List of national rulers

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This page lists the national rulers in the world, i.e. heads of state and heads of government (and, in certain cases, de facto leaders not occupying either of those formal positions or prime ministers who are not heads of government …) of the 195 states usually recognized like that (193 UN members + Vatican City + Taiwan), of 10 other national entities (quasi and unrecognized states), and of 7 in exile and/or alternative governments (only in exile governments that exercised power or succeeded governments that exercised power).

For local rulers, i.e. rulers of dependencies and of the main administrative divisions (autonomous regions, insular or peninsular regions, successors of historical regions or regions with strong identity, regions in the news, etc.) see:

States – A[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Afghanistan Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani 29 Sep 2014

Albania Albania President Bujar Nishani 24 Jul 2012
Prime minister Edi Rama 15 Sep 2013

Algeria Algeria President Abdelaziz Bouteflika 27 Apr 1999
Prime minister Abdelmalek Sellal[1] 29 Apr 2014

Andorra Andorra Coprince (French head of state) François Hollande 15 May 2012
Coprinces (bishop of Urgel) Joan Enric Vives Sicília 12 May 2003
Personal representative of the French coprince Thierry Lataste 5 Jan 2015
Personal representative of the episcopal coprince Josep Maria Mauri 20 Jul 2012
General syndic Vicenç Mateu Zamora 28 Apr 2011
Head of government Antoni Martí[2] 1 Apr 2015

Angola Angola President José Eduardo dos Santos[3] 10 Sep 1979
Vice President Manuel Vicente 26 Sep 2012

Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Queen Elizabeth II 1 Nov 1981
Governor-general Rodney Williams 14 Aug 2014
Prime minister Gaston Browne 13 Jun 2014

Argentina Argentina President Mauricio Macri 10 Dec 2015
Cabinet chief Jorge Capitanich 20 Nov 2013

Armenia Armenia President Serzh Sargsyan[4] 9 Apr 2008
Prime minister Karen Karapetyan 13 Sep 2016

Australia Australia Queen Elizabeth II 6 Feb 1952
Governor-general Sir Peter Cosgrove 26 Mar 2014
Prime minister Malcolm Turnbull 15 Sep 2015

Austria Austria Federal College Doris Bures
Karlheinz Kopf
Norbert Hofer
8 Jul 2016
Chancellor Christian Kern 17 May 2016

Azerbaijan Azerbaijan President Ilham Aliyev [5] 31 Oct 2003
Prime minister Artur Rasizade[6] 6 Aug 2003

States – B[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
The Bahamas The Bahamas Queen Elizabeth II 10 Jul 1973
Governor-general Dame Marguerite Pindling 8 Jul 2014
Prime minister Perry Christie[7] 8 May 2012

Bahrain Bahrain King Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah[8] 14 Feb 2002
Prime minister Sheikh Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah[9] 19 Jan 1970

Bangladesh Bangladesh President Abdul Hamid 24 Apr 2013
Prime minister Sheikh Hasina 6 Jan 2009

Barbados Barbados Queen Elizabeth II 30 Nov 1966
Governor-general Sir Elliott Belgrave 1 Jun 2012
Prime minister Freundel Stuart 23 Oct 2010

Belarus Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko 20 Jul 1994
Prime Minister Andrei Kobyakov 27 Dec 2014

Belgium Belgium King Philippe 21 Jul 2013
Prime Minister Charles Michel 11 Oct 2014

Belize Belize Queen Elizabeth II 21 Sep 1981
Governor-General Sir Colville Young 17 Nov 1993
Prime minister Dean Barrow 8 Feb 2008

Benin Benin President Patrice Talon 6 Apr 2016

Bhutan Bhutan King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck 14 Dec 2006
Prime minister Tshering Tobgay 30 Jul 2013

Bolivia Bolivia President Evo Morales 22 Jan 2006

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Hercegovina Chairman of the Presidency of the Republic Denis Zvizdić (Chairman)
Dragan Čović (Member)
Bakir Izetbegović (Member)
Mladen Ivanić (Member)
11 Feb 2015 (President)
17 Nov 2014
10 Nov 2010
17 Nov 2014
Prime minister Vjekoslav Bevanda 12 Jan 2012
International High Representative Valentin Inzko (Austria) 26 Mar 2009

Botswana Botswana President Ian Khama 1 Apr 2008

Brazil Brazil President Michel Temer[10] 31 Aug 2016

Brunei Brunei Sultan Sir Hassanal Bolkiah Mu´izzadin Waddaulah 4 Oct 1967
Prime minister Sir Hassanal Bolkiah Mu´izzadin Waddaulah 1 Jan 1984

Bulgaria Bulgaria President Rosen Plevneliev 22 Jan 2012
Prime minister Boyko Borisov 7 Nov 2014

Burkina Faso Burkina Faso President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré[11] 29 Dec 2015
Prime minister Paul Kaba Theiba 13 Jan 2016

Burundi Burundi President Pierre Nkurunziza 26 Aug 2005

Myanmar Burma President Htin Kyaw 30 Mar 2016

States – C[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Cambodia Cambodia King Norodom Sihamoni 14 Oct 2004
Prime minister Samdech Hun Sen[12] 14 Jan 1985

Cameroon Cameroon President Paul Biya 6 Nov 1982
Prime minister Philémon Yang 30 Jun 2009

Canada Canada Queen Elizabeth II 6 Feb 1952
Governor-general David Lloyd Johnston 1 Oct 2010
Prime minister Justin Trudeau 4 Nov 2015

Cape Verde Cape Verde President Jorge Carlos Fonseca 22 Sep 2011
Prime minister Ulisses Correia e Silva 22 Apr 2016

Central African Republic Central African Republic President Faustin-Archange Touadéra[13] 30 Mar 2016
Prime minister Simplice Sarandji 2 Apr 2016

Chad Chad President Idriss Déby 2 Dec 1990
Prime minister Albert Pahimi Padacké 13 Feb 2016

Chile Chile President Michelle Bachelet[14] 11 Mar 2014

People's Republic of China China General secretary of the Communist Party of China Xi Jinping 15 Nov 2012
President Xi Jinping 14 Mar 2013
Premier Li Keqiang 15 Mar 2013

Colombia Colombia President Juan Manuel Santos 7 Aug 2010

Comoros Comoros President Azali Assoumani[15] 26 May 2016

Republic of the Congo Congo (Brazzaville) President Denis Sassou Nguesso 25 Oct 1997

Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo (Kinshasa) President Joseph Kabila [16] 17 Jan 2001
Prime minister Samy Badibanga 17 Nov 2016

Costa Rica Costa Rica President Luis Guillermo Solís 8 May 2014

Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire President Alassane Ouattara[17] 11 Apr 2011
Prime minister Guillaume Soro 4 Apr 2007

Croatia Croatia President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović 19 Feb 2015
Prime minister Andrej Plenković 19 Oct 2016

Cuba Cuba First secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba Raúl Castro 19 Apr 2011
President of the Council of State Raúl Castro 24 Feb 2008

Republic of Cyprus Cyprus President Nicos Anastasiades 28 Feb 2013

Czech Republic Czech Republic President Miloš Zeman 8 Mar 2013
Prime minister Jiří Rusnok 10 Jul 2013

States – D–F[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Denmark Denmark Queen Margrethe II 14 Jan 1972
Prime minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen[18] 28 Jun 2015

Djibouti Djibouti President Ismail Omar Guelleh 8 May 1999
Prime minister Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed 1 Apr 2013

Dominica Dominica President Eliud Williams 17 Sep 2012
Prime minister Roosevelt Skerrit 8 Jan 2004

Dominican Republic Dominican Republic President Danilo Medina 16 Aug 2012

East Timor East Timor President Taur Matan Ruak 20 May 2012
Prime minister Rui Maria de Araújo 16 Feb 2015

Ecuador Ecuador President Rafael Correa 15 Jan 2007

Egypt Egypt President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi 8 Jun 2014
Prime minister Sherif Ismail 19 Sep 2015

El Salvador El Salvador President Salvador Sánchez Cerén 1 Jun 2014

Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo[19] 3 Aug 1979
Prime minister Francisco Pascual Obama Asue 23 Jun 2016

Eritrea Eritrea President Isaias Afewerki[20] 29 May 1993

Estonia Estonia President Kersti Kaljulaid 10 Oct 2016
Prime minister Jüri Ratas 23 Nov 2016

Ethiopia Ethiopia President Mulatu Teshome 7 Oct 2013
Prime minister Hailemariam Desalegn 20 Aug 2012

Fiji Fiji President Epeli Nailatikau 30 Jul 2009
Acting Prime minister Frank Bainimarama 5 Jan 2007

Finland Finland President Sauli Niinistö 1 Mar 2012
Prime minister Juha Sipilä 29 May 2015

France France President François Hollande 15 May 2012
Prime minister Manuel Valls 31 Mar 2014

States – G–H[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Gabon Gabon President Ali Bongo Ondimba 16 Oct 2009
Prime minister Emmanuel Issoze-Ngondet 29 Sep 2016

The Gambia The Gambia President Yahya Jammeh[21] 22 Jul 1994

Georgia (country) Georgia President Giorgi Margvelashvili 17 Nov 2013
Prime minister Giorgi Kvirikashvili 30 Dec 2015

Germany Germany Federal President Joachim Gauck 18 Mar 2012
Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel 22 Nov 2005

Ghana Ghana President John Dramani Mahama 24 Jul 2012

Greece Greece President Prokopis Pavlopoulos 13 Mar 2015
Prime minister Alexis Tsipras[22] 21 Sep 2015

Grenada Grenada Queen Elizabeth II 7 Feb 1974
Governor-general Cécile La Grenade 7 May 2013
Prime minister Keith Mitchell 20 Feb 2013

Guatemala Guatemala President Jimmy Morales 14 Jan 2016

Guinea Guinea President Alpha Condé 21 Dec 2010
Prime minister Mamady Youla 29 Dec 2015

Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau President José Mário Vaz 23 Jun 2014
Prime Minister Umaro Sissoco Embaló 18 Nov 2016

Guyana Guyana President David Granger 16 May 2015
Prime minister Moses Nagamootoo 20 May 2015

Haiti Haiti Acting President Jocelerme Privert 17 Feb 2016
Prime minister Enex Jean-Charles 25 Mar 2016

Honduras Honduras President Juan Orlando Hernández 27 Jan 2014

Hungary Hungary President János Áder 10 May 2012
Prime minister Viktor Orban[23] 29 May 2010

States – I–K[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Iceland Iceland President Guðni Th. Jóhannesson 1 Aug 2016
Prime minister Sigurður Ingi Jóhannsson 5 Apr 2016

India India President Pranab Mukherjee 25 Jul 2012
Prime minister Narendra Modi 26 May 2014

Indonesia Indonesia President Joko Widodo 20 Oct 2014

Iran Iran Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei 4 Jun 1989
President Hassan Rouhani 3 Aug 2013

Iraq Iraq President Fuad Masum 24 July 2014
Prime minister Haider Al-Abadi 12 Aug 2014

Republic of Ireland Ireland President Michael D. Higgins 11 Nov 2011
Prime minister Enda Kenny 9 Mar 2011

Israel Israel President Reuven Rivlin 24 July 2014
Prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu[24] 31 Mar 2009

Italy Italy President Sergio Matarella 3 Feb 2015
President of the Council of Ministers Matteo Renzi 22 Feb 2014

Jamaica Jamaica Queen Elizabeth II 6 Aug 1962
Governor-general Sir Patrick Allen 26 Feb 2009
Prime minister Andrew Holness[25] 3 March 2016

Japan Japan Emperor Akihito 7 Jan 1989
Prime minister Shinzo Abe[26] 26 Dec 2012

Jordan Jordan King Abdullah II 7 Feb 1999
Prime minister Hani Al-Mulki 2 Jun 2016

Kazakhstan Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev 24 Apr 1990
Prime minister Bakhytzhan Sagintayev[27] 9 Sep 2016

Kenya Kenya President Uhuru Kenyatta 9 Apr 2013

Kiribati Kiribati President Taneti Mamau 11 Mar 2016

North Korea North Korea Chairman of the National Defense Commission[28] Kim Jong-un 17 Dec 2011
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly Kim Yong-nam 5 Sep 1998
Premier Choe Yong-rim 7 Jun 2010

South Korea South Korea President Park Geunhye 25 Feb 2013
Prime minister Hwang Kyo-ahn 18 Jun 2015

Kuwait Kuwait Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah[29] 29 Jan 2006
Prime minister Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah 4 Dec 2011

Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan President Almazbek Atambayev 1 Dec 2011
Prime minister Sooronbay Jeenbekov 13 Apr 2016

States – L[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Laos Laos General secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party Bounnhang Vorachith 22 Jan 2016
President Choummaly Sayasone 8 Jun 2006
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith 20 Apr 2016

Latvia Latvia President Andris Bērziņš 8 Jul 2011
Prime minister Māris Kučinskis 11 Feb 2016

Lebanon Lebanon President Michel Aoun 31 Oct 2016
Prime minister Tammam Salam 15 Feb 2014

Lesotho Lesotho King Letsie III[30] 7 Feb 1996
Prime minister Tom Thabane 8 Jun 2012

Liberia Liberia President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf 16 Jan 2006

Libya Libya President of the House of Representatives Aguila Salah Issa 5 Aug 2014
Prime minister Fayez al-Sarraj 12 Mar 2016

Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Sovereign prince Hans-Adam II [31] 13 Nov 1989
Alois (regent) 15 Aug 2004
Prime Minister Adrian Hasler 27 Mar 2013

Lithuania Lithuania President Dalia Grybauskaite 12 Jul 2009
Prime minister Andrius Kubilius 9 Dec 2008

Luxembourg Luxembourg Grand Duke Henri[32] 7 Oct 2000
Prime minister Xavier Bettel 4 Dec 2013

States – M[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia President Gjorge Ivanov 12 May 2009
Interim Prime minister Emil Dimitriev 18 Jan 2016

Madagascar Madagascar President Hery Rajaonarimampianina 25 Jan 2014
Prime minister Olivier Solonandrasana 13 Apr 2016

Malawi Malawi President Peter Mutharika 31 May 2014

Malaysia Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdul Halim 13 Dec 2011
Prime minister Najib Razak 3 April 2009

Maldives Maldives President Abdulla Yameen 17 Nov 2013

Mali Mali President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta 4 Sep 2013
Prime minister Modibo Keita[33] 8 Jan 2015

Malta Malta President Marie Louise Coleiro Preca 4 Apr 2014
Prime minister Joseph Muscat 11 Mar 2013

Marshall Islands Marshall Islands President Hilda Heine 28 Jan 2016

Mauritania Mauritania President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz 5 Aug 2009
Prime minister Yahya Ould Hademine 20 Aug 2014

Mauritius Mauritius President Ameenah Gurib 5 Jun 2015
Prime minister Anerood Jugnauth 17 Dec 2014

Mexico Mexico President Enrique Peña Nieto 1 Dec 2012

Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia President Peter M. Christian 11 May 2015

Moldova Moldova President Nicolae Timofti 23 Mar 2012
Prime minister Pavel Filip 20 Jan 2016

Monaco Monaco Prince Albert II[34] 6 Apr 2005
Minister of state Serge Telle 1 Feb 2016

Mongolia Mongolia President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj 18 Jun 2009
Prime minister Jargaltulga Erdenebat 7 Jul 2016

Montenegro Montenegro President Filip Vujanović 22 May 2003
Prime minister Duško Marković 28 Nov 2016

Morocco Morocco King Mohammed VI 23 Jul 1999
Prime minister Abdelilah Benkirane 29 Nov 2011

Mozambique Mozambique President Filipe Nyusi 15 Jan 2015
Prime minister Carlos Agostinho do Rosário 17 Jan 2015

States – N–R[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Namibia Namibia President Hage Geingob 21 Mar 2015
Prime minister Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila 21 Mar 2015

Nauru Nauru President Baron Waqa 11 Jun 2013

Nepal Nepal President Bidhya Devi Bhandari 29 Oct 2015
Prime minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal 4 Aug 2016

Netherlands The Netherlands King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands 30 Apr 2013
Prime minister Mark Rutte 14 Oct 2010

New Zealand New Zealand Queen Elizabeth II 6 Feb 1952
Governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy 28 Sep 2016
Prime minister John Key 19 Nov 2008

Nicaragua Nicaragua President Daniel Ortega[35] 10 Jan 2007

Niger Niger President Mahamadou Issoufou 7 Apr 2011
Prime minister Brigi Rafini 7 Apr 2011

Nigeria Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari 29 May 2015

Norway Norway King Harald V[36] 17 Jan 1991
Prime minister Erna Solberg 14 Oct 2013

Oman Oman Sultan Qabus ibn Sa`id 23 Jul 1970
Prime minister Qabus ibn Sa`id 2 Jan 1972

Pakistan Pakistan President Mamnoon Hussain 9 Sep 2013
Prime minister Nawaz Sharif 5 Jun 2013

Palau Palau President Tommy Remengesau 17 Jan 2013
Panama Panama President Juan Carlos Varela 1 Jul 2014

Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Queen Elizabeth II 16 Sep 1975
Governor-general Sir Michael Ogio 25 Feb 2011
Prime minister Sir Peter O'Neill [37] 2 Aug 2011

Paraguay Paraguay President Horacio Cartes 15 Aug 2013

Peru Peru President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski 28 Jul 2016
Prime minister Fernando Zavala 28 Jul 2016

 Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte 30 Jun 2016

Poland Poland President Andrzej Duda 6 Aug 2015
Prime minister Beata Szydło 16 Nov 2015

Portugal Portugal President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa 9 Mar 2016
Prime minister Antonió Costa 26 Nov 2015

Qatar Qatar Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani 25 Jun 2013
Prime minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani 26 Jun 2013

Romania Romania President Klaus Iohannis 21 Dec 2014
Prime minister Dacian Cioloș 17 Nov 2015

Russia Russia President Vladimir Putin 7 May 2012
Prime minister Dmitry Medvedev 7 May 2012

Rwanda Rwanda President Paul Kagame[38] 24 Mar 2000
Prime minister Anastase Murekezi 24 July 2014

States – S[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Queen Elizabeth II 19 Sep 1983
Governor-general Sir Edmund Lawrence 2 Jan 2013
Prime minister Timothy Harris 18 Feb 2015

Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Queen Elizabeth II 22 Feb 1979
Governor-general Dame Pearlette Louisy 17 Sep 1997
Prime minister Allen Chastanet 7 Jun 2016

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Queen Elizabeth II 27 Oct 1979
Governor-general Sir Frederick Ballantyne 2 Sep 2002
Prime minister Ralph Gonsalves 29 Mar 2001

Samoa Samoa Head of state Tufuga Efi 11 May 2007
Prime minister Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi 23 Nov 1998

San Marino San Marino Captains-regent Marino Riccardi[39] 1 Oct 2016
Fabio Berardi[40] 1 Oct 2016

São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe President Evaristo Carvalho 3 Sep 2016
Prime minister Patrice Trovoada 14 Aug 2010

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia King Salman 23 Jan 2015

Senegal Senegal President Macky Sall 2 Apr 2012
Prime minister Mohamed Dionne 6 Jul 2014

Serbia Serbia President Tomislav Nikolić 31 May 2012
Prime minister Aleksandar Vučić 27 Apr 2014

Seychelles Seychelles President Danny Faure 16 Oct 2016

Sierra Leone Sierra Leone President Ernest Bai Koroma 17 Sep 2007

Singapore Singapore President Tony Tan 1 Sep 2011
Prime minister Lee Hsien Loong 12 Aug 2004

Slovakia Slovakia President Andrej Kiska 15 Jun 2014
Prime minister Robert Fico 4 Apr 2012

Slovenia Slovenia President Borut Pahor 22 Dec 2012
Prime minister Miro Cerar 18 Sep 2014

Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Queen Elizabeth II 7 Jul 1978
Governor-general Sir Frank Kabui 7 Jul 2009
Prime minister Manasseh Sogavare 9 Dec 2014

Somalia Somalia President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud 16 Sep 2012
Prime minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke 24 Dec 2014

South Africa South Africa President Jacob Zuma 9 May 2009

South Sudan South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit 9 July 2011

Spain Spain King Felipe VI 19 Jun 2014
Prime minister Mariano Rajoy 21 Dec 2011

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka President Maithripala Sirisena 9 Jan 2015
Prime minister Ranil Wickremesinghe[41] 9 Jan 2015

Sudan The Sudan President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir[42] 30 Jun 1989

Suriname Suriname President Desi Bouterse 12 Aug 2010

Swaziland Swaziland King Mswati III 25 Apr 1986
Prime minister Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini 23 Oct 2008

Sweden Sweden King Carl XVI Gustaf 15 Sep 1973
Prime minister Stefan Löfven 3 Oct 2014

Switzerland Switzerland President Johann Schneider-Ammann 1 Jan 2016

Syria Syria President Bashar al-Assad 17 Jul 2000
Prime minister Imad Khamis 3 Jul 2016

States – T[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Republic of China Taiwan President Tsai Ing-wen 20 May 2016
President of the Executive Yuan Lin Chuan 20 May 2016

Tajikistan Tajikistan President Emomalii Rahmon[44] 19 Nov 1992
Prime minister Oqil Oqilov 20 Dec 1999

Tanzania Tanzania President John Magufuli 5 Nov 2015
Prime minister Kaasim Majaliwa 20 Nov 2015

Thailand Thailand King Vajiralongkorn 13 Oct 2016
Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha 25 Aug 2014

Togo Togo President Faure Gnassingbé[45] 4 May 2005
Prime minister Komi Sélom Klassou 10 Jun 2015

Tonga Tonga King Tupou VI 18 Mar 2012
Prime minister ʻAkilisi Pohiva 31 Dec 2014

Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago President Anthony Carmona 17 Mar 2013
Prime minister Keith Rowley 9 Sep 2015

Tunisia Tunisia President Beji Caid Essebsi 31 Dec 2014
Head of Government Youssef Chahed 27 Aug 2016

Turkey Turkey President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 28 Aug 2014
Prime minister Binali Yıldırım 24 May 2016

Turkmenistan Turkmenistan President Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov[46] 21 Dec 2006

Tuvalu Tuvalu Queen Elizabeth II 1 Oct 1978
Governor-general Sir Iakoba Italeli 16 Apr 2010
Prime minister Enele Sopoaga 1 Aug 2013

States – U–Z[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Uganda Uganda President Yoweri Museveni[47] 26 Jan 1986
Prime minister Ruhakana Rugunda 18 Sep 2014

Ukraine Ukraine President Petro Poroshenko 7 Jun 2014
Prime minister Volodymyr Groysman[48] 14 Apr 2016

United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates President Sheikh Khalifa ibn Zayed Al Nahyan 3 Nov 2004
Prime minister Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum 5 Jan 2006

United Kingdom United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II 6 Feb 1952
Prime minister Theresa May 13 Jul 2016

United States United States President Barack Obama 20 Jan 2009

Uruguay Uruguay President Tabaré Vázquez[49] 1 Mar 2015

Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Interim President Shavkat Mirziyoyev 8 Sep 2016
Prime minister Shavkat Mirziyayev 11 Dec 2003

Vanuatu Vanuatu President Baldwin Lonsdale 22 Sep 2014
Prime minister Charlot Salwai 11 Feb 2016

Vatican City Vatican City (Holy See) Sovereign Francis 13 Mar 2013
Secretary of state Pietro Parolin 15 Oct 2013

Venezuela Venezuela President Nicolás Maduro[50] 19 Apr 2013
Vice President Jorge Arreaza[51] 19 Apr 2013

Vietnam Vietnam General secretary of the Communist Party Nguyen Phu Trong 10 Jan 2011
President Trần Đại Quang 2 Apr 2016
Prime minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc 7 Apr 2016

Yemen Yemen President of the Revolutionary Committee Mohammed Ali al-Houthi 6 Feb 2015
Prime minister Ahmed Obeid bin Daghr 3 Apr 2016

Zambia Zambia President Edgar Lungu 25 Jan 2015

Zimbabwe Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe[52] 31 Dec 1987

Quasi states[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Kosovo Kosovo Prefect of Kosovo district Srdjan Vasic 28 Sep 2004
Administrator[53] Joachim Rücker (Germany) 1 Sep 2006
President Hashim Thaçi[54] 7 Apr 2016
Prime minister Isa Mustafa 9 Dec 2014

Sovereign Military Order of Malta Sovereign Military Order of Malta[55] Grand master Fra' Giacomo Dalla Torre (acting) 7 Feb 2008
Grand chancellor Jean-Pierre Mazery[56] 3 Nov 2004

Palestinian National Authority Palestine[57] President Mahmoud Abbas 15 Jan 2005
Prime minister Rami Hamdallah 6 Jun 2013

Western Sahara Western Sahara[58] President Brahim Ghali 12 Jul 2016
Prime minister Abdelkader Taleb Omar 29 Oct 2003

De facto independent states[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Abkhazia Abkhazia President Raul Khadjimba 25 Sep 2014
Prime minister Beslan Bartsits 5 Aug 2016

Transnistria Transnistria President Yevgeny Shevchuk 30 Dec 2011

Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh President Bako Sahakyan 7 Sep 2007
Prime minister Araik Arutyunyan 14 Sep 2007

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus North Cyprus President Derviş Eroğlu[59] 23 Apr 2010
Prime minister Hüseyin Özgürgün[60] 16 Apr 2016

Somaliland Somaliland President Ahmed Mohamed Mohamoud 27 Jul 2010

South Ossetia South Ossetia President Leonid Tibilov 19 Apr 2012
Acting Prime minister Domenty Kulumbegov 20 Jan 2014

Govenments in exile/alternative governments[change | change source]

State Status Name Since
Abkhazia Abkhazia[61] President Raul Khadjimba 25 Sep 2014
Prime minister Beslan Butba 29 Sep 2014

Belarus Belarus Chairman of the Rada Ivonka Survilla 1997

Estonia Republic of Estonia in exile Prime minister acting as president Kalev Ots[62] 28 Nov 2003
Acting prime minister Ahti Mänd 7 Dec 2003

Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Chechnya Emir Doku Umarov[63] 7 Oct 2007

South Moluccas South Moluccas President Frans L.J. Tutuhatunewa[64] 10 Apr 1993

South Ossetia South Ossetia[65] President Leonid Tibilov 19 Apr 2012
Prime minister Domenty Kulumbegov 20 Jan 2014

Tibet Tibet Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso[66] 25 Aug 1939
Chairman of the Cabinet Samdhong Rinpoche 5 Sep 2001

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Previously served as Prime Minister from 3 Sep 2012 to 13 Mar 2014.
  2. Previously head of government from 12 May 2011 to 23 Mar 2015.
  3. Acting to 21 Sep 1979.
  4. Acting to 9 Apr 1998.
  5. In Azeri, "İlham Əliyev".
  6. In Azeri, "Artur Rasizadə". Acting for Aliyev to 4 Nov 2003. Previously prime minister from 20 Jul 1996 to 4 Aug 2003 (acting to 26 Nov 1996)
  7. Previously from 21 Aug 1992 to 3 May 2002.
  8. Emir from 6 Mar 1999 to 14 Feb 2002.
  9. President of the State Council to 16 Aug 1971.
  10. Acting president from 12 May 2016 to 31 August 2016. Previously vice president from 1 January 2011 to 31 August 2016.
  11. Prime Minister of Burkina Faso from 22 Mar 1994 to 6 Feb 1996
  12. Prime minister to 2 Jul 1993, coequal prime minister from 2 Jul 1993 to 21 Sep 1993, second prime minister from 21 Sep 1993 to 30 Nov 1998.
  13. Previously prime minister from 22 Jan 2008 to 17 Jan 2013
  14. Previously president from 11 March 2006 to 11 March 2010
  15. Previously president from 6 May 2002 to 26 May 2006. Head of State of the Comoros from 6 May 1999 to 21 Jan 2002. Chief of Staff of the National Development Army from 30 Apr 1999 to 6 May 1999.
  16. Interim to 26 Jan 2001.
  17. The presidency was disputed between Ouattara and Laurent Gbagbo from 4 Dec 2010 to 11 Apr 2011.
  18. Previously prime minister from 5 Apr 2009 to 3 Oct 2011.
  19. Chairman Revolutionary Military Council to 25 Aug 1979, chairman Supreme Military Council 25 Aug 1979 – 12 Oct 1982.
  20. Secretary-general of the Provisional Government to 24 May 1993.
  21. Chairman Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council to 28 Sep 1996; Head of State to 18 Oct 1996.
  22. Previously prime minister from 26 Jan 2015 to 27 Aug 2015.
  23. Previously prime minister from 8 July 1998 to 27 May 2002
  24. Previously prime minister, 18 June 1996 – 6 July 1999
  25. Previously prime minister, 23 October 2011 – 5 January 2012.
  26. Previously prime minister, 26 September 2006 – 26 September 2007.
  27. Acting prime minister from 8 Sep 2016 to 9 Sep 2016.
  28. Declared "the highest post of the state" 5 Sep 1998.
  29. Prime minister from 13 Jul 2003 to 7 Feb 2006.
  30. Previously from 12 Nov 1990 to 25 Jan 1995.
  31. Regent from 26 Aug 1984 to 13 Nov 1989.
  32. Regent from 3 Mar 1998 to 7 Oct 2000.
  33. Previously prime minister from 18 March 2002 – 9 June 2002
  34. Regent from 31 Mar 2005 to 6 Apr 2005.
  35. Previously member of the Government Junta of National Reconstruction (18 Jul 1979 – 10 Jan 1985 ; coordinator from 4 Mar 1981) and president from 10 Jan 1985 to 25 Apr 1990.
  36. Crown Prince Haakon regent from 25 Nov 2003 to 13 Apr 2004 and from 29 Mar 2005 to 7 Jun 2005.
  37. Previously prime minister from 27 Apr 1972 to 11 Mar 1980 (chief minister to 16 sep 1975) and from 2 Aug 1982 to 21 Nov 1985.
  38. Acting to 22 Apr 2000.
  39. Previously Captain-regent from 1 October 1991 – 1 April 1992 and from 1 April 2004 – 1 October 2004.
  40. Previously Captain-regent from 1 April 2001 to 1 October 2001.
  41. Previously prime minister from 7 May 1993 – 19 August 1994 and from 9 December 2001 – 6 April 2004.
  42. President of Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation to 16 Oct 1993.
  43. The seven member Swiss Federal Council is the collective Head of State and the government of the Swiss Confederation. Within the Council, the President of the Swiss Confederation serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
  44. Acting to 27 Nov 1992; chairman Supreme Council 27 Nov 1992 – 16 Nov 1994.
  45. Previously from 5 to 25 Feb 2005 (acting to 21)
  46. Acting to 14 Feb 2007.
  47. Commander National Resistance Army to 29 Jan 1986.
  48. Acting prime minister from 24 Jul 2014 to 31 Jul 2014.
  49. Previously president from 1 March 2005 to 1 March 2010.
  50. Acting President from 5 Mar 2013 to 19 Apr 2013
  51. Interim from 9 Mar 2013 to 19 Apr 2013
  52. Previously prime minister (18 Apr 1980 – 31 Dec 1987).
  53. Head of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.
  54. Previously served as prime minister from 17 Feb 2008 to 9 Dec 2014.
  55. Though without a territory since 1798, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta still regards itself, and is regarded by several states that give it diplomatic recognition, as a sovereign state.
  56. Acting to 16 Apr 2005.
  57. Palestinian Authority created to administer most of Gaza Strip and parts of West Bank (Jericho area handed over 13 May 1994, Gaza Strip 18 May 1994, Jenin 13 Nov 1995, Tulkarem 10 Dec 1995, Nablus 11 Dec 1995, Qalqilya 16 Dec 1995, Bethlehem 21 Dec 1995, Ramallah 27 Dec 1995, 80% of Hebron 17 Jan 1997).
  58. The Saharan Arab Democratic Republic is currently recognized by about 60 countries. Morocco retains de facto control.
  59. Previously prime minister from 13 Jan 2004 to 26 Apr 2005.
  60. Previously acting prime minister from 21 Apr 2010 to 17 May 2010.
  61. Pro-Georgian government (in Tbilisi).
  62. Previously acting prime minister from 15 Sep 1992 to 28 Nov 2003.
  63. Previously president from 17 Jun 2006 to 7 Oct 2007.
  64. In Netherlands exile.
  65. Alternative government.
  66. 14th Dalai Lama. From 31 Mar 1959 in exile (from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India).

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