books by science fiction writer James Gunn. The book The Immortals (1964) took place in Lawrence. It was used for the ABC television movie and TV series The Immortal (1969–1971).
Sam Winchester and Dean Winchester, the main characters of the Supernatural TV series, are from Lawrence. Lawrence was referenced many times in the show. Lawrence was destroyed in the 2006 TV Series Jericho.
Josh Ritter, an American folk singer, has a song called Lawrence KS on the 2002 album Golden Age of Radio. Cross Canadian Ragweed's 2007 album Mission California has a song entitled "Lawrence." It was inspired by a homeless family the band saw while visiting the town around Christmas.
Lawrence is the normal starting place for the map program Google Earth (2005). Brian McClendon chose the place. McClendon graduated from the University of Kansas in 1986, and he was the director of engineering for Google Earth.[b]
Related pages[change | change source]
Notes[change | change source]
- "Pearson Government Solutions" came from Pearson PLC. They became "Vangent." Vangent was purchased by General Dynamics in 2011.
- Older versions of Google Earth have Lawrence as the normal starting place. Newer versions of the program start on Lawrence for the first time, but it starts on the user's own place when it is loaded again.
References[change | change source]
- "Behind LFK: The acronym created by local printmaker and KU alumna". kansan.com. University Daily Kansan. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- E.g. "Larryville Life". LJWorld.com. Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- "Lawrence, Kansas". City-Data.com. Onboard Informatics. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- "Lawrence: From Ashes to Immortality". Legends of America. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- "GNIS Detail – Lawrence". geonames.usgs.gov.
- "Incorporated Cities Alphabetical with Dates" (PDF). Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|deadurl=(help) List of Cities in Kansas and their incorporation dates. Lawrence is in the 2nd column on the 4th page.
- "City Commission announces hiring of new City Manager". City of Lawrence, Kansas.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "City and Town Population Totals: 2010–2017". Retrieved March 8, 2019.
- "2010 City Population and Housing Occupancy Status". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
- "About Us | City of Lawrence, KS". Ci.Lawrence.KS.us. November 21, 1996. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 308–09.
- "History". The Shawnee Tribe. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Childers (2011), pp. 48–70.
- Gilman (1914), pp. 5–10.
- Cordley (1895), p. 1.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 1–2.
- Weiss, Kathy (June 2015). "Free-Staters of Kansas". Legends of America. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 4–5.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 312–14.
- Federal Highway Administration (2002), p. A64.
- Andreas (1883), p. 308.
- Andreas (1883), p. 312.
- Connelly (1918), p. 360.
- Armitage and Lee (1992), p. 5.
- Harvey, Douglas. "Fuller's Brushes With Fame". KU Connection. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012.
- First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the years 1877-8, second edition. Vol. 6. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. December 31, 1878. Kansas State Board of Agriculture (1878), pp. 187-191.
- Connelly (1918), p. 361.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 6–7.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 314–16.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 316–17.
- Gilmore (2005), p. 47.
- Bisel (2012), p. 32.
- "Lawrence Kansas – From Ashes to Immortality". legendsofamerica.com. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- "Kansas Post Offices, 1828–1961 (archived)". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
- Cordley (1895), p. 20.
- "Samuel J. Jones (Sheriff), ca.1820-ca.1880". Territorial Kansas. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Bordewich, Fergus (October 2009). "John Brown's Day of Reckoning". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Litteer (1987), pp. 4–7.
- Connelley (2018) , p. 44.
- Mullis, Tony (April 22, 2013). "Wakarusa War". Civil War on the Western Border: The Missouri-Kansas Conflict, 1854–1865. Retrieved Sep 5, 2015.
- "Wakarusa War – KS-Cyclopedia – 1912". Skyways.Lib.KS.us. Archived from the original on May 12, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Bisel (2012), pp. 55–56.
- Litteer (1987), pp. 13–14.
- Fitzgerald (1988), pp. 74–75.
- Connelley (2018) , p. 53.
- Ball (2001), p. 174.
- Griffin (1968), pp. 409–26.
- Ball (2001), p. 175.
- Monaghan (1984), pp. 55–58.
- Whitfield (2014), p. 14.
- "Charles Robinson Arrested in Lexington, Missouri". Civil War on the Western Border. Kansas City Public Library. 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- "The Sack of Lawrence, Kansas, 1856". EyeWitnessToHistory.com. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Drake, Ross (May 1, 2004). "The Law That Ripped America In Two". Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-law-that-ripped-america-in-two-99723670/. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
- "First Biennial Report, 1878, Douglas County, Kansas". KSGenWeb. Retrieved May 23, 2019. Kansas State Board of Agriculture 1878 Biennial Report.
- Chisholm (1911).
- "Introduction" (PDF). City of Lawrence. December 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "Governor Walker Declares Lawrence in Rebellion". Civil War on the Western Border. Kansas City Public Library. April 22, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- United States Congress (1922), p. 71.
- "Free-Staters Win Election". Civil War on the Western Border. Kansas City Public Library. April 22, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Adams (1896), p. 276.
- "Samuel J. Jones (Sheriff), ca.1820-ca.1880". Territorial Kansas Online. n.d. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- Kansas Territory Legislature (1858), pp. 218–19.
- Andreas (1883), p. 310.
- Andreas (1883), p. 326.
- "Kansas Constitutions". KSHS.org. Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- "Wyandotte Constitution". Kansapedia. Kansas State Historical Society. April 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Drago (1998), pp. 4–5.
- "William Quantrill and the Lawrence Massacre". xroads.virginia.edu. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Sellen, Al. "A Brief Outline of Plymouth's History". Plymouth Congregational Church. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Cordley (1895), pp. 251–56.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 253–54, 256.
- Cordley (1895), p. 254.
- Pollard, Jr, William C. (1992). "Kansas Forts During the Civil War". Kansas History. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Bisel and Martin (2013).
- Andreas (1883), pp. 324–25.
- Olson, Kevin (2012). Frontier Manhattan. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1832-3.
- Kansas Historical Society (January 2010). "Railroads in Kansas". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019. Kansas Historical Society's timeline of railroads in Kansas.
- Harold J. Henderson (August 1947). "The Building of the First Kansas Railroad". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019. The Kansas Historical Quarterly, August 1947 (Vol. 15, No. 3), pages 225-239.
- "Our History". Bowersockpower.com. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- John M. Peterson (Fall 1980). "The Lawrence Windmill" (PDF). Kansas History, Vol. 3, No. 3, pg. 147 – Autumn 1980. Kansas Historical Society. John Peterson's 1980 article about the windmill and its history.
- "Old windmill in Lawrence, Kansas". Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Some info about the windmill.
- "HINU | About Haskell". Haskell.edu. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "The Watkins Building | Douglas County Kansas". WatkinsMuseum.org. April 14, 2011. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Flood of 1903 – Kansapedia – Kansas Historical Society". KSHS.org. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Dary, David. Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas: An Informal History. Lawrence: Allen Press, 1981.
- Juracek, Kyle E.; Perry, Charles A.; Putnam, James E. "USGS – The 1951 Floods in Kansas Revisited". KS.Water.USGS.gov. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "The Local Flood Hazard | City of Lawrence, KS – Planning & Development Services". LawrenceKS.org. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "South Park | City of Lawrence, Kansas – Parks and Recreation". LawrenceKS.org. August 31, 1910. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Kansas Historical Quarterly – Theodore Roosevelt's Osawatomie Speech – Kansas Historical Society". KSHS.org. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "History of Lawrence, Kansas". History.Lawrence.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "WILL PUT UP FERRIS WHEEL". Lawrence Journal-World. July 9, 1909. Retrieved May 24, 2019. pg.1, top-right column.
- Phil Cauthon (March 28, 2010). "The Daisy Dozer's Day". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, KS. Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
|newspaper=(help) Lawrence Journal-World, mentioning the coaster.
- "Lawrence Memorial Hospital – History". LMH.org. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Hospital Quality Awards". Lawrence Memorial Hospital. Archived from the original on March 12, 2013. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Lawrence Journal-World – Google News Archive Search". Google News. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- List of Prisoner Of War (POW) Camps in Kansas, Genealogy Tracer
- Niccum, Jon (November 19, 2003). "Fallout from 'The Day After'". Lawrence, KS: Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved June 27, 2012. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "The Story of The Free State Brewing Co. | Free State Brewing Company". FreeStateBrewing.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Best Places to Retire: Lawrence, KS".
- "Lawrence again named a top 10 college town – KU News". www.news.ku.edu. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.
- Blackmar, Frank W., ed. (1912). "Mount Oread". Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc. 2. Chicago: Standard. p. 330.
- "TopoQuest Map Viewer". TopoQuest. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Geography". Geohydrology of Douglas County. Kansas Geological Survey. Dec 1960. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "2003–2004 Official Transportation Map" (PDF). Kansas Department of Transportation. 2003. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "City of Lawrence" (PDF). Kansas Department of Transportation. January 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Parks & Trails". City of Lawrence. Archived from the original on November 21, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2019. LawrenceKS – Parks & Trails.
- "Parks & Trails · City of Lawrence, Kansas". Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Terry Rombeck (May 26, 2003). "Pioneer Cemetery preserves history, prepares for future". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, KS. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (March 1, 2007). "Updated Köppen-Geiger climate classification map". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (4): 439–473. http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/4/439/2007/hessd-4-439-2007.pdf. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "Average weather for Lawrence, KS". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
- "Station Name: KS LAWRENCE". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
- Brackman (1997), p. 22.
- "The Kansas herald of freedom. (Wakarusa, Kan. Territory) 1854–1860, January 27, 1855, Image 2". Library of Congress. Page 2, Section "Chart of Lawrence" (4th column, in the center).
- E. U. Bond (Mayor); R. D. Brooks (City Clerk) (November 9, 2006). "Ordinance No 973 (manuscript)" (PDF). Retrieved November 15, 2014.
- Hall, Brian (April 23, 2015). "What's In a (Street) Name?". Tauy Creek. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- Jim L. Lewis (Autumn 1969). "Beautiful Bismarck". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019. Kansas Historical Society's entry for Bismarck Grove. Autumn 1969 (Vol. 35, No. 3), pages 225 to 256.
- Lewis (1969).
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Rochelle Valverde (February 7, 2018). "Lawrence's population breaks 100,000, according to city estimates". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, KS. Retrieved July 8, 2019. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "American FactFinder". American Community Survey. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
- "When Off-Campus College Students are Excluded, Poverty Rates Fall in Many College Towns – Poverty – Newsroom – U.S. Census Bureau". Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "A study in poverty, or how college towns skew Census data – Policy Blog NH". policyblognh.org. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Kansas Top Employers – KS Major Employers". MBA-Today.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Lawhorn, Chad (July 21, 2002). "Prosoco Sweeps into "Alliance"". Lawrence Journal World. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- "South Park". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "About". Watkins Museum of History. Archived from the original on July 3, 2019. Retrieved July 3, 2019. The About page for the official website.
- "Watkins Museum of History announces Civil War on the Western Frontier 2014 programs". Freedom's Frontier. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2019. Mentions the Japanese garden next to the museum.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- "Spencer Museum of Art, Kansas University". Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015.
- Dave Toplikar (July 22, 2003). "Dole dedication draws thousands". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, Kansas: Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|deadurl=(help) Lawrence Journal-World's article on the opening ceremony. Mentions things such as opening date, budget, location, etc.
- "Centennial Park". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "100 Years Ago: New Bowersock Opera House Opens to Cheering Public". LJWorld.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Bowersock Opera House – From the Ground Up". Luna.KU.edu. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "History". EldridgeHotel.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Ghost". EldridgeHotel.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Barker, Matt (December 10, 2011). "Roundball Preview: No. 2 Ohio State vs. No. 13 Kansas". BuckeyeBanter.com. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "KU Facilities :: Allen Fieldhouse". KUAthletics.com. CBS Interactive. 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "Oak Hill Cemetery". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "Memorial Park Cemetery". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "National Register of Historic Places—Nomination Form". Image1.NPS.gov. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "This Old House Full of Lawrence History". LJWorld.com. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form". Image1.NPS.gov. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "History of The Castle – The Castle Tea Room". CastleTeaRoom.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Schools that rock" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "36 hours in Lawrence, Kan". The New York Times. February 25, 2005. Retrieved April 6, 2011. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Esquire's Best Bars in America". Esquire. 2007-05-21. Retrieved August 11, 2011. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Looking Back at 10 Memorable Lied Center Performances". Lawrence, KS: The University Daily Kansan. Archived from the original on September 12, 2018. Retrieved July 3, 2019. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
|publisher=(help) Article from the UDK about Beach Boys at the Lied Center.
- Dennis “Boog” Highberger (December 27, 2005). "Office of the Mayor". Lawrence, KS: City of Lawrence. Retrieved July 7, 2019. The official proclamation from the mayor.
- Werthheimer, Linda (December 31, 2005). "'International Dadaism Month' in Lawrence, Kansas". NPR.
- "International Dadaism Month Begins Today". Huffington Post. February 4, 2011.
- Lawhorn, Chad (August 10, 2008). "Wakarusa Fest may not play on". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved October 19, 2008. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Chad Lawhorn (December 10, 2008). "Wakarusa Music and Camping Festival leaving Lawrence for Arkansas". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved July 7, 2019. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Wakarusa Officials Reflect On Event". Lawrence Journal-World. June 24, 2005. Retrieved April 8, 2007. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Valverde, Rochelle (July 19, 2017). "58th Annual Downtown Lawrence Sidewalk Sale to take place Thursday". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, Kansas: Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved June 12, 2019. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Fans celebrate championship in downtown Lawrence". Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- "KU fans celebrate Final Four win". Lawrence Journal-World. April 1, 2012. Archived from the original on April 3, 2012.
- Gergen, Joe. "Jayhawks give Allen his title – 1952". Sporting News. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081004190428/http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/ncaa/1952.html. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- "Ncaa Men's Basketball Championship: Kansas 83, Oklahoma 79: Notes; Title Brings Out a Big Celebration in Lawrence". Los Angeles Times. April 5, 1988. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Thamel, Pete (April 9, 2008). "Chalmers and Kansas Are Swinging on a Star". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "Mangino Receives Coach of the Year Honor". The Topeka Capital-Journal. December 7, 2007. Archived from the original on 2017-08-16. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
- "Kansas beats Virginia Tech in Orange Bowl". The New York Times. January 4, 2008. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- Adam Strunk (August 19, 2012). "What are those birds everywhere? Jayhawks on Parade". Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Chad Lawhorn (October 11, 2014). "Keeping it between the lines with rugby". Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on February 16, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- "City Commission". Archived from the original on May 11, 2019. Retrieved July 3, 2019. Page explaining the basic process.
- For election results, see– Leip, David (ed.). "1992 Presidential General Election Data Graphs". US Election Atlas. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Leip, David (ed.). "1996 Presidential General Election Data Graphs". US Election Atlas. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Leip, David (ed.). "2000 Presidential General Election Data Graphs". US Election Atlas. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Leip, David (ed.). "2004 Presidential General Election Data Graphs". US Election Atlas. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "2008 General Election Results" (PDF). Douglas County, KS. 2008. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "2012 General Election Results" (PDF). Douglas County, KS. 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "2016 General Election Results" (PDF). Douglas County, KS. 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "Representative Mike Amyx". Kansas Legislature. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Representative Eileen Horn". Kansas Legislature. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Representative Barbara Ballard". Kansas Legislature. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Representative Dennis "Boog" Highberger". Kansas Legislature. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Senator Marci Francisco". Kansas Legislature. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Senator Tom Holland". Kansas Legislature. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- Rothschild, Scott (June 8, 2012). "Voters Will See Big Changes from new Redistricting Plan". www2.ljworld.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Ordinance No. 8672". City of Lawrence. October 4, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Lawrence City Ordinance No. 8672, on anti-discrimination.
- For election results, see section "2005 Election Information" and choose "2005 Constitutional Amendment Results by County (Excel)." on- "Election Statistics". Kansas Secretary of State. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
- To immediately download the results, see-http://www.kssos.org/elections/05elec/2005_Constitutional_Amendment_results_by_county.xls
- Lawhorn, Chad (August 1, 2007). "Domestic Partnership Registry Opens Today". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Schools & Services Directory". Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved July 3, 2019. List of schools in USD 497.
- "KU News – KU enrollment breaks 30,000; sets records in minority enrollment, ACT scores". news.ku.edu. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "About Haskell". Haskell.edu. Archived from the original on 2012-05-18. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- "Library History". Lawrence Public Library. Archived from the original on September 29, 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- "New Lawrence Library's Grand Opening Dazzles Eager Readers". LJWorld.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "2016 AIA/ALA Library Building Award winners announced". ALAnews. American Library Association. May 20, 2016. Archived from the original on September 29, 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
- "About the Kansas Herald of Freedom". Library of Congress. Brief overview of Kansas Herald of Freedom
- "About Lawrence daily journal. (Lawrence, Kan.) 1885–1911". Library of Congress. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "About Lawrence daily world. (Lawrence, Kan.) 1895–1911". Library of Congress. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- (13 December 1991). A 100-Year Newspaper Tradition, Lawrence Journal-World
- (20 Feb 1911). "Journal-World, The Combination"
- "About Us – The University Daily Kansan: Site". Kansan.com. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
- Giles Bruce (May 2, 2014). "In Lawrence, paper aims to change view of homeless". The Wichita Eagle. Wichita, KS. Archived from the original on 2014-05-03. Retrieved 2014-05-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Kansas TV Markets". EchoStar Knowledge Base. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "Centron Films Camera". Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "What is in Oldfather Studios?". University of Kansas. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019. University of Kansas – Oldfather Studios.
- "Papers of Herk Harvey". University of Kansas. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "The Reincarnation of 'Carnival of Souls'". The Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California: Tronc. April 19, 1990. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|deadurl=(help) The LA Times.
- "AMQ AM Radio Database Query". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on August 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
- "Station Information Profile". Arbitron. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
- "FMQ FM Radio Database Query". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on August 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
- "TVQ TV Database Query". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on May 8, 2009. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- "About Us". Lawrence Transit. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Route Map" (PDF). Lawrence Transit. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Fares & Bus Passes". KU on Wheels. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Locations : States : Kansas". Greyhound Lines. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "The Jo Routes". Johnson County Transportation. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- "KLWC – Lawrence Municipal Airport". AirNav.com. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Travel". Lawrence Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Kansas Operating Division" (PDF). BNSF Railway. April 1, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Lawrence, KS (LRC)". Amtrak. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Southwest Chief". Amtrak. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "About US". Lawrence Memorial Hospital. Retrieved May 23, 2019. Lawrence Memorial Hospital – About Us.
- "Other Utilities". City of Lawrence. Retrieved May 23, 2019. City of Lawrence Utilities.
- "Verizon Wireless at Lawrence KS". Verizon Wireless. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Verizon in Lawrence, Kansas.
- "LTE Advanced" (PDF). Sprint. Retrieved May 24, 2019. List of Cities that Sprint is in. Page 2, under Kansas.
- "Sister Cities Lawrence". City of Lawrence. Archived from the original on July 1, 2019. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Niccum, Jon (November 19, 2003). "Fallout from 'The Day After'". Lawrence.com. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- Kripke, Eric (October 12, 2006). "Supernatural: Your Burning Questions Answered!". TV Guide. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
- "N. Lawrence looking to benefit from publicity for CBS drama / LJWorld.com". www2.ljworld.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Jon Niccum (December 7, 2007). "Mass. St. muse". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, KS: LJ-World. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- "Lawrence is the center of the world for more than Jayhawk fans | Kansan.com". Kansan.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
Bibliography[change | change source]
- Adams, F. G., ed. (1896). Transactions of the Kansas State Historical Society. 5. Kansas State Historical Society.
- Andreas, Alfred Theodore (1883). "Douglas County". History of the State of Kansas. Chicago, IL: A. T. Andreas. pp. 308–63.
- Armitage, Katie; Lee, John (1992). 19th Century Houses in Lawrence, Kansas. Lawrence, KS: Spencer Museum of Art.
- Ball, Durwood (2001). Army Regulars on the Western Frontier, 1848–1861. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
- Bisel, Debra Goodrich (2012). The Civil War in Kansas: Ten Years of Turmoil. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-563-3.
- Bisel, Debra Goodrich; Martin, Michelle M. (2013). "Camp Ewing: 1864–1865". Kansas Forts & Bases: Sentinels on the Prairie. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-61423-868-3.
- Brackman, Barbara (1997). Kansas Trivia. Thomas Nelson Inc. ISBN 978-1-4185-5381-4.
- Childers, Christopher (March 2011). "Interpreting Popular Sovereignty: A Historiographical Essay". Civil War History 57 (1): 48–70. doi:10.1353/cwh.2011.0009. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/civil_war_history/v057/57.1.childers.html.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lawrence (Kansas)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Retrieved June 2, 2018 – via Wikisource.
- Connelley, William (1918). A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. 1. Chicago, IL: Lewis Publishing Company.
- Connelley, William (2018) . John Brown in Kansas. Topeka, KS: Crane and Company. ISBN 978-1-387-36513-5.
- Cordley, Richard (1895). A History of Lawrence: From the Earliest Settlement to the Close of The Rebellion. Lawrence, KS: E. F. Caldwell.
- Drago, Harry Sinclair (1998). Outlaws on Horseback: The History of the Organized Bands of Bank and Train Robbers who Terrorized the Prairie Towns of Missouri, Kansas, Indian Territory, and Oklahoma for Half a Century. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-6612-4.
- Federal Highway Administration (2002). U.S. Highway 59 from Lawrence to Ottawa in Douglas and Franklin Counties, KDOT Project No.59-106 K-6318-01. 2.
- Fitzgerald, Daniel (1988). "Franklin". Ghost Towns of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. pp. 73–77.
- Freedom's Frontier (n.d.). "Study Area History and Contributions" (PDF). Feasibility Study. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- Gilman, A. F. (1914). The Origin of the Republican Party. Ripon, Wisconsin: Ripon College. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Gilmore, Donald (2005). Civil War on the Missouri-Kansas Border. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4556-0230-8.
- Griffin, C. S. (1968). "The University of Kansas and the Sack of Lawrence: A Problem of Intellectual Honesty". Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains 34 (4): 409–26. https://www.kshs.org/p/the-university-of-kansas-and-the-sack-of-lawrence/13191.
- Kansas State Board of Agriculture (1878). 2 (ed.). First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the years 1877-8. Vol. 6. Topeka, Kansas: State of Kansas.
- Kansas Territory Legislature (January 16, 1858). "The Statutes of the Territory of Kansas". Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Lewis, Jim (1969). "Beautiful Bismarck: Bismarck Grove, Lawrence, 1878–1900". Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains 35 (3). http://www.kshs.org/p/kansas-historical-quarterly-beautiful-bismarck/13197. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Lincoln, Abraham (1989). Speeches and Writings 1832–1858: Speeches, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings: the Lincoln-Douglas Debates. New York City, NY: Library of America. ISBN 978-0-940450-43-1.
- Litteer, Leron (1987). 'Bleeding Kansas': The Border War in Douglas and Adjacent Counties. Baldwin City, KS: Champion Publishing.
- Monaghan, Jay (1984). Civil War on the Western Border, 1854–1865. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
- Nelson, Lynn (1995), North Lawrence, Kansas: A Brief History, retrieved August 5, 2018 – via Kansas Collection.
- Parker, Martha; Laird, Betty (1976). "Lone Star". Soil of Our Souls. Parker-Laird Enterprises. pp. 146–62.
- United States Congress (1922). United States Congressional serial set, Issue 7985. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Whitfield, Steve (2014). Kansas Paper Money: An Illustrated History, 1854–1935. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-5426-6.
More reading[change | change source]
- History of Lawrence, Kansas: from the First Settlement to the close of the Rebellion; Richard Cordley; E.F. Caldwell; 360 pages; 1895. (Download 20 MB PDF eBook)
- Texts on Wikisource:
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lawrence, Kansas.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide about: Lawrence, Kansas|