List of national rulers
In some cases they are de facto leaders not occupying either of those positions or prime ministers who are not heads of government. 195 states (193 UN members + Vatican City + Taiwan) are the basic list.
Also there are leaders of 10 other national entities (quasi and unrecognized states, and of 7 in exile and/or alternative governments (only in exile governments that exercised power or succeeded governments that exercised power).
For local rulers, for example rulers of dependencies and of the main administrative divisions, such as autonomous regions, insular or peninsular regions, successors of historical regions or regions with strong identity, regions in the news, etc.) see List of the main local rulers.
Member and observer states of the United Nations[change | change source]
|executive or legislature of their respective state/government. Cells highlighted green indicate leaders whose offices constitutionally administer the |
(political party) government leaders whose offices lack de jure constitutional power (e.g. Myanmar). Cells highlighted blue indicate non-ceremonial heads of state whose power is limited (e.g. Bhutan) or de facto
- Note: Names in small font generally denote acting, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.
Other states[change | change source]
The following states control their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.
The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.
|State/Gov.||Also claimed by||Head of state||Head of government|
|Artsakh||Azerbaijan||President – Bako Sahakyan|
|Somaliland||Somalia||President – Muse Bihi Abdi|
|Transnistria||Moldova||President – Vadim Krasnoselsky||Prime Minister – Aleksandr Martynov|
Other governments[change | change source]
These alternative governments are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member.