COVID-19 pandemic

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COVID‑19 pandemic
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map per Capita.svg
Confirmed cases per 100,000 population
as of 26 September 2020
  •   >3,000
  •   1,000–3,000
  •   300–1,000
  •   100–300
  •   30–100
  •   0–30
  •   None or no data
Cases per country
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map.svg
Total confirmed cases per country
as of 26 September 2020
  •   1,000,000+
  •   100,000–999,999
  •   10,000–99,999
  •   1,000–9,999
  •   100–999
  •   1–99
  •   None or no data
Deaths per capita
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map Total Deaths per Capita.svg
Confirmed deaths per million population
as of 17 August 2020
  •   100+
  •   10–100
  •   1–10
  •   0.1–1
  •   0–0.1
  •   None or no data
A nurse caring for a patient with COVID‑19 in an intensive care unit
Meeting of the Italian government task force to face the coronavirus outbreak, 23 February 2020
Taiwanese 33rd Chemical Corps spraying disinfectant on a street in Taipei, Taiwan
Burial in Hamadan, Iran
Workers unloading boxes of medical supplies at Villamor Air Base
Clockwise, starting from top:
  • A nurse caring for a COVID‑19 patient in an intensive care unit aboard a U.S. hospital ship
  • Disinfection vehicles in Taiwan
  • Donated medical supplies being received in the Philippines
  • Burial in Iran
  • The Italian government's outbreak task force
DiseaseCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19)
Virus strainSevere acute respiratory syndrome
coronavirus 2
(SARS‑CoV‑2)[a]
SourceProbably bats, possibly via pangolins[2][3]
LocationWorldwide
First outbreakChina[4]
Index caseWuhan, Hubei, China
30°37′11″N 114°15′28″E / 30.61972°N 114.25778°E / 30.61972; 114.25778
Date1 December 2019 (2019-12-01)[4]–present
(9 months, 3 weeks and 4 days)
Confirmed cases32,068,225 [5]
Active cases9,029,279 [5] (30.2% of total cases)
Recovered22,059,084 [5]
Deaths
979,862 [5]
Territories
188 [5]

The COVID-19 pandemic, also called the coronavirus pandemic, is a current worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).[1][6][b] The outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) called it a pandemic on 11 March 2020.[7][8][9][10][11] The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses gave the virus its name. As of 14 September 2020, more than 29 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories. As of 13 September 2020, more than 900,000 people have died of COVID-19,[12] and nine million people have become better.[12][13][14]

The virus usually moves from one person to another with small drops made when coughing[15][16] or sneezing.[17] It mostly spreads when people are close to each other. It can also spread when people touch a surface with the virus, and then they touch their face.[16][17] Common symptoms include fever, cough, and trouble breathing.[18] The illness can worsen with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome.[19] As of June 2020, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral medicine for COVID-19.[20] Doctors usually give patients supportive therapy instead.[21] People can avoid spreading the virus by regularly washing their hands, covering their mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people, watching the symptoms, staying away from crowds, and being alone for people who think they are infected.[20]

The outbreak might be from a coronavirus that usually lives in bats. This infected another animal, possibly a pangolin. It then changed inside that other animal until it could infect humans.[22]

Video summary (script) on the coronavirus disease (4:12 min)

Epidemiology[change | change source]

Location[c] Cases[d] Deaths[e] Recov.[f] Ref.
World[g]

32,068,225

979,862

22,059,084


[5]

United States[h] 7,046,797 205,614 3,800,745 [30]
India 5,903,932 93,379 4,849,584 [31]
Brazil[i] 4,634,468 139,294 3,992,886 [34][35]
Russia[j] 1,128,836 19,948 928,829 [36]
Colombia 784,268 24,746 662,277 [37]
Peru[k] 782,695 31,870 636,489 [39][40]
Mexico 710,049 74,949 510,237 [41]
Spain[l] 704,209 31,118 No data [42]
South Africa 667,049 16,283 596,916 [43][44]
Argentina[m] 664,786 14,376 525,473 [46][47]
France[n] 497,237 31,511 93,538 [48][49]
Chile[o] 451,634 12,469 426,876 [53]
Iran 436,319 25,015 367,829 [54][55]
United Kingdom[p] 416,363 41,902 No data [57]
Bangladesh 355,384 5,072 265,092 [58][59]
Iraq 337,106 8,799 268,761 [60]
Saudi Arabia 331,857 4,599 314,793 [61]
Turkey 309,790 7,785 271,964 [62]
Pakistan 308,217 6,437 294,392 [63]
Italy 304,323 35,781 221,762 [64]
Philippines 296,755 5,127 231,928 [65][66]
Germany[q] 279,205 9,508 245,351 [68][67]
Indonesia 271,339 10,308 199,403 [69]
Israel[r] 209,635 1,376 148,417 [70]
Ukraine[s] 188,106 3,757 83,458 [71][72]
Canada[t] 148,783 9,246 128,079 [75]
Bolivia 131,990 7,731 91,556 [76]
Ecuador 129,892 11,171 102,852 [77][78]
Qatar 124,425 212 121,263 [79]
Romania 118,054 4,591 94,877 [80][81]
Dominican Republic 110,122 2,076 84,018 [82]
Morocco[u] 110,099 1,956 90,186 [83]
Panama 107,990 2,291 84,437 [84]
Kazakhstan 107,450 1,699 102,219 [85][86]
Belgium[v] 106,887 9,959 19,836 [88][89]
Egypt[w] 102,375 5,822 91,843 [90]
Kuwait 101,851 592 92,961 [91]
Netherlands[x] 100,597 6,296 No data [93][94]
Oman 95,907 885 86,765 [95]
Sweden 90,289 5,878 No data [96]
United Arab Emirates 88,532 407 77,937 [97]
Guatemala 87,993 3,170 77,125 [98]
China[y] 85,314 4,634 80,513 [99]
Poland 82,809 2,369 66,158 [100][101]
Japan[z] 80,041 1,520 72,538 [102]
Belarus 76,651 802 73,733 [103]
Honduras 72,675 2,222 24,022 [104][105]
Portugal 71,156 1,931 46,676 [106][107]
Ethiopia 71,083 1,141 29,253 [108]
Venezuela 69,439 574 56,759 [109]
Nepal 69,301 453 50,411 [110]
Costa Rica 68,059 781 26,136 [111]
Bahrain 67,014 231 60,117 [112]
Nigeria 57,724 1,102 48,985 [113]
Singapore 57,606 27 57,241 [114][115]
Czech Republic 56,747 567 27,247 [116]
Uzbekistan 53,834 446 50,230 [117]
Switzerland[aa] 50,842 2,060 42,300 [118][119]
Algeria 50,400 1,698 35,428 [120][121]
Moldova[ab] 48,943 1,252 36,643 [122]
Armenia 47,877 942 43,026 [123]
Ghana 46,062 297 45,258 [124]
Kyrgyzstan 45,471 1,063 41,682 [125]
Austria 40,816 783 31,661 [126]
Azerbaijan[ac] 39,686 581 37,255 [127]
Afghanistan 39,170 1,451 32,619 [128]
Kenya 37,489 669 24,334 [129]
Palestine 36,151 265 24,428 [130]
Paraguay 35,571 727 19,867 [131]
Ireland 33,994 1,797 24,000 [132]
Serbia[ad] 33,163 745 No data [133]
Lebanon 32,819 329 14,112 [134]
Libya 30,097 469 16,430 [135][136]
El Salvador 28,201 823 22,326 [137]
Australia[ae] 26,983 861 24,324 [138]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 26,316 802 19,142 [139]
South Korea 23,341 393 20,832 [140][141]
Denmark[af] 23,323 640 17,738 [142][143]
Hungary 21,200 709 4,818 [144]
Cameroon 20,431 416 19,124 [145][146]
Puerto Rico 20,311 609 1,359 [147][148]
Ivory Coast 19,327 120 18,630 [149]
Bulgaria 19,014 765 13,727 [150][151]
North Macedonia 17,200 712 14,312 [152][153]
Greece 16,627 366 8,648 [154]
Madagascar 16,073 225 14,682 [155]
Croatia 15,572 261 14,111 [156]
Kosovo 15,063 613 12,570 [157][158]
Senegal 14,738 302 11,456 [159]
Zambia 14,175 331 13,629 [160][161]
Sudan 13,555 836 6,760 [162][163]
Tunisia 13,305 180 2,988 [164]
Norway[ag] 13,005 267 9,348 [167]
Albania 12,921 370 7,239 [168][169]
Namibia 10,740 119 8,482 [170]
Malaysia 10,576 133 9,666 [171]
DR Congo[ah] 10,519 271 9,952 [172]
Guinea 10,344 65 9,757 [173][174]
Maldives 9,770 34 8,390 [175]
Tajikistan 9,388 73 7,152 [176]
Finland[ai] 9,046 341 7,700 [179]
Montenegro 8,842 138 5,425 [180]
Gabon 8,704 54 7,875 [181]
Haiti 8,624 221 6,482 [182]
Myanmar 8,344 150 2,381 [183]
Luxembourg 7,916 124 6,839 [184]
Zimbabwe 7,683 225 5,924 [185]
Mauritania 7,384 161 6,977 [186]
Mozambique 6,912 44 3,738 [187]
Slovakia 6,756 39 3,571 [188]
Uganda 6,468 63 2,731 [189][190]
Jordan 6,042 35 3,812 [191]
Malawi 5,733 179 4,042 [192]
Djibouti 5,404 61 5,336 [193]
Eswatini 5,282 104 4,647 [194]
Cape Verde 5,181 52 4,674 [195]
Jamaica 5,143 70 1,407 [196][197]
Cuba[aj] 5,141 116 4,462 [198]
Hong Kong 5,057 104 4,758 [199]
Equatorial Guinea 5,002 83 4,509 [200]
Congo[ak] 4,972 78 3,742 [201][202]
Nicaragua 4,961 147 2,913 [100][203]
Central African Republic 4,786 62 1,830 [204]
Suriname 4,779 101 4,560 [205]
Rwanda 4,722 27 2,973 [206][207]
Slovenia 4,470 142 No data [208][209]
Angola 4,117 154 1,449 [210]
Lithuania 4,070 89 2,253 [211][212]
Trinidad and Tobago 3,945 65 1,802 [213][214]
Syria[al] 3,833 175 963 [215]
Aruba 3,756 25 2,664 [216]
Georgia[am] 3,695 20 1,534 [217]
The Gambia 3,540 110 2,002 [218]
Thailand 3,516 59 3,353 [219][220]
Somalia[an] 3,465 98 2,877 [221]
Bahamas[ao] 3,418 75 1,771 [222][223]
Sri Lanka 3,324 13 3,129 [224]
Estonia 3,033 64 2,388 [225][226]
Mali 3,013 128 2,2372 [227]
Donetsk PR[ap] 3,017 174 1,624 [228]
Malta 2,776 23 2,079 [229]
South Sudan 2,592 49 1,290 [230][231]
Guyana 2,535 69 1,464 [232]
Benin 2,280 40 1,950 [233]
Guinea-Bissau 2,275 39 1,127 [234][235]
Iceland 2,307 10 2,116 [236]
Sierra Leone 2,188 72 1,665 [237][238]
Yemen 2,026 585 1,221 [239]
Guam[aq] 2,013 29 1,406 [30][240]
Uruguay[ar] 1,959 47 1,679 [241]
Andorra 1,681 53 1,199 [242]
Togo 1,640 41 1,251 [243]
Latvia 1,594 36 1,248 [100][244]
Belize 1,536 19 696 [245]
Cyprus[as] 1,526 22 1,237 [246]
New Zealand 1,471 25 1,381 [247]
Burkina Faso 1,452 55 1,103 [248][249]
Botswana[at] 1,153 11 575 [250][251]
Liberia 1,327 82 1,214 [252]
Lesotho 1,245 33 661 [253]
U.S. Virgin Islands 1,232 19 1,170 [254]
French Polynesia 1,209 2 966 [255]
Niger 1,180 69 1,104 [256]
USS Theodore Roosevelt[aq] 1,102 1 751 [257][258]
Chad 1,087 81 944 [259]
Charles de Gaulle[au] 1,081 0 0 [260]
Vietnam 1,068 35 941 [264]
São Tomé and Príncipe 908 15 873 [265]
Somaliland[av] 903 31 751 [266][267]
Luhansk PR[ap] 741 17 635 [268]
San Marino 723 42 663 [269]
Diamond Princess[z] 712 14 653 [270][271]
Northern Cyprus[aw] 694 4 399 [272]
Turks and Caicos Islands 676 5 589 [273]
Abkhazia[ax] 674 7 186 [274][275]
Sint Maarten 616 21 517 [276]
Papua New Guinea 516 6 232 [277]
Taiwan[ay] 509 7 480 [279]
Comoros 467 7 450 [280][281]
Burundi 466 1 374 [282]
Faroe Islands 430 0 412 [283][284]
Jersey 393 32 358 [285]
Eritrea 364 0 305 [286]
Mauritius 356 10 335 [287]
Gibraltar 350 0 322 [288]
Artsakh[az] 340 2 300 [274][289]
Isle of Man[ba] 339 24 312 [290]
Curaçao 315 1 115 [291]
Mongolia 311 0 301 [292]
Cambodia 275 0 274 [293]
Bhutan 261 0 196 [294]
Guernsey 254 13 239 [295]
Cayman Islands 208 1 204 [296]
Barbados 189 7 173 [297]
Bermuda 178 9 164 [298]
Monaco 171 1 128 [299]
Costa Atlantica 148 0 148 [300][301]
Brunei 145 3 141 [302][303]
Seychelles 136 0 127 [304]
Greg Mortimer[ar] 128 1 No data [305][306]
Liechtenstein 112 1 108 [307]
Antigua and Barbuda 95 3 91 [308][309]
South Ossetia[bb] 90 0 90 [274]
British Virgin Islands 66 1 37 [310]
Saint Vincent[bc] 64 0 64 [311][312]
Northern Mariana Islands 61 2 19 [313]
Macau 46 0 46 [314]
Fiji 32 2 28 [315][316]
East Timor 27 0 25 [317]
Saint Lucia 27 0 26 [318][319]
New Caledonia 26 0 23 [320]
Dominica 25 0 21 [321][322]
Sahrawi Arab DR[bd] 25 2 23 [323]
Grenada 24 0 24 [324][325]
Laos 23 0 22 [326]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 17 0 17 [327]
Bonaire 16 1 8 [328]
Greenland 14 0 14 [329][330]
Falkland Islands 13 0 13 [331]
Montserrat 13 1 12 [332]
MS Zaandam[be] 13 4 No data [335][336]
Coral Princess[bf] 12 3 No data [338]
Vatican City 12 0 12 [339]
Sint Eustatius 11 0 4 [340]
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 11 0 5 [341][342]
HNLMS Dolfijn[bg] 8 0 8 [343][346]
Saba 5 0 5 [347]
Anguilla 3 0 3 [348]
Tanzania[bh] No data No data No data [350][351]
As of 24 September 2020 (UTC) · History of cases · History of deaths
For notes, see the Notes section.

Epidemiology is the study of how diseases affect the health and illness of populations.

Background[change | change source]

On 31 December 2019, Chinese health authorities reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) a cluster of viral pneumonia cases of unknown cause in Wuhan,[352][353] and an investigation was launched in early January 2020.[354]

On 9 June 2020, a Harvard University study suggested that COVID-19 may have been spreading in China as early as August 2019, based on hospital car park usage and web search trends.[355]

Cases[change | change source]

Cases means the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19, and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official methods.[356]

Deaths[change | change source]

Deceased in a 16 m (53 ft) "mobile morgue" outside a hospital in Hackensack, New Jersey

Most people who contract COVID-19 recover. For those who do not, the time between the start of symptoms and death usually ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days.[357]

Duration[change | change source]

On 11 March 2020, the WHO said that the pandemic could be controlled.[7]

Symptoms[change | change source]

Symptoms of COVID-19. There are reports that even people who do not show symptoms can spread it.[360]

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, COVID-19 makes people feel sick in different ways, but it usually affects the lungs. People usually cough and have difficulty breathing. They often also have a fever, chills, headache, pain in their muscles, or trouble tasting or smelling things.[361]

According to an April 2020 study by the American Gastroenterological Association, COVID-19 can make sick people vomit or have diarrhea, but this is rare. They said about 7.7% of COVID-19 patients vomited, about 7.8% had diarrhea and about 3.6% had pain in their stomachs.[362]

Data[change | change source]

Name[change | change source]

In February 2020, the WHO announced a name for the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2: COVID-19. It replaced the name "2019-nCoV."[363] "Covi" is for "coronavirus," "D" for "disease," and "19" for the year 2019. They said they did not want the name to have any person, place, or animal in it because people might blame the disease on that place, person, or animal. For example, it did not use the word "Wuhan." They also wanted the name to be easy to say out loud.[364]

Mortality rate of COVID-19[change | change source]

The current death rate of COVID-19

According to an article in Market Watch dated on February 27, 2020, the overall case mortality rate in China was 2.3%. However, there were large differences between different age groups and between men and women. People over the age of seventy experienced a rate of mortality 4-5 times that of the average. Men were more likely to die than women (2.8% versus 1.7% for women). These numbers were the conclusion of a study by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention using 72,314 COVID-19 cases in mainland China as of Feb. 11. At that point this was the largest sample of cases for such a study.[365]

On March 5, 2020, the WHO released the case fatality rate.[366]

Race and racism[change | change source]

COVID-19 did not affect everyone in each country the same way.[367] As of May 2020, APM Research Lab said the death rate among black Americans was 2.4 times as high as for whites and 2.2 times as high as for Latino and Asian Americans.[368] In July 2020, The New York Times printed data from the Centers for Disease Control showing that black and Latino Americans were three times as likely to become sick and twice as likely to die as white Americans. This was not only in large cities but also in rural areas. This was not only for old people but for people in all age groups. Native Americans were also more likely than whites to become sick and die. Asian Americans were 1.3 times as likely as whites to become sick.[369]

Camara Jones, an epidemiologist who once worked for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said this was socioeconomic and not because of any natural difference in black and white people's bodies.[370] In the United States, black citizens are more likely to work jobs where they serve the public and to ride on buses and trains rather than take their own cars to work, which makes them more likely to be infected than people who work in private offices or from home. Sharrelle Barber, an epidemiologist and biostatistician from Drexel University, also said black Americans can live in crowded neighborhoods where social distancing is harder to do and healthy food harder to find.[371] Both Barber and Jones blamed the long history of racism in the United States for these things. Three senators, Kamala Harris, Cory Booker and Elizabeth Warren said the federal government should start recording the race of COVID-19 patients so scientists could study this problem.[371]

In June, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) told the public that people using the United States' government's Medicare health program had different results depending on race. Four times as many black Medicare patients went to hospitals for COVID-19 than white Medicare patients. There were twice as many hospitalized Hispanic patients than white patients. There were three hospitalized Asian patients for every two hospitalized white patients. The head of CMS, Seema Verma, said this was mostly because of socioeconomic status.[372]

In the United Kingdom, twice as many black COVID-19 patients died as white COVID-19 patients. Other non-white people, like people from India and Bangledesh, were also more likely to die of COVID-19 than whites. Britain's Office of National Statistics said that the differences in money and education explained some of this difference but not all of it. They also said they did not know whether non-white patients caught COVID-19 more often or whether they caught more severe cases. Only female Chinese Britons were less likely to die of COVID-19 than white Britons.[373]

Indigenous peoples[change | change source]

Native Americans in the United States have shown more deaths from COVID-19 than the rest of the U.S.[374] As of May, the Navajo Nation had 88 deaths and 2,757 cases, and the money they had been promised by the government arrived several weeks late. Only 30% of the people in the Navajo Nation have pipes with running water, which made it difficult for people to wash their hands.[375]

Scientists from Chapman University made a plan to protect the Tsimane people in Bolivia from COVID-19 and said this plan would also work for other indigenous peoples living on their own land. The scientists said that many indigenous peoples have problems that make COVID-19 more dangerous for them, like poverty, less clean water, and other lung diseases. Hospitals may be a long distance away, and racism can affect the way doctors and nurses react. But they also sometimes have things that help, like traditions of making decisions together and the ability to grow food nearby.[374] The scientists found people who spoke the Tsimane language as a first language and made teams to go to Tsimane towns to warn them about COVID-19. They also used radio stations. They said the best plan was for whole communities to decide to isolate. They found this worked well because the Tsimane already usually made their big decisions together as a community in special meetings and already had a tradition of quarantining new mothers. The Chapman scientists said their plan would also work for other indigenous peoples who also make decisions together, like the Tsimane. [376][374] The Waswanipi Cree in Canada, the Mapoon people in Australia, and many groups in South America already tried plans like these on their own.[374][377]

George Floyd protests[change | change source]

In May 2020, police officers in Minneapolis, Minnesota killed an unarmed black man called George Floyd while they were arresting him. There were weeks of protests all over the world against police racism. Experts said they were worried protesters and police could spread SARS-CoV-2 to each other. Other experts said some of the reasons that the protests were so big was because non-white people were being killed by COVID-19 more than white people were, because poor leadership in the COVID-19 crisis reminded them of poor leadership about racism, and because the lockdowns shut down workplaces and other things. This meant people had more time to protest.[377] [378][379][380]

Conspiracy theories[change | change source]

In early 2020, some people began to think that the SARS-CoV-2 may have been made on purpose in a laboratory and either released by accident or on purpose like a weapon. Some Iranians thought the Americans might have made it.[381] Chinese state media said COVID-19 came from the United States to China and not the other way around.[382] Some Americans thought the Chinese might have made it.[383] Some Britons thought it might have been created by accident by 5G cell phone networks.[384]

On March 17, 2020, scientists from Columbia University and other places published a paper in Nature Medicine showing that SARS-CoV-2 was almost surely not made by humans in a laboratory. They did this by comparing the genomes of different viruses to each other.[22] The scientists saw that SARS-CoV-2 did not match any of the viral backbones that already exist for virologists to use.[385] Within a few weeks, it became one of the most cited scientific papers in history, meaning that other scientists were reading and using it.

Graphs[change | change source]

Timelines of COVID-19 [change | change source]

Map of national and subnational lockdowns as of 30 March 2020 (table; more details)      National lockdown     Subnational lockdown     No lockdown

On December 31, 2019, China alerted WHO to several cases of unusual pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei province. [388]

On January 20, 2020, Chinese premier Li Keqiang called for efforts to stop and control the pneumonia epidemic caused by a novel coronavirus.[389] As of February 5, 2020, 24,588 cases have been confirmed,[390][391] including in every province-level division of China.[390] A larger number of people may have been infected, but not detected (especially mild cases).[392][393] The first local transmission of the virus outside China occurred in Vietnam between family members,[394] while the first local transmission not involving family occurred in Germany, on January 22, when a German man contracted the disease from a Chinese business visitor at a meeting.[395] As of 5 February 2020, 493 deaths have been attributed to the virus since the first confirmed death on January 9, with 990 recoveries.[396][390] The first death outside China was reported in the Philippines, in a 44-year-old Chinese male on February 1.[397], but another source reported: "The first cases of COVID-19 outside of China were identified on January 13 in Thailand and on January 16 in Japan".[398]

There has been testing which have showed over 6000 confirmed cases in China,[399] some of whom are healthcare workers.[400][401]

Confirmed cases have also been reported in Thailand, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong, the United States (Everett, Washington and Chicago),[401] Singapore,[402] Vietnam,[403] France[404] and Nepal.[405]

The World Health Organization declared that this is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern since January 30, 2020.

Bloomberg News and other business publications have reported several plant closures, travel restrictions, and imposed quarantines as a result of this outbreak.[406]

As of February 10, 2020 there have been 40,235 confirmed cases reported of people infected by the virus in China. Also reported were 909 deaths, and 319 cases in 24 other countries, including one death, according to WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.[407]

China[change | change source]

  • The first cases of COVID-19 were detected in Wuhan, Hubei, Mainland China in December of 2019.[408]
  • On Feb. 4, 2020, the Seattle Times reported that Around 2020 Chinese new year authorities closed down travel from China to Macau. As a result visits fell eighty percent.[409]
  • Feb 6, 2020, the COVID-19 whistleblower, Li Wenliang, dies of the disease.
  • On February 6, 2020, according to Chinese authorities, a man from the United States who tested positive for the virus died[410]
  • On February  25, 2020 Asian Scientist Magazine reported  Chinese Scientists Sequence Genome Of COVID-19 [411]
  • According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention China had the largest number of confirmed cases  and deaths on March 1, 2020 [412]
  • On March 3, 2020 Science (journal) reported:
    • China built two new hospitals in one week just for patients of COVID-19
    • The article praised the way China has handled this crisis, but said "draconian" measures were used to achieve success.[413]
  • On March 6, 2020, CNN reported that a hotel used as a COVID-19 quarantine center collapsed. Seventy people were trapped in a collapsed Quanzhou hotel.[414]
  • Cases going down[source?]
  • Economy affected many factories shut down[source?]

United States[change | change source]

Economic effects of COVID-19 in the United States[change | change source]

Italy[change | change source]

  • On February 27, 2020, according to the EU Observer, a dozen towns in the northern regions of Lombardy and Veneto were under lockdown, with around 50,000 citizens not allowed to leave, and over 200 reported cases of COVID n Italy.[422]
  • On March 4, 2020, according to the Guardian,the Italian government has ordered the closure of all of Italy's schools and universities until 15 March, 2020[423]
  • On March 5, 2020 the Guardian reported: "Italian educational institutions close as Covid-19 deaths pass 100"[424]
  • On March 8,2020, Al Jazeeera reported that after a daily increase of 1,247 cases, Lombardy together with ten other areas were sealed off in an effort to quarantine 16 million people[425] Milan and Venice are in the quarantined area. [426]
  • March 10, 2020, Italy under quarantine. [427][428]

Iran[change | change source]

  • On 28 February 2020 the BBC reported COVID-19 deaths in Iran were at least 210[429]
  • March 3, 2020 multiple Iranian government officials including deputy health minister Iraj Harirchi and vice president of women and family affairs Masoumeh Ebtekar, who served as a spokesperson during the Iran hostage crisis, had contracted COVID-19.[430][431]

Canada[change | change source]

South Africa[change | change source]

CoViD-19 outbreak cases in South Africa.png

Australia[change | change source]

New Zealand[change | change source]

COVID-19 cases have been reported in most parts of New Zealand. The quick response by New Zealands prime minister meant that they have completely overcome the virus and is soon to go to Level 1 of their plan. There were clusters popping up all over New Zealand including one at a wedding and one at a rest home(which lead to many deaths). Even so not many have died, the numbers are in the teens. School and non-essential workplaces have gone back to work as their are no active cases in the country. (This was written by someone who is from New Zealand)

Cruise ships[change | change source]

  • 17 February 2020 the BBC reported: "Coronavirus: Japan cruise ship's US passengers home for further quarantine"[435]
  • Nineteen crew members of the cruise ship off the coast of California tested positive [436]
  • Another Crew Member Suspected of Contracting Coronavirus[437]

Food and hunger[change | change source]

The pandemic made it more difficult for millions of people all over the world to get enough food. People lost their jobs, so they did not have money to buy food. Farms were shut down, so there was less food made. Processing plants and food factories were shut down, so less food was made ready for people to eat.[438]

In April, Arif Husain of the United Nations' World Food Program said that 130 million more people could go hungry, in addition to the 135 million who were already hungry before the pandemic began. He said that poorer countries would be more affected than rich countries because the way they move raw food from farms to cities and other places where people live is less organized and relies more on human beings than on automatic systems.[438]

This hunger crisis is different from crises in other years because it happened to the whole world at the same time. That meant that people working in other countries could not help by sending money home.[438][439]

All over the world, children who ate meals at school had less access to food when the schools were shut down.[438]

Scientists from the University of Michigan said the pandemic was making it harder for people to find food. In a study published in May, they said out of of seven Americans over age 50 said they had trouble getting enough food before the pandemic, and it got worse when senior centers that provided meals were closed.[440] Federal and state governments started programs to bring food to older people and children. There were also more food donation drives in towns.[439]

Old people[change | change source]

In the United States, nursing homes had some of the highest rates of infection and death, 40% of all COVID-19 deaths in the country. Nursing homes are group homes for old people who need medical care, for disabled people who need medical care, and for people recovering from severe sickness or injury, like stroke patients.

Many people who live in nursing homes pay through the government program Medicaid, which pays less than Medicare or regular insurance companies. In June, many American nursing homes were caught throwing their regular patients out so they could make room for COVID-19 patients who could pay them more. Because nursing homes had stopped allowing visitors, it took longer for them to get caught. United States law requires nursing homes to warn patients 30 days before kicking them out, but the nursing homes did not do this.

Some of the nursing homes took the COVID-19 patients because state governments asked them to and they say they sent their elderly residents away because they were worried they would catch COVID-19 from the sick patients.[441]

Environment[change | change source]

Because so many governments told people to stay at home, there was less air pollution than usual for that time of year. Pollution in New York fell by 50% and the use of coal in China fell by 40%.[442] The European Space Agency showed pictures taken from a satellite of China's pollution disappearing during quarantine and coming back when everyone went back to work.[443]

The pandemic and shutdowns made people use less electricity. In the United States, people got less of their electricity from coal power but kept using gas and renewable power like wind and solar power. This was because coal plants are more expensive to run, so power companies used them less.[444]

Pollution from before the pandemic also affected what happened after people became sick. Scientists saw that more people died from COVID-19 in places with large amounts of air pollution. One team of scientists from Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg looked at air pollution information from satellites and statistics on COVID-19 deaths in Italy, France, Germany and Spain and saw that places with large amounts of nitrogen dioxide pollution had more people die from COVID-19. Nitrogen dioxide can damage the lungs.[445][446]

The shutdowns and social distancing also affected animals. Human beings started staying at home about the same time in the spring when sea turtles like to come on land to lay their eggs. Turtle scientists in the United States and Thailand both reported more nests than usual on seashores in Florida and Phuket. They say it is because people are not coming to the beach or bringing their dogs to the beach and because there are fewer boats in the water nearby. Scientists also say they see more dugong and dolphins.[447][448][449] With fewer cars driving down roads, salamanders, frogs, and other amphibians were able to cross them for their spring migration. According to citizen scientists from Big Night Maine, a group that watches amphibians, four amphibians made it across the roads alive for every one amphibian killed by cars. Most years, it is only two to one.[450]

Not all ocean mammals did well. According to marine biologists in Florida, manatee deaths in April and May were 20% higher than in 2019. They say this was because many people decided to go boating because other things to do were closed.[451]

Stopping the next pandemic[change | change source]

Researchers from the San Diego Zoo Global had the idea for a system that people could use to find dangerous germs before they become pandemics or even before they jump from other animals to humans. They said it was important to watch the wildlife trade, like in the Wuhan wet market. The scientists said that over the past eleven years it has gotten easier and easier to sequence viral genomes, and it does not have to be done by a large lab or by a government any more. The scientists said it would be better to spread the work out among more people.[452][453]

List of terminology associated with COVID-19[change | change source]

  • SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes COVID-19
  • 2019-nCoV is the old name for SARS-CoV-2
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 is another name for COVID-19
  • community spread is the spread of the disease without a known travel connection
  • clusters are groups of COVID-19 cases in which many people in the same area became infected with COVID-19
  • lockdown
  • presumptive confirmed positive
  • quarantine
  • sealed off

Notes[change | change source]

  1. In summary, this article is about the coronavirus pandemic, which is caused by the disease COVID‑19, which is caused by the virus SARS‑CoV‑2.[1]
  2. To summarize, this article is about the pandemic, which is caused by the disease COVID-19, which is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2.
  3. Location: Countries, territories, and international conveyances where cases were diagnosed. The nationality of the infected and the origin of infection may vary. For some countries, cases are split into respective territories and noted accordingly.
  4. Cases: This number shows the cumulative number of confirmed human cases reported to date. The actual number of infections and cases is likely to be higher than reported.[23] Reporting criteria and testing capacity vary between locations.
  5. Deaths: Reporting criteria vary between locations.
  6. Recoveries: May not correspond to actual current figures and not all recoveries may be reported. Reporting criteria vary between locations and some countries do not report recoveries.
  7. The worldwide totals for cases, deaths and recoveries are taken from the John Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Center. They are not sums of the figures for the listed countries and territories.
  8. United States
    1. Figures include cases identified on the Grand Princess.
    2. Figures do not include the unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Marian Islands, and U.S Virgin Islands, all of which are listed separately.
    3. Not all states or overseas territories report recovery data.
    4. Cases include clinically diagnosed cases as per CDC guidelines.[24]
    5. Recoveries and deaths include probable deaths and people released from quarantine as per CDC guidelines.[25][26][27]
    6. Figures from the United States Department of Defense are only released on a branch-by branch basis since April 2020, without distinction between domestic and foreign deployment, and cases may be reported to local health authorities.[28]
    7. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separate from national figures but included in the Navy's totals.
    8. There is also one case reported from Guantanamo Bay Naval Base not included in any other nation or territory's counts.[29] Since April 2020, the United States Department of Defense has directed all bases, including Guantanamo Bay, to not publish case statistics.[28]
  9. Brazil
    1. Since 6 June, the Brazilian government has ordered the Ministry of Health to stop reporting the total number of deaths and active cases.[32] After this, the National Council of Health Secretaries assumed the function of reporting the total number of deaths and active cases.[33]
  10. Russia
    1. Including cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol.
    2. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance".
  11. Peru
    1. On 20 September 2020, the Ministry of Health did not report the number of deaths because "the servers where the information is hosted are under maintenance". The number of deaths is as of 19 September.[38]
  12. Spain
    1. The figure for cases excludes serology–confirmed cases.
    2. As of 19 May 2020, the Spanish government does not publish the number of recoveries. The last update on 18 May reported 150,376 recovered patients.
  13. Argentina
    1. Excluding confirmed cases on the claimed territory of the Falkland Islands. Since 11 April, the Argentine Ministry of Health includes them in their official reports.[45]
  14. France
    1. Including overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion, and collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.
    2. Excluding collectivities of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
    3. Recoveries only include hospitalized cases.[48]
    4. Figures for total confirmed cases and total deaths include data from both hospital and nursing home (ESMS: établissements sociaux et médico-sociaux).[48]
  15. Chile
    1. Including the special territory of Easter Island.
    2. The Chilean Ministry of Health considered all cases as "recovered" after 14 days since the initial symptoms of the virus, no matter the health situation of the infected or if following tests indicate the continuing presence of the virus. The only exception were casualties, which are not included as recovered.[50]
    3. Deaths only include cases with positive PCR tests and catalogued as "COVID-19 related death" by the Civil Registry and Identification Service. This number is informed on the daily reports of the Ministry of Health. A report with the total number of deaths, including suspected cases without PCR test, is released weekly since 20 June 2020.[51] In the latest report (11 September 2020), the number of total deaths is 16,165.[52]
  16. United Kingdom
    1. Excluding all British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies.
    2. As of 23 March 2020, the UK government does not publish the number of recoveries. The last update on 22 March reported 135 recovered patients.[56]
  17. Germany
    1. Not all state authorities count recoveries.[67]
    2. Recoveries include estimations by the Robert Koch Institute.[67][68]
  18. Israel
    1. Including cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
    2. Excluding cases from the Occupied Palestinian Territories.
  19. Ukraine
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol. Cases in these territories are included in the Russian total.
    2. Excluding cases from the unrecognized Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics.
  20. Canada
    1. On 17 July 2020, Quebec, Canada, revised its criteria on recoveries. The Institut national de santé publique claims that "the previous method resulted in 'significant underestimations' of recovered cases."[73] This change resulted in a drop of active cases nationwide, from a total of 27,603 on 16 July to 4,058 on 17 July.[74]
  21. Morocco
    1. Including cases in the disputed Western Sahara territory controlled by Morocco.
    2. Excluding the de facto state of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
  22. Belgium
    1. The number of deaths also includes untested cases and cases in retirement homes that presumably died because of COVID-19, whilst most countries only include deaths of tested cases in hospitals.[87]
  23. Egypt
    1. Includes cases identified on the MS River Anuket.
  24. Netherlands
    1. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of a) the Netherlands* [the country as opposed to the kingdom; listed here], which in turn includes the Caribbean Netherlands, that are made up of the special municipalities Bonaire*, Saba* and Sint Eustatius*; b) Aruba*; c) Curaçao*; and d) Sint Maarten*. All regions marked with an asterisk are listed separately.
    2. The Dutch Government agency RIVM, responsible for the constituent country the Netherlands, does not count its number of recoveries.[92]
  25. China
    1. Excluding 402 asymptomatic cases under medical observation as of 23 September 2020.
    2. Asymptomatic cases were not reported before 31 March 2020.
    3. Excluding Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
    4. Does not include Taiwan.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Diamond Princess and Japan
    1. The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and the Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is included in neither the Japanese nor British official counts. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
  27. Switzerland
    1. Recoveries are estimates by the Tribune de Genève.
  28. Moldova
    1. Including the disputed territory of Transnistria.
  29. Azerbaijan
    1. Excluding the self-declared state of Artsakh.
  30. Serbia
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed territory of Kosovo.
  31. Australia
    1. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". Ten cases, including one fatality recorded by the Australian government.
  32. Denmark
    1. The autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland are listed separately.
  33. Norway
    1. Estimation of the number of infected:
      • As of 23 March 2020, according to figures from just over 40 per cent of all GPs in Norway, 20,200 patients have been registered with the "corona code" R991. The figure includes both cases where the patient has been diagnosed with coronavirus infection through testing, and where the GP has used the "corona code" after assessing the patient's symptoms against the criteria by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.[165]
      • As of 24 March 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health estimates that between 7,120 and 23,140 Norwegians are infected with the coronavirus.[166]
  34. DR Congo
  35. Finland
    1. Including the autonomous region of the Åland Islands.
    2. The number of recoveries is an estimate based on reported cases which were reported at least two weeks ago and there is no other monitoring data on the course of the disease.[177] The exact number of recoveries is not known, as only a small proportion of patients have been hospitalized.[178]
  36. Cuba
    1. Includes cases on the MS Braemar.
    2. Excluding cases from Guantanamo Bay, which is governed by the United States.
  37. Congo
    1. Also known as the Republic of the Congo and not to be confused with the DR Congo.
  38. Syria
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
  39. Georgia
    1. Excluding the de facto states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  40. Somalia
    1. Excluding the de facto state of Somaliland.
  41. Bahamas
    1. Some of these deaths may still be under investigation as stated in the Ministry's press release.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republic
    1. Note that these territories are distinct from the Ukraine-administered regions of the Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Guam and USS Theodore Roosevelt
    1. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separately.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Greg Mortimer and Uruguay
    1. Although currently anchored off the coast of Uruguay, cases for the Greg Mortimer are currently reported separately. Six have been transferred inland for hospitalization.
  45. Cyprus
  46. Botswana
    1. 1,350 people who tested positive have been voluntarily repatriated to their respective countries and are not part of the confirmed case count as a result the Government of Botswana does not include the transferred-out cases.[250]
  47. Charles de Gaulle
    1. Including cases on the escort frigate Chevalier Paul.
    2. Florence Parly, Minister of the Armed Forces, reported to the National Assembly's National Defense and Armed Forces Committee [fr] that 2010 sailors of the carrier battle group led by Charles de Gaulle had been tested, with 1081 tests returning positive so far.[260] Many of these cases were aboard Charles de Gaulle, some of the cases were reportedly aboard French frigate Chevalier Paul, and it is unclear if any other ships in the battle group had cases on board.[261][262][263]
  48. Somaliland
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Somalia.
  49. Northern Cyprus
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Cyprus.
  50. Abkhazia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  51. Taiwan
    1. Including cases from the ROCS Pan Shi.[278]
  52. Artsakh
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Azerbaijan.
  53. Isle of Man
    1. Recoveries are presumed. Defined as "An individual testing positive for coronavirus who completes the 14 day self-isolation period from the onset of symptoms who is at home on day 15, or an individual who is discharged from hospital following more severe symptoms."[290]
  54. South Ossetia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  55. Saint Vincent
    1. The sovereign state of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  56. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Morocco.
  57. MS Zaandam
    1. Including cases from MS Rotterdam.
    2. The MS Rotterdam rendezvoused with the Zaandam on 26 March off the coast of Panama City to provide support and evacuate healthy passengers. Both have since docked in Florida.[333][334]
    3. MS Zaandam and Rotterdam's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  58. Coral Princess
    1. The cruise ship Coral Princess has tested positive cases since early April 2020 and has since docked in Miami.[337]
    2. Coral Princess's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  59. HNLMS Dolfijn
    1. All 8 cases currently associated with Dolfijn were reported while the submarine was at sea in the waters between Scotland and the Netherlands.[343]
    2. It is unclear whether the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) is including these cases in their total count, but neither their daily update details nor their daily epidemiological situation reports appear to have mentioned the ship, with a breakdown of cases listing the twelve provinces of the country of the Netherlands (as opposed to the kingdom) accounting for all the cases in the total count.[344][345]
  60. Tanzania
    1. Figures for Tanzania are "No data" as the country stopped publishing figures on coronavirus cases on 29 April.[349] Figures as of that date were 509 cases, 21 deaths, and 183 recoveries.[350][351]

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